MCAT

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932 Questions in Sociology Terms

DEDICATION

This book is dedicated to the aspiring physicians who are working day and night to make their dreams a reality. We wish you all the best in your endeavors and hope you are able to help the people who need you the most. Remember through all of this preparation, you will come out stronger, brighter, and more capable of achieving your dreams.

CONTENTS

Introduction

Welcome!

We’ve included some tips on how to approach this book.

Learning sociology is best done through questions and simulating a test. In fact, it have been proven that retention for books only allows for 30% absorption whereas test taking allows for up to 80%. Looking at this, we understand that providing the vast amount of terms in sociology for the MCAT will be best done through questions. Since our books are focused on getting as many terms into your brain as possible, we may not able to provide many passages. These questions are here to help you learn the content, but it is important to apply this knowledge again through practice exams. We have included several term based questions and also added in areas for you the analyze research and some passages. This book includes information that may be more detailed than the real exam but will help you feel more comfortable approaching passages. If you find yourself only struggling with passage-interpretations, we suggest reading sociology journals (some of which are open access and free) online. In honor of the test, we have randomized the question sets so you can get used to being assessed on a variety of fields without foresight. Use this book to introduce yourself to the field of sociology and retain major concepts.

Part II covers the second half of the sociology outline for the MCAT.

Approach Suggestions

2+ Months Out From MCAT Test Date

Since you have a bit of time before the MCAT, it is best to spread out your sociology practice. We recommend doing 50 questions every week. Try to figure out if you can prevent common mistakes by noting down any misinterpretations you made and reviewing them before completing the next set.

1-2 Months Out From MCAT Test Date

Being 1-2 months out from the MCAT leads to some tension if you haven’t yet prepared for sociology. Understanding terms and sociological research can help boost your confidence and score in the section. Aim for 100-200 questions a week.

0-1 Month Out From MCAT Test Date

Being close to the MCAT allows you to retain more due to the feeling of “urgency”. Feel free to complete all 500 in a single day or two if you can!

Getting 100-80% Correct

If you feel comfortable with the terms, finish your set before checking the answers. For the sake of memory storage, we always recommend reviewing questions you are guessing on right away.

Getting 0-80% Correct

If you are getting less than 80% on these questions, check the answer after every question so you can correct yourself right away.

MCAT Suggestions

1. Wear earplugs (even white noise can be disturbing)

2. Eat consistently (don’t let sugar crashes and overeating affect your performance)

3. Sleep 8 hours (sleeping less than 8 hours can actually destroy your entire day of studying, it just isn’t worth it)

4. Use #2 pencils (the exam only allows for regular pencils)

5. Reach sociology journals on the question topics presented in our books (Fact: passages are easier to read that most sociology

journals. Journals will help improve your passage deductions if you time yourself and map out a journal just like you would map out a passage).

6. Be “kind” to yourself (By kind, we mean have a lenient schedule. Feeling tired of one subject? Switch to another. Regardless of

what date you do it, you’ll be more effective if you are actually motivated while completing the material. Strict timelines just don’t allow for that kind of motivation sometimes!)

7. Stay happy (The pros: You are learning material that will help you learn faster in medical school. The cons: You have to keep

going! Learning how to be stress-free and positive now can drastically affect how you approach the stresses of graduate school).

8. Mistakes are good (Mistakes mean you aren’t wasting your time reviewing old materials.)

9. Only take notes on new material (If you know it, don't write it down!)

10. Learn it beyond what is required. (If you get a question wrong, watch a video or review a general website on the topic. Learn it

well enough to approach it from any angle. In sociology, make sure every term can be expressed through an example.)

*MCAT® is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges. *Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Mcat or this book.

Set 1

The Elaboration Likelihood Model claims that there are two paths to persuasion: the central path and the peripheral path. The central path is most appropriately used when the receiver is motivated to think about the message and has the ability to think about the message. If the person cares about the issue and has access to the message with a minimum of distraction, then that person will elaborate on the message. Lasting persuasion is likely if the receiver thinks favorable thoughts about the message. A boomerang effect (moving away from the advocated position) is likely to occur if the subject rehearses unfavorable thoughts about the message. If the message is ambiguous but pro-attitudinal (in line with the receiver's attitudes) then persuasion is likely. If the message is ambiguous but counter-attitudinal then a boomerang effect is likely. If the message is ambiguous but attitudinally neutral (with respect to the receiver) or if the receiver is unable or not motivated to listen to the message then the receiver will look for a peripheral cue. Peripheral cues include such communication strategies as trying to associate the advocated position with things the receiver already thinks positively towards (e.g., food, money, sex), using an expert appeal, and attempting a contrast effect where the advocated position is presented after several other positions, which the receiver despises, have been presented. If the peripheral cue association is accepted then there may be a temporary attitude change and possibly future elaboration. If the peripheral cue association is not accepted, or if it is not present, then the person retains the attitude initially held. If the receiver is motivated and able to elaborate on the message and if there are compelling arguments to use, then the central route to persuasion should be used. If the receiver is unlikely to elaborate the message, or if the available arguments are weak, then the peripheral route to persuasion should be used.

Sourced from http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/theory/elm.html

A model is a simplistic means of explaining a concept to learners for understanding. What is Elaboration likelihood model meant to explain?

How attitudes are shaped, formed, and reinforced by persuasive arguments

How effective persuasive arguments are when the audience is motivated to listen

How important logical arguments are when the audience is not motivated to listen

How attitudes are shaped, formed, and reinforced by logical arguments

Elaboration likelihood model is made up of advantages and disadvantages. Among the following choices which is not a probable disadvantage of the model?

The model does not describes the process that results from a motivational state

It does not state how peripheral processing influences attitude

It offers differences in strengths of attitudes processed in peripherally and centrally

It presumes an exact relationship of motivation and the route of processing

What does objective elaboration refer to?

Top-down thinking in which facts are scrutinized without bias

Bottom-up thinking in which facts are scrutinized without bias

Bottom-up thinking in which facts are scrutinized with bias

Top-down thinking in which facts are scrutinized with bias

A student arrives at the very end of a marketing conference and thanks the speaker for his influential words. What route is the student using?

Central Route

Peripheral Route

Partial Central Route

d. No Route

Who are the key theorists of Elaboration Likelihood Model?

Sigmund Freud and Albert Bandura

Jean Piaget and Carl Rogers

Richard Petty and John Cacippio

William James and Erik Erikson

What most likely determines elaboration likelihood?

Motivation to talk to friends about the speaker

Ability to have a conversation with the speaker

Motivation to learn what the speaker has to say

Ability to listen to opinions from friends about the speaker

What tradition is ELM most likely associated with?

Physiosocial tradition

Sociopsychological tradition

Sociophysiological tradition

Social tradition

Central route processing leads to high elaboration, while the peripheral route processing leads to low elaboration. Which is central route processing?

The person on the receiving end is influenced for a few days

The person on the receiving end is influenced for a few hours

The person on the receiving end is influenced by factors involving the person’s speech material

The person on the receiving end is influenced by factors involving the speaker’s dress material

Which researcher identified six peripheral cues that trigger automatic responses. Who is he?

Ivan Pavlov

Erik Erikson

Sigmund Freud

d. Robert Cialdini

The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant to health communication. First, the theory deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of behavior for understanding behavioral change. Second, the concepts of the SCT provide ways for new behavioral research in health education. Finally, ideas for other theoretical areas such as psychology are welcome to provide new insights and understanding. The social cognitive theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies. SCT provides a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating programs. Environment refers to the factors that can affect a person’s behavior. There are social and physical environments. Social environment include family members, friends and colleagues. Physical environment is the size of a room, the ambient temperature or the availability of certain foods. Environment and situation provide the framework for understanding behavior. The situation is a person’s perception of the lace, time, physical features and activity. The three factors environment, people and behavior are constantly influencing each other. Behavior is not simply the result of the environment and the person, just as the environment is not simply the result of the person and behavior. Observational learning occurs when a person watches the actions of another person and the reinforcements that the person receives. Behavioral capability means that if a person is to perform a behavior he must know what the behavior is and have the skills to perform it.

Sourced from: https://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Health%20Communication/

Who is the main theorist of social cognitive theory?

Ivan Pavlov

Albert Bandura

Steven Pinker

Jean Piaget

Self-efficacy is a process that leads to attainment of goal realization in social cognitive theory. What best explains what it entails?

It is the assessment of one’s progress toward goal attainment

It is individual belief in the likelihood of goal completion

It is the comparison an individual's current performance with a desired performance

It is doubt that an individual has the ability to attain any of the goals

Which of the following is not a way to develop positive self-efficacy?

Observing someone else perform a task

Being able to diminish anxiety for a task

When other people encourage you to perform a task

Failing at a task before trying it again

What refers to strategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal with emotional stimuli?

Repeating behaviors that cause the emotional stimuli

Performing coping responses

Self-control from the feelings associated with the stimuli

Performance of relieving behaviors

A man observes two people fighting while trying to get the man involved. The man decides to go home and punch the wall from frustration. What term best describes this?

Observational learning

Self-control

Self-efficacy

Behavioral capability

What is the name of responses to a person’s behavior that changes the likelihood of reoccurrence?

Reinforcements

Emotional coping responses

Self-efficacy

Behavioral capability

Dynamic interaction between people, their behavior, and their environments is shown by what type of a construct?

Reinforcements

Reciprocal Determinism

Self-efficacy

Observational learning

In accordance to Walter Mischel's Theory of Personality which is not one of the five variables that contribute to the situation?

Cognitive Strategies

Self-regulatory systems

Subjective Values

Reciprocal Determinism

Which of the following is not a social cognitive theory criticism?

It is not a unified theory

It is structurally correct

Not all social learning can be directly observed

It ignores developmental stages over a lifetime

Social learning forms of social interaction. In social interaction, individuals form different patterns of attitudes toward psychological object faces. Among the various factors that influence the formation of attitudes are: Personal experience. In order to be the basis of attitudes, personal experiences have left a strong impression. Therefore, the attitude will be more easily formed when personal experience involves emotional factors. In situations involving emotions, appreciation will be more in-depth experience and longer trace. Culture. B.F. Skinner emphasized the influence of the environment (including culture) in shaping one's personality. No other personality than a consistent pattern of behavior that illustrate the history of reinforcement (reinforcement, reward. owned. The pattern of reinforcement from the public to the attitude and behavior, rather than to the attitudes and behavior of others. Other people are considered important. In general, the individual being conformist or the direction of the attitude of the people it deems important. The trend is partly motivated by a desire for affiliation and the desire to avoid conflict with the

people considered important. Media as a means of communication, the mass media such as television, radio, has a major influence in shaping people's opinions and beliefs. There is new information on something that provides the foundation for the emergence of new cognitive attitudes towards it. Suggestive messages that carry information, if strong enough, will provide basic affective in assessing something and forming attitudes toward certain. Educational Institutions and Religious. As a system, educational and religious institutions have a strong influence in shaping attitudes because they lay the foundation of understanding and moral concepts within the individual. Understanding the good and the bad, the dividing line between something that can and cannot do, is obtained from the center of the educational and religious activities and teachings. Emotional factors in themselves. Not all forms of attitude is determined by environmental circumstances and personal experiences. Sometimes, a form of attitude is a statement that is based on emotion which serves as a sort of channeling frustration or transfer form ego defense mechanisms. Such an attitude is temporary and goes away so frustrating was lost but could also be more persistent attitude and more durable. example form attitudes based on emotional factors are prejudice.

Sourced from http://successismychoice.blogspot.com/2013/03/attitude-definition-definition-and.html

Attitudes can either be explicit or implicit. Additionally, researchers in the area of attitude tell that it is a product of a number of components. Which of the following answers is not a component of attitude in regards to research?

Biological component which holds that the human beings have innate behavior

Cognitive component which is the thoughts and beliefs about a particular subject

Affective component which entails how an object, person or an event makes an individual to feel

Behavioral component that specifies how attitude influences behavior

Attitudes can either be explicit or implicit, and this difference does lie in the level of consciousness. Identify the appropriate definition of explicit attitude among the following choices.

Explicit attitudes are those that we are consciously aware of and that clearly influence our behaviors and beliefs

Explicit attitudes are unconscious, but still have an effect on our beliefs and behaviors

Explicit attitudes develop during the time when a person brain is not engaged probably during the nights

Explicit attitudes is a fallacy that does not exist

Which among the following is not a suitable factor leading to attitude formation?

Attitudes form over a period because of experience that an individual continuously accumulates

Attitudes form as a result of the way that the society dictates a person to behave based on contexts and rules

Attitudes form out of daily learning that results from the media and people surrounding us

Attitudes form as a result of natures; thus, it cannot be learned, it just falls in place

Social psychologists realized the findings that attitudes are not always aligned to actual behavior. However, they pointed out to factors that make people to have high probability of behaving in relation with their attitudes. Which one of the following is not one of the reasons?

When a person expects a favorable outcome out of behaving in regards to their attitudes

When a person lives in fear of the unknown

When the attitudes are as a result of personal experience

When a person is an expert in the subject matter

It is not all times that attitude will match with behavior and trying to live the attitudes becomes impossible at times. This is a scenario that increases the level of tension within an individual because of conflicting thoughts and beliefs. What is the most appropriate means of reducing this tension?

To alter attitudes in order to better align them with their behavior

To try as much as possible to align the attitudes with behavior

There is no such way that could help to reduce the tension

To alter behaviors in order to better prevent attitude change

Learning theory of attitude change is made up of three facets that aid in bringing about attitude change. Which is not an accurate explanation?

Classical conditioning can be used to create positive emotional reactions to an object, person, or event by associating positive feelings with the target object

People can change their attitudes after they have decided do so: it is a personal choice

Operant conditioning can be used to strengthen desirable attitudes and weaken undesirable ones.

People can also change their attitudes after observing the behavior of others

Attitude change is influenced by persuasion. The message has to be persuasive enough for the change to occur. Thus, the source, message variables, and audience are factors that are considered for inspecting message persuasiveness. Which is not one of the source factors examined for persuasiveness?

The expertise of the source that is conveying the message

The level of trustworthiness that an individual places on a message

The ability to respond in time

The likeability that the source commands

Which attitude change theory is correctly defined?

Consistency theories: Theories that focuses on how people's prior attitudes distort their perceptions of the positions advocated in persuasive messages.

Learning theories: Theories reflect behavioral psychology and emphasizes on the stimulus characteristics of the communication situation

Social judgment theories: A fundamental question that looks at what purpose attitudes serve.

Functional theories: They are theories that embark on consistency between attitudes, between behaviors, and among attitudes and behaviors

Which one of the following is an appropriate explanation of the foot-in-the-door technique?

It is a technique whereby people become aware that they can freely choose their actions

It is a technique whereby initial behavior leads people to believe their attitude is inconsistent with their

previous action

It is a technique whereby initial behavior leads people to believe their attitude is consistent with their previous action

It is about an individual experiencing uncomfortable behavior act in an empathetic manner

Social psychology has traditionally defined deviance as the violation of a group norm or societal standard. When faced with deviance, people can reject, tolerate or attempt to correct the deviant individual. A common sense perspective suggests that severe transgressions are likely to result in rejection of the deviant through derogation, ostracism or expulsion from the group. Indeed, in light of research showing that moral integrity is highly important for a group’s self-concept, deviance that violates the moral norms of both the group and society is particularly likely to elicit negative reactions from others. In the context of allegations of child sexual abuse, however, there are reasons to believe that the traditional ‘black sheep effect’—whereby ingroup members downgrade deviants more than outgroup members do—may not emerge (or may even be reversed.. First, unless a perpetrator confesses, allegations usually involve one person’s word being pitched against another, and so the guilt of the accused is ambiguous. In the experimental paradigms that have been used so far this is rarely the case: in the social psychology literature deviance has typically been examined in contexts where the deviance was unambiguous. The psychological motivation to believe in the innocence of the accused might be particularly pronounced when the psychological consequences of presuming guilt are severe. For example, the Catholic Church places a high emphasis on morality and its capacity to provide moral guidance. Accordingly, threats to the perceived morality of the group would be extremely distressing for Catholic individuals and would likely have a relatively high impact on members’ self-concept. The threat to the status of the Catholic Church is also significant: as representatives of a highly ‘moral’ institution, the community places significant trust in Catholic officials. Public awareness of moral transgressions within the Catholic Church would threaten this trust and consequently the status of the Catholic Church as a group. In this context, recognizing and punishing deviance is a painful and distal way to protect the integrity and purity of the group’s image: a less painful and more proximal way to protect one’s collective self-image is to will oneself into believing that the accusations are false. All these psychological mechanisms suggest that, rather than being especially harsh toward those accused of child sexual abuse within their ranks, people may be more likely to defend the honor of other ingroup members.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0153205

Which statement best shows the beliefs of a child in a home where they were sexually abused and reported this to a social worker in order to leave.

They believe that they have the control over what happens around them

They believe that they have no control over what happens around them

They believe that they have high self-esteem

They believe that they have high self-efficacy

Which of the following is a characteristic of a person with low self-efficacy?

They are very self-conscious

They are optimistic

They accurate self-evaluation

They have a fear of uncertainty

Self-concept is an individual's belief and evaluation about himself or herself. Self-concept is affected by a number of factors. Which one of the following is not a factor to affect Self-concept?

The ability to predict the future based on past performances

Comparison of self-performance against that of peers

Overconfidence on ability to perform a task without any base

Being a part of a larger group gives an individual the pride of sharing success

Self-esteem is defined differently from self-efficacy; however, both of these two terms do describe personality. Which of the following is the best definition of self-efficacy?

It is a strong belief in your own ability to do succeed due to prior experience

It is a strong belief in your own ability to do succeed against all odds

It is a strong belief in someone’s ability to do succeed against all odds

It is the ability to do succeed against all odds

It is vivid that that self-esteem and self-efficacy are different because happening at the same time during the cause of a day, people would be really troubled. What the appropriate difference between self-esteem and self-efficacy is as illustrates below?

Self-esteem is permanent whilst self-efficacy is temporary depending on an activity

Self-efficacy is permanent whilst self-esteem is temporary depending on an activity

Self-efficacy is a feeling that can be controlled while self-esteem cannot be controlled

Self-esteem is a feeling that can be controlled while self-esteem cannot be controlled self-efficacy

Self-concept and self-esteem are part of human beings; it is what makes someone human. Which of the following are some of the reason that can lead to decreasing either of the two?

Making negative conclusions on the character of themselves

Making comparison of an individual with other persons that are better off

c. Making negative conclusions on the character of self and comparing to someone who is better off

d. The answer choice is not mentioned

Self-concept is a broad term that is as a result of constituent factors. Which choice below is not a factor of self-concept?

Ways in which we as humans are assigned labels and classified based on "socially defined categories"

Tendencies or attributes which the individual views himself as possessing, and may include his abilities, values as well as specific habits or act

Human body and way in which it appears to the individual in his mind

The power of human beings to think intelligently

Two views of self-concept been developed over time to reflect differences in the Western and Non-Western

cultures. Which one of the following is the correct view of self-concept on non-western culture?

It stresses the importance of the individual as an independent entity

It stress the importance of community and the dependence of the individual on others for their well being

It stresses on the importance of future predictions frequently

It stresses on the importance of memories are reconstructions

Locus of control is a factor of self-concept and self-identity. Which of the following definitions is the one that describes it in the most appropriate way?

A persons perception of why things happen or what forces are driving their behavior

Mental templates we use to organize our world, and predict possible future events

Specific beliefs you have about yourself which define who you are

Present and future personal views

Self-esteem and self-confidence can be created to help an individual. Identify the choice which would not be beneficial.

Thinking and adopting the qualities that other people praise you for

Ensuring that you stop following negative opinions

Ask yourself if what you are saying is something that you would utter to someone that is close to you before criticizing yourself again.

Always think negatively when it calls for it but controlling the extent you can think that way

Individuals may engage in self-handicapping strategies to proactively reduce the applicability of a negative stereotype to their performance. Here, people attempt to influence attributions for performance by erecting barriers to their success. Investigating this notion, a researcher examined whether self-handicapping mediated the effects of stereotype threat on white athletes’ sporting performance. Self-handicapping was measured by the total amount of stereotype-relevant words completed on a word fragment

task. Results indicated that white athletes practiced less when they perceived their ability on a golf-putting task to be diagnostic of personal ability, thereby confirming a negative stereotype relating to ‘poor white athleticism’. Moreover, these athletes were more likely to complete the term ‘awkward’ on a word fragment completion test compared to the control condition. Mediation analyses revealed that the greater accessibility of the term ‘awkward’ partially mediated the effects of stereotype threat on psychological disengagement and performance. The researchers suggest that stereotype threat increased the accessibility of thoughts related to poor athleticism to inhibit athletes' practice efforts. However, a limitation of this research is that analyses were based on single-item measures (i.e., the completion of the word ‘awkward’) rather than total of completed words on the word-fragment test. Researchers tested the hypothesis that the salience of a negative stereotype is related to self-handicapping tendencies. Results showed that women who were primed with a group-as-target stereotype underperformed on a mathematical test relative to their control group counterparts. Furthermore, they expressed stronger tendencies to search for external explanations for their weak performance with this mediating the effects of stereotype threat on performance.

Sourced from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146487

Which one of the following elaborates the way in which self-handicapping affects self-efficacy and self-esteem?

It is deliberately putting obstacles in one’s way, so a ready excuse is available if failure occurs

It is biases that are basically adaptive to protect our mood

It is a way of protecting self-esteem only

It is a way of protecting self-efficacy only

Secondary research on stereotype threat showed that males tend to report higher levels of self-esteem and self-confidence than do females. More specifically, females rate their verbal self-concept higher, whereas males tend to rate their mathematical self-concept higher. What would be the probable reason?

Males tend to be more closed to verbal processing of experience and expression of feelings

Females tend to be more open to verbal processing of experience and expression of feelings

Males tend to be more open to verbal processing of experience and expression of feelings

Females tend to be more open to logical processing of experience and expression of models

Self-esteem can be built or consequently lowered to extreme levels. Which one of the following is a sure way of improving personal self-esteem?

Associating with negative people

Seclusion

Stopping negative talk

Looking at the glass as half empty

Maslow's hierarchy can be divided into basic, psychological and self-fulfillment needs. Where would the self-esteem needs of a self-handicapping individual fit best?

Basic needs

Psychological needs

Self-fulfillment needs

Psychological needs and basic needs

Lack of awareness is detrimental because it leads to low self-esteem of a person. Which of the following factors does not influence self-awareness?

Relationship with the members of the family

Relationships with classmates, teachers, and administrators

Hearing the comments others have about you

Participating in exams with classmates

Women who were primed with a group-as-target performed worse because of low self-efficacy. What is the

importance of self-efficacy?

It plays a major role in how one approaches goals, tasks, and challenges

It is how one feels about their own abilities

It is general attitude toward oneself

The answer is not mentioned

Self-efficacy and self-esteem play a large role in the realization of motivation in recruiting patients for studies. Which one of the following is not a major source of motivation for patients?

Cash

Recognition

Emotional Response

Prestige

As adults progress through their later years, many note declines in their ability to recall bits of information and perform mental calculations. Though reflections about cognitive aging are expected to grow more pessimistic with the passage of chronological time, people's life courses elapse in ways besides objective days, months, calendar, and years. Therefore, age identity may be a more telling indicator of dispositions toward cognitive aging than is chronological age per se. Using a national longitudinal sample of adults aged 55–74 years at baseline, this article considers how age identity is associated with dispositions toward

cognitive aging and how the relationship differs by gender. Social psychologists in sociology see identities as “sets of meanings people hold for themselves that define ‘what it means’ to be

who they are”. Culture gives definition and meaning to positions within society, and people place these labels and expectations on themselves and on others. Of the various cultural categories from which people derive their identities, age is unique in that it is far more permeable than categories like race or gender, and because all people invariably increase in age over time, age identity bridges both developmental and cultural aspects of human life. The age-based identities generated within a social context powerfully shape people's well-being. In modern cultures, youthfulness is a prized status, and accordingly, ageism and negative stereotypes of aging abound in the United States. Eschewing “oldness” and preserving a youthful identity are therefore compensatory strategies people use to counteract the negative cultural messages associated with aging and the realization of being past their own desired chronological age. The consistent finding that people most identify with their “younger selves” is a strong example of self-enhancing illusions at the basis of the self-concept.

Sourced from http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/65B/1/91.full

What item is not a key element of personal identity for someone who identifies as an older individual?

Birth Certificate

Finger prints

Passport

Technological advancement

The identity most certain to change in an individual is:

Age identity

Individual identity

Ethnic identity

Class identity

There are different identities ascribed by people in this world. Which of the following definitions gives a clear explanation of race identity?

It is distinction based on national origin, religion, and language

It represents a person’s changes over time

It is the distinction drawn from physical appearance including skin and eye color

It is the distinction drawn from a person’s social standing

Age, race, sexual orientation and class are but some of the different identity types that describe people. Which one of the following is the appropriate description of the ethnic identity?

It is how one thinks of oneself in terms of to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted

It is defined as a personal conception of oneself as male or female (or rarely, both or neither)

It is distinction based on national origin, religion, language, food, and other cultural indicators

It is the distinction drawn from physical appearance including skin and eye color

A group of elderly Christians in a retirement home are from America and South India. To what social identity category is the group derived from?

Religious affiliation social identity category

Socio-economic class social identity category

Ethnic social identity category

Race social identity category

There is an imminent difference among identity, identity of a person, sense of identity and cultural identity. Which of the following definitions is most appropriate explanation of sense of identity?

It is a person's conception and expression of their own and others' individuality or group affiliations

Totality of one's self-construal, in which how one construes oneself in the present expresses the continuity between how one construes oneself as one was in the past and how one construes oneself as one aspires to be in the future

It is the conception, qualities, beliefs, and expressions that make a person or group different from others

It is the feeling of belonging to a group

Identity is a crucial part of a person because if it is not well guarded with available information, then, it can be used by fraudsters to perform illegal business. Some of the fraudulent activities include: Insurance Identity Theft, Medical Identity Theft, Social Security Identity Theft, Criminal Identity Theft, and Financial Identity Theft. Which of the following is the best explanation of Financial Identity Theft?

It is the use of SSN to defraud the government and steal off benefits meant for the victim

Victim’s identity is used to take on loans and get new credit cards

It is the use the victim’s identity to make false claims on medical cover

d. It is difficulties in settling payments, potentially higher insurance premiums, and quite possibly trouble in

acquiring medical coverage later on

Which of the following is the appropriate description of paranoid personality disorder that affects the identity of an individual?

It is a natural tendency to direct attention toward one’s inner life and away from the external world

It is a disorder is characterized by a pervasive distrust of others, including even friends, family, and partner

The person essentially lacks a sense of self, and, as a result, experiences feelings of emptiness and fears of abandonment

d. Lack a sense of self-worth, and depend for their wellbeing on attracting the attention and approval of others.

Erikson regards “Intimacy vs. Isolation” as one of a series of personal crises that individuals negotiate throughout their lives. Adults in this stage (usually aged 19–40) begin to share themselves more intimately with others with the goal of establishing meaningful relationships and a sense of commitment and care. Conversely, avoiding intimacy leads to isolation and a fear of self-disclosure, which can have negative lasting effects on future personal development. As participants’ mean age was 25, the majority was experiencing this Ericsonian stage while also living with HIV. Findings suggest that HIV posed significant barriers to intimacy for MSM, MSW and WSM in all of the settings, such as worry of infecting sex partners, guilt about sexual enjoyment, HIV-related stigma, and struggles with sexual communication with intimate primary sex partners. Such manifestations are known to threaten sexual risk reduction efforts and engagement in HIV care. PLWHA may therefore benefit from sex-positive programs that underscore sexual health and intimacy as a critical component of secondary HIV prevention. Interventions designed to help PLWHA reduce sexual anxiety and guilt, engage in healthy sexual relationships and enhance sexual self-image may improve risk reduction self-efficacy and mental health over the long-term. Such an approach could augment the efforts of provider-led interventions focused on condom use, sex in the context of suppressed viral load, and optimum utilization of services in the HIV care cascade. For those in a stable partnership, a couples based approach may be well suited to address sexual partner intimacy in the context of secondary prevention. Couples-based interventions emphasizes the mutual responsibility for health of both partners and the role of the couple’s relationship in behavior change through the promotion of sexual communication and negation skills. There are a growing number of studies demonstrating the advantages of the couples-based modality, yet further research is

needed to identify strategies for integrating such an approach into the HIV care setting. Furthermore, this type of programme would likely be augmented by structural interventions focused on the gender-based power imbalances that influence sexual decision-making. While Erikson’s theory may be a particularly relevant lens through which to view findings, it should be underscored that there are myriad other orientations through which to frame them. For example, a sociological model may understand the observed struggles for intimacy within the context of seeking to achieve social normative status as it relates to cultural meanings of what it is to be connected or intimate. While the field of HIV prevention is fluid, qualitative studies that explore the sexual lives and practices of individuals living with HIV will be necessary to stay abreast of how to best promote interventions across the continuum of HIV care.

In regards to Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual developmental theory, psychosexual development takes place in five stages. Which of the following explanations best describes the third stage of development, phallic stage?

In this stage child's erogenous zone is the genital region

In this stage child's obsession is with the erogenous zone of the anus

In this stage sexual drive lies dormant for children

In this stage people develop a strong interest in the opposite

Freud’s theory, psychosexual developmental theory did divide the human personality into three parts. Which one of the following is not an appropriate category of human personality based on the theory?

The storage unit for all psychic energy, the primitive, instinctive component of personality

The mediator between the Id and the real world, the decision-making component of personality

The moral component related to internalized social standards about right and wrong

The primary focus of libidinal energy

Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory is another model on identity during development. Which one of the following explains the psychosocial stage of a young adults affected by HIV?

The major conflict of this stage centre’s on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people

It is related to contribution and ’making your mark’ on the world, through caring for others, creating things and accomplishing things that make the world better

Individuals in this period try to reconsider their accomplishments and qualify themselves

It involves exercising volition, developing independence and initiating activities

Which if the following theories, shows the identity crisis as beginning when adolescents who see the effects of HIV in the community realize the need to establish an identity that can prepare them to meet the challenges to prevent HIV contraction during?

Attachment Theory

James Marcia’s Identity Status Theory

Social Learning Theory

Psychosexual developmental theory

James Marcia’s theory explains the existence of four identity Statuses which include Identity diffusion, Identity foreclosure, Moratorium, and Identity achievement. Which of the following status’ is correctly defined?

a. Identity Diffusion – the status in which the adolescent does not have a sense of having choices and no

commitment

b. Identity Foreclosure – the status in which adolescent has gone through a identity crisis and has made a

commitment

c. Identity Moratorium –the status in which the adolescent seems willing to commit

d. Identity Achievement – the status in which the adolescent is currently in a crisis, exploring various

commitments and is ready to make choices, but has not made a commitment

Identity formation is subject to a number of theories. Which of the following explains Social Learning Theory?

That sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality and behavior

Self-concept is built upon the identification with role models, an assessment of self-worth, and a preferred pattern in relating to the external world

Infants who have learned trust grow into children who believed in possibilities of life

The definition is not listed

Identities vary from gender, social class, sexual orientation and so on. Which of the following theories make an explanation of formation of gender identities?

Social-learning theory

Gender-schema theory

Social learning and Gender schema theory

James Marcia’s theory about identity

In accordance to Erik Erikson's theory of ’psychosocial development’ at age 6 to 12, what are the ego concerns perturbing a child?

Trust vs. Mistrust

Initiative vs. Guilt

Industry vs. Inferiority

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Which one of the following is not part of the four pathways in the Josselson Theory?

Identity Achievements: Pavers of the Way (Pathmakers)

Moratoriums: Daughters of the Crisis (Searchers)

Identity Diffusions: Lost and Sometimes Found (Drifters)

Identity Achievement (Guardians)

Stage one involves Identity Confusion – This stage is characterized by feelings of turmoil, in which one questions previously held assumptions about one's sexual orientation. They must question Who am I? - Accept, Deny, Reject. The individual will avoid information about lesbians and gays; inhibit behavior; deny homosexuality ("experimenting," "an accident," "just drunk”). The individual may explore internal positive and negative judgments. Stage two involves Identity Comparison – This stage is characterized by feelings of alienation in which one accepts that possibility of being gay or lesbian and becomes isolated from non-gay others. They may deal with social alienation. They may begin to grieve for losses and the things she or he will give up by embracing their sexual orientation. They may compartmentalize their own sexuality. They accept lesbian, gay definition of behavior but maintain a "heterosexual" identity of self. They may tell themselves, "It's only temporary"; "I'm just in love with this particular woman/man"; etc. They will be very

important that the person develops own definitions. They will need information about sexual identity, lesbian, gay community resources, encouragement to talk about loss of heterosexual life expectations. They may be permitted to keep some "heterosexual" identity (it is not an all or none issue). Stage three involves Identity Tolerance – This stage is characterized by feelings of ambivalence in which one seeks out other gays and lesbians but maintains separate public and private images. The see a decrease social alienation by seeking out lesbians and gays. They are beginning to have language to talk and think about the issue. They need to be supported in exploring their own shame feelings derived from heterosexism, as well as external heterosexism. They receive support in finding positive lesbian, gay community connections. It is particularly important for the person to know community resources. Stage four involves Identity Acceptance – This stage is characterized by selective disclosure in which one begins the legitimization (publicly as well as privately) of one's sexual orientation. They must deal with inner tension of no longer subscribing to society's norm, attempt to bring congruence between private and public view of self. They begin to accept gay or lesbian self-identification. The person continues exploring grief and loss of heterosexual life expectations. Stage five involves Identity Pride - Characterized by anger, pride, and activism in which one becomes immersed in the gay subculture and rejects non-gay people, institutions, and values. They may deal with incongruent views of heterosexuals. The person splits the world into "gay" (good. and "straight" (bad.. They experience disclosure crises with heterosexuals, as he or she is less willing to blend in. The individual receives support for exploring anger issues. Stage six is Identity Synthesis – The person is characterized by clarity and acceptance in which they move beyond the dichotomized worldview to an incorporation of one's sexual orientation as one aspect of a more integrated identity. They integrate gay and lesbian identity so that instead of being the identity, it is one aspect of self. The individual continues to be angry at heterosexism, but with decreased intensity. They allow the trust of others to increase and build. Their gay and lesbian

identity is integrated with all aspects of "self." They feel all right to move out into the community and not simply define space according to sexual orientation. They may continue to be angry at heterosexism, but with decreased intensity. They allow the trust of others to increase and build. Their gay and lesbian identity is integrated with all aspects of "self." The person feels all right to move out into the community and not simply define space according to sexual orientation.

The influence of cultures and socialization on gay identity formation is a reality proven by theories. Which of the following is least likely to influence one’s cultural identity?

The gay community during stage three

The heterosexual community during stage one

The gay community during stage one

The heterosexual community during stage five

63. Socialization is a key aspect of gay identity formation. It involves learning from others, mostly peers for that matter. Which of the following is true about socialization?

It is a skill that lasts a lifetime

It is a skill that cannot be altered

It is a skill that is instinctual

All of the above

Which of the following statements about LGBTQI culture and socialization explains how an individual forms identity?

Culture is what shapes acceptance of LGBTQI identity of a person and not socialization

Comparison of oneself with others in the LGBTQI and heterosexual community assists in formation of identity

Socialization is what shapes acceptance of LGBTQI identity of a person and not culture

Identity is based on internal beliefs

A man in stage three observes his gay friend wearing a rainbow handkerchief in his pocket. The man decides to wear the same handkerchief infant of his heterosexual friends. What is the right word for this behavior?

Imitation

Role-taking

Sarcasm

Growth manifestation

What is the difference between social identity and self-identity if there is any?

a. Self-identity shapes the way one sees the world and social identity shapes the way others see you based on their perceptions

b. Social identity shapes the way one sees the world and Self-identity shapes the way others see you based on their perceptions

c. There is no difference between Self-identity and social identity

d. None of the above

What an LGBTQ individual is in stage two, what can they identify with?

Identity achievement

Identity moratorium

Identity diffusion

Identity formation

If individuals serve as models of identity formation for children through imitation and role taking. Besides, humans mimic behavior in order to establish social connections in frontal and prefrontal cortex contain mirror neurons which enable people to emulate behavior. What is the term for this?

Differed imitation

Incentivized

Influence of Individuals

Reference groups

Individuals gain a social identity and group identity by their affiliation in various groups. Which one of the following is not a group for social identity?

Family

Friendship

Religion

Culture

Role taking is an essential component in social factors that influence identity. It is made up of several stages. Which of the following stages happens for children of between 3 and 6 years?

Egocentric or undifferentiated perspective

Mutual role taking

Social Role taking

Self-reflective role taking

Cultural identity is socially constructed. It is often asserted through a process of exclusion where feelings of belonging depend on being able to say who does not belong. In many respects, the Australian identity prevented the participants from identifying with Australia. The Australian individuals did not actively exclude the participants; rather, the existence of the Australian identity created boundaries that marginalised the nurses. This explains why the participants felt not so much that they were actively marginalised but that they simply could not be Australian. As reflected in Cooley’s metaphor of the looking-glass self where we often see our reflections in the eyes of others and even imagine what they think of us. If Australians think of China-educated nurses as “foreigners” (because of physical appearances and/or accents) and people who, despite living in Australia do not belong to Australia, then the nurses will internalise and reflect upon the way others view them (that is foreigners as outsiders). Just as identity is socially constructed, so is language. The meanings inherent to informal language are established through longterm usage and are thus highly nuanced and contextual. Moreover, verbal communication becomes more of an issue during

clinical emergencies. The mind works slower and requires more effort in these situations when operating in a second language. Additionally, colleagues usually become less patient and talk more quickly in emergency situations.

Sourced from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0108143

Which of the following concepts does the passage state for how China-educated nurses see themselves as compared to how they believe others see them?

Looking-glass self

Self-concept

Self-identity

Social identity

The perception of Australians shows a bias. Which of the following definitions properly explains what labeling bias is?

It occurs when china-educated nurses are labeled, and colleagues views and expectations of them are affected by that labeling

It occurs when china-educated nurses are label others and get affected by the labeling

It occurs when china-educated nurses perceive Australians colleagues as judgmental after negative interactions

It occurs when Australian’s are open-minded to the hometowns of china-educated nurses

If a china-educated nurse internally takes what her Australian colleague says about her, what is occuring?

Self-labeling: It is what when we adopt others’ labels explicitly into our self-concept

Self-labeling: It occurs when we are labeled, and others’ views and expectations of us are affected by that labeling

Labeling bias: It occurs when that part of how we see ourselves comes from our perception of how others see us

d. Labeling bias: It occurs when we are labeled, and others’ views and expectations of us are affected by that labeling

What explains the internalized prejudice china-educated nurses may get after taking in the words of their colleagues?

a. It occupiers when we learn about our abilities and skills, about the appropriateness and validity of our

opinions, and attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors with those of others

b. It is when individuals turn prejudice faced on them by others onto themselves

c. It happens when we compare ourselves with others who are better off than we are

d. It happens when those showing prejudice begin to internalize the prejudice as fact

What term represents when nurses learn about their relative social status by comparing behaviors with those of their prejudice colleagues?

Self-comparison

Self-concept

Self-image

Self-identity

Upward and downward comparisons influence our self-esteem. Which of the following is the appropriate

explanation of downward comparisons?

It happens when we draw part of our sense of identity and self-esteem from the social groups that we belong to

It happens when we attempt to create a positive image of ourselves through favorable comparisons with others who are worse off than we are

It happens when we compare ourselves with others who are better off than we are

It happens when those showing prejudice begin to internalize the prejudice as fact

Widow, Intellectual, Feminist, and Welfare recipient are all examples of social identities. Which of the examples is properly aligned to its social identity type?

Intellectual –Political affiliation social identity type

Feminist-Stigma social identity type

Welfare recipient-Vocation social identity type

Widow-Relationship social identity type

What is the appropriate term for an unconscious aspect of self which mediates between the Id and the superego, as distinguished from the "I," a conscious self-awareness?

Attitude

Emotional support

Ego

Interaction

An individual has a number of influences on self-concept and self-identity. Key among them includes role-taking, role model and role playing. Which is the best definition of role model?

The enactment of conventional expectations

An individual to whom one looks for appropriate values, attitudes, and behaviors

Imagining oneself playing the part (role) of another

None of the above

Durkheim's initial effort at such a definition indeed followed common usage, according to which a "suicide" is any death which is the immediate or eventual result of a positive (e.g., shooting oneself) or negative (e.g., refusing to eat) act accomplished by the victim himself. The obvious solution -- i.e., to restrict the definition of suicide to actions intended to have this result – was unacceptable to Durkheim for at least two reasons. First, as we have seen (p. 64 above), Durkheim consistently tried to define social facts by easily ascertainable characteristics, and the intentions of agents were ill-fitted to this purpose. Second, the definition of suicide by the end sought by the agent would exclude actions -- e.g., the mother sacrificing herself for her child -- in which death is clearly not "sought" but is nonetheless an inevitable consequence of the act in question, and is thus a "suicide" by any other name. The distinctive characteristic of suicides, therefore, is not that the act is performed intentionally, but rather that it is performed advisedly -- the agent knows that death will be the result of his act, regardless of whether or not death is his goal. This criterion is sufficient to distinguish suicide, properly so-called, from other deaths which are either inflicted on oneself unconsciously or not self-inflicted at all; moreover. Durkheim insisted that such a characteristic was easily ascertainable, and that such acts thus formed a definite, homogeneous group. Hence Durkheim's definition: Suicide is applied to all cases of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim himself, which he knows will produce this result. This definition, however, was subject to two immediate objections. The first was that such foreknowledge is a matter of degree, varying considerably from one person or situation to another. At what point, for example, does the death of a professional dare-devil or that of a man neglectful of his health cease to be an "accident" and start to become "suicide"? But for Durkheim to ask this question was less to raise an objection to his definition than to correctly identify its greatest advantage -- that it indicates the place of suicide within moral life as a whole. For suicides, according to Durkheim, do not constitute a wholly distinctive group of "monstrous phenomena" unrelated to other forms of behavior; on the contrary. they are related to other acts, both courageous and imprudent, by an unbroken series of intermediate cases. Suicides, in short, are simply an exaggerated form of common practices.

Sourced from http://durkheim.uchicago.edu/Summaries/suicide.html

According to Henri Tajfel's Social Identity Theory Social identity is a person’s sense of who they are based on their group membership. What is the least important factor of groups to which individual members belong to?

They are important sources of pride and self-esteem

Groups give us a sense of social identity

They bring about a sense of belonging to the social world

They give us guidance to interact in non-group activities

In order to increase self-image within a group that beliefs in mass suicide, what may a member do?

Make good financial contributions to their activities

Make good social deals on a personal level

Enhance the status of the group

Enhance the status of their position in the group

Tajfel and Turner proposed that there are three mental processes involved in evaluating others as “us” or “them. Which of the following is not one of the mental processes used by mass suicide groups?

Social categorization

Social Identification

Social Comparison

Social belongingness

In-groups, out-groups are the groups to which persons associate with for various reasons. Which of the following categorization is not a part of In-groups – Out-groups?

Jews and the Nazis

Hutus and Tutsis

Males members and Females members

Mothers and Daughters

In-group such as the members of a single mass suicide group rely on many factors except for:

Ethnocentrism

Sense of Unity

Love, Sympathy and fellow-feeling

The feeling of being in the wrong place

Out-groups just like in-groups also do have characteristics that define its activities and operations. Which of the following is not a characteristic of out-group?

Individuals identifies itself with the help of ’ they’ or other feeling

Individual expresses a feeling of antagonism or enmity towards out group

Out group is not based on ethnocentrism

Out group is based on sense of unity

When groups form, there are other events that come into play. For instance, intergroup aggression. What is its real meaning?

It is any behavior intended to harm another person, because he or she is a member of an out-group

It refers to a preference and affinity for one's in-group over the out-group

is a hostile or negative attitude toward people in a distinct group, based solely on their membership within that group

d. It refers to a preference and affinity for one's out-group over the in-group

Besides fights in different groups, there are internal disruptions within a singular group. Some of the terms used for such disruptions include prejudice, and stereotype. Which of the following is the best explanation of stereotype?

a. A generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all

members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members

b. It is a hostile or negative attitude toward people in a distinct group, based solely on their membership within that group

c. It is one's perception of out-group members as more similar to one another than are in-group members

d. It is one's perception of in-group members as more similar to one another than are out-group members

What is the term best suited for the definition, preference and affinity for one's in-group over the out-group, or anyone viewed as outside the in-group

out-group conflict

intergroup aggression

in-group–out-group bias

out-group bias

There are several numbers of identities that can in influence identity formation. Which of the following definitions explains what cultural identity is?

a. It is the feeling of identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as they are influenced by their

belonging to a group or culture

b. It is the identification with a certain ethnicity, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy

c. It is the set of beliefs and practices generally held by an individual, involving adherence to codified beliefs and rituals and study of ancestral

d. It is the identification with a certain race, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy

There are abundant amounts of influences on identity formation. Which of the following is not one of the

influences?

Cognitive influences

Scholastic influences

Sociocultural influences

Corporate influences

James Marcia's theory states four types of identity statuses. Which of the identity statuses in the theory holds that, an individual has not yet resolved their identity crisis, failing to commit to any goals or values and establish future life direction

Identity Foreclosure

Identity Diffusion

Identity Moratorium

Identity Achievement

Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. Interpersonal identity development is composed of three elements. Which of the following is not?

Categorization: Labeling others (and ourselves) into categories

Identification: Associating others with certain groups

Identity Diffusion: This is the opposite of identity achievement

Comparison: Comparing groups

Socialization is broad area that encompasses gender socialization. Which of the following choices reflects what gender socialization is all about?

It is the process of learning the social expectations and attitudes associated with one's sex

It is the conception, qualities, beliefs, and expressions that make a person

A sense of who one is as a person

It is the conception, qualities, beliefs, and expressions that make up one’s sex

Jean Phinney, formulated a three stage model describing how ethnic identity is acquired. Which of the following is not?

Unexamined identity

Identity search

Identity achievement

Identity foreclosure

Freud's theory of development stages gives a number of stages that aid in development of a child. Which of the following stages explains social development and other development tasks?

Child

Teen

Toddler

Infant

A 4 year old boy is punished for hitting his sister and says sorry after his parents demand him to. According to Kohlberg, what is his moral belief?

Saying sorry will provide a reward

Saying sorry will prevent punishment

Saying sorry will please parents

Saying sorry since hitting others is against the law

A 20 year old female who escaped from the ISIS regime begins protesting for universal human rights because it should be against the law to torture humans in their camps but it is not. What stage defines her best?

Conventional- Interpersonal Concordance

Conventional- Law and Order

Postconventional- Social Contract

Postonventional- Universal ethical principle

Kelley, like Heider before him, assumes that when we are forming an attribution we gather information or data that will help us come to a decision. Kelley's theory focuses on the first step in the process of social perception - how people decide whether to make an internal or an external attribution. It is an attribution theory that focuses on observations of multiple instances of behavior across time, place, different actors, and different targets of the behavior (situations), and examines how the perceiver chooses either an internal or an external attribution. We make such choices by using consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency information. An attribution is the way in which we come to understand the causes of behavior (our own and others). 1. Consensus refers to how other people behave toward the same stimulus. E.g., Do other people react in the same way to the same situation? If yes, then consensus is high. If no, then consensus is low. So there's a dog (target/situation), does everyone act afraid of the dog? 2. Distinctiveness refers to how the actor (the person whose behavior we are trying to explain) responds to other stimuli. E.g., Does the actor react in the same way to other, different situations? If yes, distinctiveness is low. If no, distinctiveness is high. Does Jesse (the actor) always act afraid of dogs? Or does he only act afraid to this specific dog? 3. Consistency refers to the frequency with which the observed behavior between the same actor and the same stimulus occurs across time and circumstances. Does the actor react to the same situation in the same way on other occasions? If yes, consistency is high. If no, consistency is low. Does Jesse act afraid of the dog every time he sees the dog? Or only this time? By discovering covariation in people's behavior you are able to reach a judgment about what caused their behavior. According to Kelley when these three sources of information combine into one of distinct patterns, a clear attribution can be made. 1. Low Consensus, Low Distinctiveness and High Consistency leads people to make an internal attribution of the actor. 2. High Consensus, High Distinctiveness, and High Consistency lead people to make an external attribution. It is something about the situation or target. 3. Finally when Consistency is Low we cannot make a clear internal or external attribution, and so resort to a special kind of external or situational attribution. A. So when there is a Low Consensus, and High Distinctiveness, it is due to an actor and situation interaction that uniquely causes the outcome. B. When there is High Consensus, and Low Distinctiveness, it is either an actor attribution or a situation attribution. You basically don't know in this situation. The Covariation Theory assumes that people make causal attributions in a rational, logical fashion, like detectives, drawing inferences from clues and observed behaviors.

Sourced from http://everything2.com/title/Kelley%2527s+Covariation+Model

Heider categorizes attribution into two that is internal and external attribution. Which of the following definitions is the most appropriate for internal attribution?

The process of assigning the cause of behavior to some internal characteristic, rather than to outside forces

The process of assigning the cause of behavior to some situation or event outside a person's control rather than to some internal characteristic

The process of assigning dispositional attributions to outside forces

The process of assigning dispositional attributions to inside forces

Which theory holds that that people pay particular attention to intentional behavior as opposed to accidental or unthinking behavior?

Correspondent Inference Theory

Attribution Theory

Kelley's Covariation Model

Piaget’s Theory

Attribution theory is explained by a number of sociologists in a number of theories and models. What is the correct description of and Kelley's Covariation Model of attribution theory?

It is a model that explains why people pay particular attention to intentional behavior as opposed to accidental or unthinking behavior

It is logical model for judging whether a particular action should be attributed to some characteristic of the person or the environment

It is a model that deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events

It is a model that deals with how the social perceiver creates information to arrive at causal explanations for events

Set 2

In regards to Kelley's Covariation Model, there are three types of causal information which influences our

judgments. Which of the following explanations does not fit among the three types?

The extent to which other people behave in the same way in a similar situation

The extent to which the person behaves in the same way in similar situations

The extent to which the person behaves like this every time the situation occurs

The extent to which a person behaves differently in different situations

Fundamental attribution error and correspondence bias are different. Which one of the following the correct definition of fundamental attribution error?

a. It is people's tendency to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation, rather than considering external factors

b. It is the tendency to draw inferences about a person's unique and enduring dispositions from behaviors that can be entirely explained by the situations in which they occur

c. It is the concept in marketing of assigning a value to a marketing activity based on desired outcome

d. It is the process of inferring the causes of events

When we are making attributions about other people, we compare their actions with alternative actions, evaluating the choices they have made. It is easier for us to make internal attributions when there fewer non-common effects between these choices. That is, when both choices have a lot in common and there are thus fewer things which differentiate them. When the behavior is not what we would have forecast, we assume that it is due to their internal preferences or character traits. Information about five factors is sought to make these inferences: Whether the behavior being considered is voluntary and freely chosen. What is unexpected about the behavior (‘non-common effects’). Whether the behavior is socially desirable. Whether the behavior impacts the person doing the inferring (‘hedonic relevance’) Whether the behavior is of personal interest to the person doing the inferring (‘personalism’). For example, if a person is choosing between two jobs. They are very similar apart from location and salary. This makes it easier for us to attribute their choice to the person’s individual preferences. If they choose the lower salary job, it is easy for us to assume that the person is not money-driven.

Sourced from http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/correspondent_inference.htm

Correspondent Inference Theory refers to five sources from which to draw information for correspondent

inference. Which of the following source of information is not mentioned in the theory?

If the other person’s behavior appears to be intended to have an impact on us, we assume that it is “personal”, and not just a by-product of the situation we are both in.

Behaviors low in sociably desirability lead us to make dispositional inferences more than socially undesirable behaviors

If a behavior is freely chosen it is believed to be due to internal factors

If behavior is not from personal choice it is believed to be due to internal factors

It is a tendency to make internal attributions about our in groups’ successes, and external attributions about their setbacks, and to make the opposite pattern of attributions about our out-groups. What is the term standing for this definition?

Group-serving bias

Ultimate attribution error

Pre-causal attribution

Fundamental attribution

Causal Attribution Theory is an attribution theory just like Jones & Davis Correspondent Inference Theory,

Attribution Theory, and Kelley's Covariation Model. What best matches Casual Attribution Theory?

a. It is people's tendency to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone else's

behavior in a given situation, rather than considering external factors

b. It is a theory provides three useful factors to determine the causes of behavior. The second factor is the

degree of freedom with which someone performs a behavior as freely chosen actions convey

c. It proposes that the attributions people make about events and behavior can be classed as either internal or external

d. an explanation for how one person views different causes of negative and positive behavior in in group and out group members

Attributions have types, just like there are a number of theories trying to explain the concept of attributions. Which among the following explanations is not suitable for types of attributions?

When telling a story to a group of friends or acquaintances, you are likely to tell the story in a way that places you in the best possible light

Use of explanatory attributions to help us make sense of the world around us

Attributing things in ways that allow us to make future predictions

Use of description to make future predictions about the future

Which of the following sentences best describes the Self-Serving Bias?

Blaming external factors for failures and disappointments to protect self esteem

Mistakenly believe by people that victims should have been able to predict future events and therefor take steps to avoid them

Blaming external forces than our personal characteristics

Blaming internal factors for failures and disappointments to protect self esteem

Attributional errors and attributional bias may be mistaken to be the same. What best explains attributional error?

It refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors

It is the tendency for people to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation rather than considering the situation's external characteristics

It is the concept in marketing of assigning a value to a marketing activity based on desired outcome

It is the concept in marketing of assigning importance to a marketing revenue based on desired outcome

Imagine buying a new car. You arrive at the dealership ready to haggle for a good deal, but discover that the salesman is a good friend of a trusted coworker. Do you act as a rational agent and drive for a hard bargain? Or does the salesman’s connection to your coworker bias your decision making, leading you to trust his first offer as the best possible deal? Recent work suggests that people’s decisions are biased by an interacting partner’s physical appearance. Here, the focus is on how social connections, specifically knowledge of a person’s friends and how they behave, bias our initial interactions with others. Social reputation and group membership are important contextual influences on interpersonal interactions. Social decisions are biased by group membership, often through complex dynamics among multiple factors. For instance, automatic biases toward an individual elicited by that individual’s race can be modulated and in some cases overridden by shifts in self-categorization. Specifically, a person who identifies with a mixed-race group will show less biased interactions with other-race, in-group members compared to other-race non-members. Moreover, an individual’s positive and negative reputation can push others to reward or punish that individual, even when reputation information is derived from third-party sources. Although an individual’s reputation or group identity impacts behavior toward that individual, it remains unknown if and how these biases extend to other members of that individual’s social network. The generalization of attitude information from a target person to an associated individual is a well-studied phenomenon. Here, we extend upon existing work to examine two questions: 1) whether reputation bias extends to interpersonal decision making and 2) whether such biases occur automatically or only when imbued with social significance. In other words, when encountering a new person, is our behavior toward the person based on our prior interactions with their friends? Sourced from doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159918

Social reputation of an item can lead to placing merit and value to certain items through interaction between the item and individuals. This perspective developed from the study of the importance of meaning in analyzing the social world. What sociological perspective is this?

Conflict Theory

Functionalism

Symbolic interaction

Rational choice theory

What is the process by which individuals develop an awareness of social norms and values to create group decisions through interactions with members?

Self-consciousness

Nationalism

Reproduction

Socialization

Which agent of socialization is the most important during the primary socialization stage, the most intense period of cultural learning?

a. Peer group

b. Family

c. School

d. Media

This type of identity refers to the characteristics assigned to an individual by others. These characteristics also place the individual within larger groups that share the same characteristics, and it is possible to have more than one type of this identity.

Self-identity

Collective identity

Social identity

Gender identity

This type of identity refers to the characteristics an individual attributes to their self that sets them apart from others as unique and distinct. This identity is the result of our constant interaction with the outside world and personal world.

Self-identity

Collective identity

Social identity

Gender identity

This term is defined as any group of people that operate together to organize patterns of collective behavior.

Social problem

Social institution

Social structure

Social organization

According to this theorist, we achieve self-awareness when we can differentiate me from I in early childhood, self-consciousness develops when we come to see ourselves as others do, and the final stage of socialization is the recognition of the generalized other.

Karl Marx

George Mead

W.E.B. Dubois

Max Weber

The theory of self-signaling suggests that individuals learn about their preferences from their previous behavior, even if this behavior was driven by situational factors rather than personal preferences and beliefs.. As a result, these learned and inferred preferences from past behaviors can influence subsequent decisions. used the willingness to use household pesticides to examine whether past behavior can influence individuals’ concerns for the environment and give priority to immediate benefits. Specifically, we argued that past self-interested actions (e.g., using hazardous pesticide) serve as self-signals, and increase the impact of attributes that favor the self-interested outcome while decreasing the impact of attributes that favor environmental consequences. Experiment 1 showed that, while people are concerned about the environment, a prior action yielding personal benefits (eliminating the aversive bug) leads them to prioritize self-interested actions at the expense of environmental protection. Experiment 2 further demonstrated that this pattern of results is not likely to be driven by mere desensitization to killing bugs. An increased preference to use the hazardous pesticide was only observed after a use of the hazardous pesticide but not after killing a bug with a paper towel. Finally, Experiment 3 suggested that merely considering a self-interested action might also signal individuals’ preferences.

Sourced from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0158456

What concept describes a person who was initially all organic and did not believe in using pesticide to switch due to the large consensus of people who did?

Self-consciousness

Cognition

Generalized other

Collective identity

What process would a researcher who finished a rock concert the night before work typically adapt in order to fit their role in the lab?

Social interaction

Focused interaction

Stigma management

Impression management

What is a form of self-consciousness that allows us to be strange, and to be able to view the world through the eyes of others?

Social constructionism

Bias

Sociological imagination

Social lens

What approach may be used by the insects facing pesticide to show a natural distribution of survival based on the advantages of the environment.

Ecological approach

Laisse faire approach

Urban approach

Demographic approach.

The theory that best reflects a school which socializes students with the appropriate values and sorts and selects them according to their abilities is:

Functionalism

Conflict theory

Symbolic interaction

Reproduction theory

A local neighborhood and zones within cities lack major grocery stories and are the end result of the competition over resources. Groups with dominant roles will often have a more central location. What study best defines this situation?

Ecological approach

Laisse faire approach

Urban ecology

Demographic approach

While taking the bus, strangers learn to respect social boundaries with others because of overcrowding. Factors such as texting or listening to music. are a part of the:

Urbanism

Apathy

Urban interaction problem

Social problem

William J. Wilson argues that this hypothesis is responsible for the persistent urban poverty of the inner cities that disproportionately affects poor and racial minorities.

Urbanism

Apathy hypothesis

Malthusianism hypothesis

Economic restructuring hypothesis

In caste societies many members guard against ritual pollution. Contact between members of the upper caste and the lower caste is inappropriate. In the Indian caste system upper caste individuals avoid even the shadow of an untouchable. What concept best defines this?

Environmental rights

Social equity

Social stratification

Social mobility

Using the figure below, all of the following statements are correct except:

People with high incomes have a lower average propensity to spend.

At low incomes, people will spend a low proportion of their income.

At high incomes, spending increases at a lower rate than disposable income

At low incomes, spending increases at a higher rate than disposable income

Life expectancy is constantly increasing in the Swedish population as well as in other high- and middle income countries. Sweden has been described as one of the “health leaders” with high life expectancy (ibid.), and compressed variation in the ages at which death occurs. One key question–of concern for both public health policies and individuals’ quality of life–is whether these extra years of life expectancy are characterized by disease or not. For Sweden, the figure is fairly optimistic: Hospitalization, significant diseases, self-reported ill health, and activity limitations have been postponed to higher ages. On the other hand, years lived with acute and chronic diseases have declined more slowly than have mortality rates and complex health problems increased among the oldest old in Sweden during the 1990s. A second, less explored, key question is to what extent the life expectancy rise and the postponement of ill health and hospital admissions to higher ages have been equally distributed across socioeconomic strata. Educational disparities in life expectancy have increased the last decades, in Sweden as well as in other Nordic countries. Thirty years ago, 30-year-old Swedish women with a college degree could expect to live approximately two years longer than their less educated counterparts. In 2007, this disparity had grown to four years. For men, the increase was smaller but yet noticeable. Increasing relative educational inequalities in mortality have been identified in several other high- and middle-income countries including Sweden. However, as far as we know, it is less clear how educational disparities in the risk of dying have changed among older Swedes, even if most of the mortality reduction lately has occurred in this age group.

Sourced from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0152369

Teenager A is a minority in inner city Sweden. He attends public high school in an impoverished school zone, and he is one of the few that the school will graduate this year. He does not know about applying to colleges, and cannot receive loans due to being undocumented. Teenager B is white and lives in an affluent, suburban neighborhood where he attends a coveted and very well-financed high school. He already knows what college he will attend, and in fact his parents provided him with a college fund that will allow him to graduate debt free. This scenario is an example of:

Natural selection

Laisse faire

Personal problem

Stratification

If the 30-year-old Swedish women was the first to graduate college in here family, what concept best describes her accomplishment?

Spatial availability for movement

Movement between social positions

Transition between social roles

Moving up in social positions

This studies the distribution of life and the interactions between organisms and their natural environment.

Environmental ecology

Biodiversity

Life course sociology

Modernism

The concerns of health leaders in the large inequality gap in Swedish hospitals due to education best describes:

Social organization

Social structure

Social problem

Social institution

If the right to education in Sweden was controlled by a system in which talent and hard work are expected to determine the allocation of individuals to positions, it would be a:

Meritocracy

Plutocracy

Democracy

Aristocracy

Which of the following corresponds to Karl Marx’s theory?

Social institutions work together as a system to keep society going.

People in capitalist society are divided into two antagonistic social classes.

All social interactions are the result of an exchange of symbols.

Gendered patterns and inequalities are socially constructed.

Ralf Dahrendorf ’s theory that those with power give orders and those without power take orders, leading to tensions between interest groups, is an example of which theory?

Structural functionalism

Conflict theory

Symbolic interactionism

Feminist theory

This concept describes a situation in which social norms are no longer effective in regulating behavior.

Discontent

Anomie

Strife

Sanction

This term is defined as the ability of individuals or groups to further their own interests, and is a pervasive element in all human relationships. Many conflicts are caused in pursuit of this term.

Violence

Charisma

Power

Marxism

Shared ideas or beliefs that serve to justify the interests of dominant, controlling groups over those of others is this term. These type of systems serve to legitimize and solidify the control that they hold.

Ideologies

Power

Manifest functions

Latent functions

A key assertion of the Marxist perspective is that material production is the most fundamental of all human activities – from the production of the most basic of human necessities such as food, shelter and clothing in a subsistence economy, to the mass production of commodities in modern capitalist societies. Whether this production takes place within a modern or a subsistence economy, it involves some sort of organization and the use of appropriate tools; this is termed the 'forces of production'. Production of any type was recognized by Marx as also involving social relations. In modern capitalist societies these 'relations of production' lead to the development of a division of labor reflecting in the existence of different social

classes. For Marx, it is these forces and relations of production together that constitute the economic base (infrastructure) of society. The superstructure of a society - the political, legal, educational, and health systems and so on, are shaped and determined by this economic base. The orientation of this approach as applied within medical sociology is towards the social origins of disease. Health outcomes for the population are seen as being influenced by the operation of the capitalist economic system at two levels. First, at the level of the production process itself, health is affected either directly in terms of industrial diseases and injuries, stress-related ill health, or indirectly through the wider effects of the process of commodity production within modern societies. The production processes produce environmental pollution, whilst the process of consuming the commodities themselves have long-term health consequences such as eating processed foods, chemical additives, car accidents and so on. Second, health is influenced at the level of distribution. Income and wealth are major determinants of people's standard of living - where they live, their access to educational opportunities, their access to health care, their diet, and their recreational opportunities. All of these factors are significant in the social patterning of health.

Sourced from http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-conceptshealth-illness/section1

According to Karl Marx, class is primarily based on:

income and occupation

a combination of wealth and income

ownership of the means of production

a combination of wealth and status

This sociological perspective focuses on the struggle for resources and power hierarchy in society. Ideology and politics make a substantive part of this perspective.

Conflict Theory

Functionalism

Symbolic interaction

Rational Choice theory

As argued by Max Weber, social stratification is primarily based on:

income and occupation

a combination of class, status, and power

ownership of the means of production

a combination of race, income, and political power.

Mary believes that she is poor because she feels inferior, powerless and lacks work ethic. Mary’s beliefs best characterize:

Lewis’s culture of poverty thesis

Gans’s ideas about the functions of the poor

Weber’s ideas about class status, and power

Moore’s ideas about welfare dependency

Bob believes that there is a difference between the “deserving” and “undeserving” poor and that only the “deserving” poor should receive government assistance. Bob’s view best illustrates:

Functionalist theory

Social mobility theory

Social status theory

Labeling theory

A culturally resonant theme:

invokes widely held beliefs, values, and preferences that are familiar to potential audiences.

determines how the media portrays social problems.

focuses on advancing a new interpretation of an issue.

focuses attention on important issues.

Sarah is paid minimum wage as a fast food worker. Although she has enough money for food, clothing, and shelter, her wage is significantly below the median household income for her community. Sarah can best be labeled as living in __________poverty.

absolute

relative

means tested

subsidiary

Several homeless at the food bank report being employees of a national grocery chain. While they earn $70-80 a week, they do not have enough money to get a motel or buy food for the last few days of the week. This can best be labeled as living in __________ poverty.

absolute

relative

means tested

subsidiary

In the United States, those in the top 10% of income possess ______ percent of the country’s wealth.

40

55

75

90

Durkheim argues that societies move from mechanical to organic solidarity through the division of labor. As people began to move into cities and physical density mounted, competition for resources began to grow. Like in any competition, some people won and got to keep their jobs, whereas others lost and were forced to specialize. We now know this form of differentiation to be a key element in the division of labor. As a consequence, the division of labor generated all sorts of interdependencies between people, as well as key elements of organic solidarity, like a weaker collective conscience. Nutritional sociology uses such sociological theories and methods to study and influence food patterns, eating habits, and nutrition. Obesity and weight loss are important topics in nutritional sociology, and stigmatization of the obese is a longstanding interest. Most past sociological work has only described stigmatization, rather than developing ways to facilitate coping with it. A model for coping with the stigma of obesity includes four components: Recognition, Readiness, Reaction, and Repair. Recognition involves awareness of the stigma of obesity and understanding about stigmatization. Readiness involves anticipation that stigmatization may occur in specific settings or by some people, and preparation for and prevention of stigmatizing acts. Reaction involves immediate and long-term coping techniques to deal with a stigmatizing act. Repair involves the recovery from stigmatization and attempts at restitution and reform of the stigmatizing actions of others. This model uses a sociological perspective to develop strategies for dealing with stigmatization, which differs from a medical model for dealing with obesity. This sociological model for helping people cope with the stigma of obesity may also be useful with other types of stigmas.

Adapted from http://routledgesoc.com/category/profile-tags/social-solidarity

This concept examines how being stigmatized and marginalized when obese affects interconnections with others.

Social empathy

Distributive justice

Social inclusion

Social solidarity

Which of these definitions defines distributive justice?

Relative equality in how social and economic resources are distributed in a society.

Describes how criminal justice resources are distributed in a society.

Efforts to extend a sense of belonging to all members of a society.

Efforts to redistribute the mass wealth of the 1% to the rest of the population equitably.

A nutritionist emphasizes the virtues of a thin body and implies being slender is associated with beauty and success is promoting the _______.

culture of obesity

media image problem

body dimorphic phenomenon

cult of thinness

All of the following statements about the “cult of thinness” are true EXCEPT:

it idealizes a slim body type unachievable for the vast majority of the people

it leads to decreased rates of obesity

it often equates being thin with morality

it often portrays fat as repulsive

What is the definition of tokenistic fallacy?

The misconception that employers and institutions use one or two minorities as proof of their diversity, employers have diverse hiring practices.

The common misconception that once a small number of minorities become successful in society show that racism is no longer a problem.

The notion that successful minorities got there as the result of social welfare and affirmative action.

The common misconception that once an average number of minorities become successful in society shows that racism is no longer a problem.

Which school of thought argues that some level of social inequality is inevitable and necessary for the function of society?

Conflict theory

Rational choice theory

Structural functionalism

Symbolic interactionism

Many obese individuals identify with not have the money or resources to shop at healthier stores. What best explains this environmental racism?

The process by which the dominant race in society is shielded from harmful environmental threats, while the same such threats are located closest to neighborhoods where minority groups live.

The process by which a member of a minority group internalizes racism through the conditions and stigma of their environment.

The concept that corporations purposefully dump wastes and toxins in areas of minorities.

The process by which white flight occurs when minorities move close to or into their neighborhoods.

The discovery that multiple studies find high levels of exposure to on-screen smoking in popular movies is associated with:

more positive beliefs about tobacco and higher rates of smoking.

neutral beliefs about tobacco and higher rates of smoking.

more negative beliefs about tobacco and lower rates of smoking.

more negative beliefs about tobacco but lower rates of smoking.

What does Robert Park’s theory of race relations detail?

How different racial groups interact with each other.

How racial groups interact differently with members of their same group than with members of other racial groups

How immigrant groups follow a pathway of four stages that leads to eventual assimilation

How different racial groups form a collective identity.

A group of children are given a standardized test. In the weeks prior to the administration of the test there is a lot of news coverage regarding how different races and genders perform on the tests, and concerned parents have been holding conferences and town hall meetings to address the issue. Undoubtedly, the children have been exposed to these conversations. True to what they heard, the children performed differently. This phenomena is known as:

Spatial mismatch theory

Self-fulling prophecy

Biological differences

Stereotype threat

Which concept is the tendency of individuals to perform better or worse on tests after hearing about how their group performs?

Spatial mismatch theory

Stereotype threat

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Biological differences

Which of these best describes spatial mismatch theory?

Individuals have a tendency to perform as they were told their particular group perform on standardized tests.

Having the income but not the ability to move to a better location.

Individuals believe that they do not belong in certain places.

Movement of jobs away from cities left many African Americans without employment.

Research about how teacher expectations of students affect students’ perceptions of themselves and their achievement is most closely associated with:

Karl Marx

Max Weber

Bernard Sanders

Raymond Rist

The phenomenon in which news outlets promote fear and contribute to the expectation that we are in danger, contradicting the actual data on crime rates, is known as ________.

the media violence misattribution

media phobia

mean world syndrome

the violent society myth

Which of these describes the feminization of poverty?

The trend of poverty being concentrated disproportionately in female-headed single-parent households.

The trend of poverty affecting women because they just don’t work.

Women are more likely to draw and live on welfare, and their children are more likely to grow in poverty and draw welfare as a result.

A disparity that is just the result of biological inferiority.

Which of these defines institutional racism?

Discrimination rooted in policies of social institutions that negatively impacts people of color.

Unequal hiring practices of employers that lead to glass ceilings for minorities.

The unequal number of minorities incarcerated for mental health problems.

Discrimination rooted in policies of social institutions that negatively impacts the dominant racial category.

Which of these defines individual discrimination?

Discrimination in which the actors are carrying out their own intentions to judge based on race and/or gender.

Discrimination that an individual engages in because they were explicitly instructed to do so or supported in doing so.

Discrimination that an individual experiences because of their race.

Discrimination that an individual experiences being a member of the dominant race.

Examining how gender works simultaneously with other identities such as race, social class, and sexuality is a good example of a(n) ___________ approach to the study of gender

Dysmorphic

Socially constructed

Feminist

Intersectional

Processes of gender socialization early in life also contribute to the wage gap later in life. Which of these options accurately describes that statement?

Male children are not socialized different than women and the wage gap is due to biological differences.

Families, media, and even children books and fairy tales not only teach girls to be dependent on men, but that it also creates acceptable characteristics that dictate whether a woman goes to college, but even what major they choose and thus their earning potential later.

Processes of gender socialization do not contribute to the wage gap, the same characteristics that employers favor in men they also favor in women candidates.

Processes of gender socialization contributes to the wage gap, the same characteristics that employers favor in men they also favor in women candidates.

Labeling theory is most closely associated with which of the following sociological perspectives?

Conflict theory

Integrative theory

Post-structuralism

Symbolic interactionism

These are requirements in order to label a behavior as deviant or respectable.

Control, Authority

Power, Social interaction

Respect, Social interaction

Integrity, Authority

What is labeling theory?

The theory that behaviors become defined as deviant when people in power socially construct deviant categories, which leads to the construction of types of deviant people.

The process by which people define a social problem into existence.

The process we assign meaning to words, gestures, and objects for social interactions.

The process through which we have internal conversations within ourselves.

Which theory is concerned with how cultural expectations about sexuality and other issues become official sanctions, rules, and laws?

Labeling theory

Deviance

Double standard

Sex role theory

Hannah is called a “slut” by her classmates for having sex with her friend Rob outside of a committed relationship. Rob, on the other hand, is called a “stud” by the males in the class. This is an example of:

queer theory

deviance

a double standard

sex role theory

The view that labeling and defining sexual deviance clarifies societal norms and values is most closely associated with which of the following sociological perspectives?

Symbolic interactionism

Conflict theory

Structural functionalism

Integrative theory

The belief that laws that make sex work illegal are created by people with power, influence, and the ability to institutionalize their conceptualizations of particular morals and values is most closely associated with which of the following sociological perspectives?

Symbolic interactionism

Conflict theory

Structural functionalism

Integrative theory

This is defined as efforts to use a person’s perceived or real chronological age as the basis for discriminatory actions.

Aging

Ageism

Life expectancy

Fertility rate

What is the social process constructed from the expectations and belief systems of the structural characteristics of society?

Aging

Ageism

Life expectancy

Fertility rate

This theory suggests the aging individual and society engage in a mutual withdrawal in the sixth decade of life, allowing the individual to begin the socialization into old age.

Disengagement theory

Activity theory

Dependency theory

Conflict theory

According to Pierre Bourdieu, personal connections and relationships to other people are examples of _____ capital.

economic

social

cultural

symbolic

According to Pierre Bourdieu, knowledge about music, art, and literature are examples of this kind of capital.

economic

social

cultural

symbolic

Which theory suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack cultural resources and arrive at school at a significant disadvantage as a result?

Functionalism

Institutional theory

Symbolic interaction

Cultural deprivation theory

When discussing obesity, the U.S. media most frequently:

blames individuals’ eating habits and inactivity.

focuses on the relationship between genes and body weight.

discusses how widespread cultural trends affect obesity rates.

focuses on the relationship between obesity and age.

Which theory would investigate the differences in how we frame obesity and overeating compared to anorexia and undereating?

Labeling theory

Conflict theory

Symbolic interactionism

Functionalism

The stress of working conditions that combine low autonomy and high workloads in an unsupportive environment has been shown to cause

Higher employee satisfaction

Higher rates of cardiovascular mortality

Higher incomes for employees

Lower rates of depression

The United States operates under a ______system of governance, with a healthcare sector dominated by private rather than government interests.

democratic

feudalistic

neoliberal

welfare

Julia primarily identifies herself as a “cancer patient,” even though she has been treated successfully. Sociologists might say Julia is suffering from:

illness identity dependency

the medical industrial complex

role strain

dissociative identity disorder

Talcott Parsons argued people primarily adopt the “sick role” as a way of:

gaining social status.

benefiting from the nurturing of others

seeking empathy

avoiding social responsibilities

Talcott Parson’s theory of “the sick role” is most closely associated with:

structural-functionalism

conflict theory

symbolic interaction theory

deviance theory

The belief that the health-care industry has four interrelated economic functions in capitalist society (accumulation of capital; provision of investment opportunities; absorption of surplus labor; and maintenance of the labor force) is most closely associated with this perspective.

functionalist

conflict

interactionist

integrative

Which theorists explain the U.S. health care system as a central part of the capitalist economy that functions to produce profit, not to deliver health care.

functionalist

conflict

interactionist

integrative

This hypothesis suggests that the sick, depressed, and stressed move down the social system and accumulate at the bottom.

relative depravation

symbolic decline

social drift

increased strain

These social groups are either negatively or positively privileged.

Role groups

Status groups

Gradient groups

Sociological groups

This concept is the consistent finding that inequality and health are related.

Relative deprivation

Symbolic decline

Social drift

Social health gradient

Which of these describes McDonaldization?

An entity that emerges from the combination of other entities but is different than the sum of its parts.

The homogenization and rationalization of a system that occur as culture and cultural privileges spreading globally through economic expansion.

The process through which McDonald’s went global.

The homogenization and rationalization of food commerce that occur as culture and cultural privileges spreading globally through economic expansion.

All of the following practices are associated with McDonaldization EXCEPT:

efficiency

calculability

predictability

variability

All of the following groups of people had a higher likelihood of dying in Hurricane Katrina EXCEPT:

racial minorities

the poor

the elderly

white collar workers

The population that experienced the highest radioactivity from Chernobyl in Norway were:

the Saami, a minority group of inner-city workers

Irish immigrants living on rural farms

urban residents working for multinational corporations

foreign exchange students

This perspective would be most likely to focus on reorganizing society to make bad environmental behaviors less appealing and more inconvenient.

conflict

structural functionalist

symbolic interactions

feminist

Which of these defines the ecological modernization theory?

The theory that society can become environmentally sustainable through the development of greener technologies and government regulations.

The theory that society can become environmentally sustainable without development of greener technologies and government regulations.

The theory that the environment will adapt to modern and future conditions.

The theory that birth and death rates will regulate the population growth.

Which theorist would be most likely to ask why “environmental labor” is free.

conflict

structural functionalist

symbolic interactionist

feminist

This perspective would be most likely to focus on how the desire to accumulate capital and wealth leads to an attempt to reduce both human and environmental labor costs while expanding production and increasing inequality and environmental degradation.

conflict

structural functionalist

symbolic interactions

feminist

This perspective focuses on ways we give environmental materials meaning through social interaction.

functionalist

conflict

social constructionist

naturalist

This term is the discomfort of holding conflicting beliefs or values.

Frame alignment

Cognitive dissonance

Empirical realism

Reflexive discontinuity

What is environmental justice?

Putting the environment first

Charging companies for the natural resources they deplete

Planting a tree for every one torn down

Ensuring everyone participates in environmental decision-making

Is defined as organized, collective fighting between at least one political unit that seeks political or economic control over a territory or other important resource and another political unit or social group.

war

resource war

global war

civil

Set 3

The primary motive of these is to control valuable resources.

national wars

wars between borders

ethnic cleansing

globalized intrastate wars

This refers to defining the situation so the individual is absolved of responsibility for making personal moral choices.

Routinization

Military ideology

Indoctrination

Authorization

This concept occurs when individuals act badly because they believe in a routine that determines how to behave.

Routinization

Military ideology

Indoctrination

Routine authorization

This concept occurs when attitudes reflect perceptions that the targets are less than human.

Routinization

Dehumanization

Indoctrination

Hyper-humanization

This concept demonstrates how disparities in social class, culture, and belief systems structure a divide between military and civilian life.

routinization pattern

two society thesis

military industrial complex

militaristic ideology

This term is defined as “violence perpetrated for political reasons by subnational groups or secret state agents, often directed at noncombatants targets, and usually intended to influence an audience.”

War

Militarism

Terrorism

Nationalism

Which concept is a socially and politically constructed category based on physical traits but can also incorporate religion, culture, nationality, and social class?

Ethnicity

Nationalism

Race

Gender

This concept defines a person’s cultural background, often tied to nationality of origin and/or the culture practiced by the individual.

Ethnicity

Nationalism

Race

Gender

Social stratification can be understood as:

A class conflict between the bourgeoisies and the proletariat

Hierarchal system that ranks categories of people in a society

A system by which individuals change their social status

A clash of sub-cultures with the dominant culture

Emma grew up in a working class traditionalist family with her two parents and a sister. Although interested and prone to doing well in Biology, Emma opted to get a job out of school as an administrative assistant because she wasn’t sure if she is capable of completing a traditionally male dominated scientific field and to alleviate the financial strain that going to school may have on her parents. The above can be considered:

An example of ascribed status

An example of achieved status

Achieved status influencing ascribed status

Ascribed status influencing achieved status

A status that may be considered more important than any other status, which usually overshadows all others held by an individual is understood as:

The primary status

The achieved status

The master status

The ascribed status

Is stigma an ascribed status or an acquired status that happens later in life?

Stigma is an ascribed status

Stigma is an acquired status

Stigma can be both, an acquired and an ascribed status

Stigma is neither ascribed nor acquired status

How does the concept of social status differ between the contemporary understanding and the Marxist understanding of social status?

There is no distinction. Marxist understanding of social class and the contemporary understanding of social class are the same

Contemporary social class is based on prestige of occupation, while Marxist understanding of social class refers to owning the means of production

Contemporary social class is based on income, while the Marxist understanding of social class refers to living off the profits generated by the working class

Contemporary social class is based on level of education, while the Marxist understanding of social class refers to owning of property

Which of the following explanations can be said to be true for the status and the role one might assume in a society:

The status and the roles are dynamic and ever changing

All status and the roles assumed are static and unchanging

The status and the roles are given to us by society

All statuses and all roles are assumed by individuals

What is a gender role in a society?

A role that is assumed by being biologically male or female

A role given to individuals by their family and in schools

An expectation of set behavior and attitudes of males and females in a society

A role decided by the individual

Jenna is a student at a University. Tomorrow morning, she has to give a presentation at 8am in her Sociology class, cover a coworker’s shift from 4pm to 7pm tonight and attend a best friend’s birthday party at 7pm, also tonight. What is Jenna experiencing?

Role strain

Role conflict

Role exit

Work overload

Frank is an American, father, body builder, husband and a Christian. This group of positions is referred to as:

A set of roles

A set of statuses

A role hierarchy

A status hierarchy

Roles and statuses are very closely interlinked, but they are not the same. There are no statuses without roles and there are no roles without statuses. From the following statements, which is the most accurate:

A person’s status cannot always be inferred by their role

A person’s status can be inferred by their role

Status is telling of what an individual does as a part of a group

All of the above are accurate

How do the role strain and role conflict differ from one another?

A role conflict is a conflict between roles, while role strain is a conflict within a role

A role conflict is a conflict within a role, while role strain is a conflict between roles

A role conflict is a conflict of roles between two statuses, while role strain is a conflict of roles within a status

A role conflict is a conflict of roles within a status, while a role strain is a conflict of roles between two statuses

A professor in Jack’s Philosophy lecture asks Jack a hard question that the rest of the class is unable to answer. Having done wider reading on the subject, Jack is able to answer the question on a much more complex level than the professor expects. Although Jack wants to impress the professor with his knowledge on the subject and give a complex and highly formulated answer, Jack is also does not want to appear as a ‘show off ’ to his friends and classmates. What is Jack experiencing?

Jack is experiencing a role strain

Jack is experiencing a role conflict

Jack is experiencing a yield to normative conformity

Jack is experiencing a yield to informational conformity

In sociological terms, what is considered a role exit?

Assuming a brand new identity

Taking over someone else’s role

Disengaging from a current role

None of the above

Which of the following examples is not one of the voluntary exit role stages?

Doubt and frustration when reflecting on their roles

Searching for an alternative within the existing role

Creation of a new role

Acceptance of the current role’s inevitability

Which statements from the following examples illustrate an involuntary role exit?

Thomas’s wife gave birth to their daughter, thus Thomas became a father

After much difficulty at work that included unrealistic deadlines, frequent scorn from the upper management and stress, Sarah decided to leave her full time job and become a freelancer

Ben has been caught dealing narcotics at his high school, and as a result, was sent to a reform school

Laura graduated this year and is going to be attending a University in the fall

As a child, Phil loved playing soccer and was adamant about going to practice and getting better. He was an avid fan of FC Manchester United and a keen follower of the sport. When Phil went to college, he developed a strong affinity to music and has actively started perusing this interest at the expense of his football time. Phil began to strongly identify with a music scene and has become a well-known local DJ. He now no longer follows or attends football practices. In Phil’s case, what can be considered a reason for a role exit?

Phil’s identity shifted and became geared towards music as opposed to football

Phil is motivated by the social and monetary gain opportunities that are associated with being a DJ

Phil’s role exit was involuntary and has happened due to the change in group and environment

All of the above

From the examples below, which of the concepts listed can be considered to prompt an involuntary role exit?

Reaching a certain age or becoming elderly

A disinterest in academia causing an individual to not do well in school

A strong religious beliefs that prompt an individual to become isolated from the society

A drive and ambition to travel that prompt an individual to leave their job

Among the members of the Secondary group, the relations longevity is usually:

Permanent

Short-lived

Long-lasting

Constant

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the main reason why secondary groups form?

To provide emotional support, love, security and companionship to its members

To create a plan and means of meeting individuals who share same or similar instrumental needs

Working together to meet a common goal

To work without a common goal

Which of the following social collectivities are characterized by a minimal social interaction:

Social category

Social group

Social aggregate

None of the above

Which of the following examples best describes a primary group?

Sociology students gathered to celebrate the end of an academic year

A family having a BBQ

An office Christmas party

A high school reunion of the graduating class of 1980

Mary has just joined a video game developer team at a large company. Normally, Mary likes to dress smart-casual as she feels most comfortable that way. Upon arriving at her new place of work, Mary notices that all of the developers are dressed very casually, with her looking extremely overdressed, appearing more as a manager rather than a developer. Worried that her style may produce negative opinions about her motivations and her ability to the job, Mary goes shopping for new clothes and subsequently starts showing up at work in the same style as her fellow developers. What kind of group conformity is Mary a subject to?

Internalization

Identification

Compliance

Ingratiational

The idea that the dynamics of a society for both, social order and social resistance are a result of a struggle among different groups, is characteristic of which social theory:

Dramaturgy

Conflict Theory

Functionalist Theory

Symbolic Interactionist Theory

John is in his final year of his Business and Finance Master’s degree. He has landed a job out of school as a manager in a trust company and is eagerly anticipating starting his new job. John has started networking with more experienced managers and has begun spending time with groups of people who already work as bank and trust company managers as opposed to his fellow students. His dress style, mannerisms and interest are geared towards preparation for his new role. What is John experiencing?

Group of managers are a reference group and a source of John’s anticipatory socialization

John and the managers are a part of an in-group

John’s fellow students are a part of an out-group

John is showing in-group favoritism

Which of the following examples can be considered a formation of an in-group and out-group?

a.Two countries are at war with each other and have been in the state of war for the past 5 years.

b. Supporters of FC Manchester United and the supporters of FC Chelsea

c. Two different neighborhoods in Boston

d. All of the above

From the perspective of the in-group and out-group concepts, what does primordial theory essentially suggest?

It suggests that the differences between individuals within groups are not as important as the socio-economic and political factors

b. It suggests that conflict exists between in-groups and out-groups

c. It suggests that we innately seek out people different to us or those in the out-group

d. It suggests that conflict within an in-group is a result of an internal conflict among individuals

A type of group that commands the member’s loyalty, esteem and prestige is known as what kind of group?

A reference group

A social network group

An in-group

All of the above

In Sociology, what is a peaceful and functional coexistence between distinct ethnic groups in a society called?

Multiculturalism

Assimilation

Cultural Pluralism

Amalgamation

Evros is a member of a fraternity Lambda Phi Epsilon and all the members of his fraternity are Greek or Greek in origin. Their biggest rival is a fraternity Alpha Chi Omega whose members are mostly American. Although all the members of his fraternity are Greek in origin, Evros sees diversity within his group, with some people being from Cyprus, some people being born overseas, others being Greek speakers of American origin. Although they are all part of a ‘Greek’ fraternity, Evros recognizes the differences between the members. What is Evros’s observance demonstrating?

Out-group heterogeneity

Out-group homogeneity

In-group heterogeneity

In-group homogeneity

When promoting group goals, which of the following methods are the least effective:

a. Democratic leadership

b. Authoritarianism

c. Laissez-faire

d. Dictatorship

Of the following, which can be considered the smallest social group in a society:

Triads

Dyads

A classroom

Political party

What can be said to be the differentiating factor that distinguishes a group from a crowd?

A group is larger than the crowd

A group is people in one place

A group has cohesion

A group experiences itself as made up of independent members

Societies based on close personal relationships between small groups and communities are known as:

Urban societies

Rural societies

Gemeinschaft societies

Gesellschaft societies

What process best describes an individual becoming aware of themselves as being a member of a particular group, adopting the norms and values, the expected behavior and the ways of communicating with members of the said group?

Development

Activation

Initiation

Socialization

Groups that are responsible for socializations of individuals, such as different institutions, organizations, groups and people are known as:

Conduits of socialization

Teachers of socialization

Agents of socialization

Instructors of socialization

A type of group that brings individuals together and is both, denser and looser, than a formal group is known as:

Society

Formal organization

Network

Structural organization

Which of the following assertions is generally true when referring to social networks?

Social networks are vague groups, consisting mostly of people we tend to know of, rather than know intimately or even personally

Social networks are primarily built on primary relationships with other members

Social networks do not have a clear membership boundaries

Social networks create a strong sense of membership

Which of the following examples best describes the sociological concept of a ‘network’?

In a network, people usually have the same or similar interest

In a network, people generally have very minimal interaction and a little common identity, including weak social ties

In a network, people usually work together towards a common goal

In a network, people usually know each other or have strong social ties

What is the significance of informal networks within bureaucracies?

Informal networks are detrimental to bureaucracies as they can lead to breakdown of bypassing of hierarchy

Workers in the bottom ranks of the organization are far more likely to engage in informal networks for personal gain or to undermine the upper management

Organizational leaders tend to engage in informal networks within bureaucracies. In practice, personal connections tend to be more valuable than formally recognized procedures

Informal networks tend to undermine the management and the order of the organizational hierarchy

Men generally tend to have a greater access to very powerful networks than women. Why might this be the case?

Men tend to be better at building networks and they tend to work harder at construction of these networks which weakens the networking power of women in the sphere

Due to family obligations, which are more often undertaken by women, their time in the careers tend to be shorter than that of men which weakens the networking power of women in the sphere

Women are likely to be promoted to high earning and prestigious jobs that are already largely dominated by men, thus their networking position is weak as soon as they enter the field

In general, women’s professional, business as well as political powers are weaker than those of men, and thus so is their influence and access to powerful networks

According to Mark Granovetter, what does the importance of weak ties to personal social networks demonstrate?

Weak ties in personal social networks are central in knowing of a lot of people, however if these ties are not eventually straightened, will eventually break off completely

Weak ties in personal social networks can remain weak indefinitely, however, should the attempt be made to strengthen the ties, these ties would always respond to the bonding attempts and creating closer ties

Weak ties in personal social networks are especially important to people of higher socioeconomic background as they act as a channel for finding job opportunities

Weak ties in personal social networks are key in explaining how some children within these network may be more susceptible to turning to deviance

Organizations such as Girl Scouts, political party clubs, American Bookseller Association, environmental groups and churches are examples of what kind of organizations?

Informal organizations

Voluntary organizations

Coercive organizations

Corporate organization

From the examples below, which of the following organizations is not coercive:

A reform school

Mental institution

Prison

Goldman Sachs

Which of the following examples can be considered a formal organization?

A network of financial professionals in the currency exchange field

Any governmental agency such as the police force or the citizenship and immigration office

A PricewaterhouseCoopers accounting firm

Any small group with an elected leader

People join formal organizations for a multitude of reasons and as well as benefits. If John were to join a formal organization for the purpose of obtaining money or other material benefits, what type of a formal organization would John join?

Coercive organization

Utilitarian organization

A normative organization

Any of the above is correct. John would obtain either money or other material benefits in coercive, utilitarian or a normative organization

Terry’s daughter, Jenna, has just transferred to a new school. Wanting to be more involved, Terry decides to join the Teacher-Parent Association at Jenna’s school. In sociological terms, what type of organization has Terry joined?

Terry has joined a coercive organization voluntarily

Terry has joined a normative organization

Terry has joined utilitarian organization

Terry has joined an organization that is normative and coercive

Which of the following statements best describe the concept of organizational environment?

The way an organization is run on a day-to-day bases

The location where an organization’s Headquarter are situated

All outside factors that affect the operations of an organization

All of the above are examples of the organizational environment

Hospitals are highly rationalized, hierarchical institutions conforming closely to Weber’s ‘ideal type’ bureaucracy. In such settings, medical interventions are governed by detailed procedures and protocols. Hospitals aim to provide healthcare ‘to rule’, according to the official code book of ‘good practice’ and service delivery. Though there is a strong case for ‘rationalized’ Medicare, what can be understood as counter-cases against one such ‘ideal type’ bureaucracy?

The patients’ interest may become subservient to the smooth running of the institution and the close following of standardized codes of conduct

The hospital staff are restricted in attempting to try their own, alternative means of caring for patients in need

The ‘ideal type’ bureaucracy is necessary in the hospital settings and it is designed to maximize patient safety, comfort and efficiency of care, and it therefore does not have a substantial drawbacks

Intricate record keeping is unnecessary and the time spent on that should be spent caring for patients

Max Weber began the study of bureaucracy, and his work popularized the term. He defined the ‘ideal bureaucracy’ in his writings, but which of the following terms is not one of the elements of the ‘ideal bureaucracy’?

Impersonality

Hierarchy of offices

Specialization

Informal rules and regulations

What does the concept of ‘bureaucracy’ refer to?

Any source of inefficiency within an organization

An informal organizational model

An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

A large, nominative organization

What was Max Weber’s argument regarding the relationship between bureaucracy and democracy?

Bureaucracies are inherently good and essential in democracies

Bureaucracies have no significant impact or relation to democracies

Bureaucracies are inherently antagonistic to democracies

Bureaucracies are necessary in democracies

When the societies develop, so do the organizations and structures within it. How and why does the bureaucracy form in a society?

When a society transitions into a free market economy, bureaucracies emerge

When a society becomes larger and more complex and more levels are added between the people and the decision making, bureaucracies emerge

When a society becomes democratic and the decision making involves a larger number of people, bureaucracies emerge

When a society adopts the ideals of capitalism and allows corporations to operate freely, bureaucracies emerge

According to Weber, which of the following is not a potential problem with bureaucracy?

Suppression of dissent

Underspecialization

Bureaucratic Ritualism

Bureaucratic rigidity and inertia

Which of the following statements can be considered as characteristics of McDonaldization of the society:

The outcome of task solution is always predictable and the aspects of process are easily controlled

The good performance is measured by quality not quantity

A number of different methods are considered and encouraged for a solution of any task

The task outcome is not always predictable

As organizations grow, the ability of members to participate equally in organizational decisions becomes progressively more difficult, both because it is hard to find a place and time for all members to assemble and because decision-making is significantly slowed – not infrequently to a standstill – as the number of decision-makers increases. The usual response to such problems is delegation of responsibility to a relatively small subset of members for formulating and recommending lines of action. Although members may attempt to maintain democratic control by demanding extensive explanations for leaders’ proposals and maintaining ultimate voting rights on these, a number of forces militate against such control. This is an example of a manifestation of:

A democratic process

The iron law of oligarchy

An organizational control shift

A descent into authoritarianism

What does the post-bureaucratic perspective argue about the need of bureaucracies?

Bureaucracies are necessary for the standardization of shared information, especially via computer networks

Bureaucracies are common as well as necessary in the smooth running of contemporary organizations

Bureaucracies are too ridged for the fast-paced and dynamic contemporary society

Bureaucratic records can now be processed, read and implemented due to the technological advancements and the use of computers

After moving residencies, Alexandra went to her bank to notify the institution of the address change. At the bank, Alexandra had with her with the proof of new address and her ID, however, she was told that in order to change her address, she must first fill in the ‘Change of address request form’, which she must then submit with the appropriate paperwork. Alexandra was given the form and told to go fill it in then come back with the proof of her new address and her ID.

The above can be considered a classic example of what?

Bureaucratic alienation

Bureaucratic inertia

Bureaucratic ritualism

Bureaucratic alienation

Taking into consideration Ritzer’s explanation, which of following examples can be considered a manifestation of the McDonnaldization of society?

A teacher tailors a lesson to the needs of each individual student

A couple buying a custom made furniture for their home

A person withdrawing cash from the ATM machine

A couple spending a night at Bed & Breakfast during their holiday in Scotland

Andreas started working at a cybersecurity company straight out of school as a software engineer. Through the years, Andreas, has been promoted from software engineer to senior software engineer and finally a team leader. Due to the excellent work he has been doing, the upper management is hoping to promote Andreas to the role of a project manager. Andreas is excited at the opportunity to be promoted yet again, however, he understands that as a project manager, he will no longer be doing any coding, which is what he does best.

The above can be considered as:

An example of Peter’s principle

An example of how hierarchical structures work in an organization

An example of ideal bureaucratic organization

A delegation of work based on skill and meritocracy

The understanding of one’s own emotions is considered what kind of intelligence?

Emotive intelligence

Interpersonal intelligence

Intrapersonal intelligence

Naturalist intelligence

What traits could be said to make up the ‘female advantage’, according to Deborah Tannen’s work?

Women are stricter managers thus they get more work completed

Women place a greater emphasis on communication

Women are graduating at a higher rate from universities than men

Women are more emotional than men

What does Cooley’s ‘looking glass self ’ concept suggests about how we see ourselves in a society?

We construct ourselves based on who we believe we are

We label ourselves in certain ways which is how we project ourselves to the rest of the society

We are what we believe others perceive us to be

All of the above are correct

Calum is an outgoing, curious and energetic child. He has started elementary school in a new town with new teachers and new fellow students. Though the teacher recognized Calum’s intelligence and curiosity, his overly excited behavior and tendency to be disruptive caused the teacher to label him as a ‘bad child’. As a result, over time, Calum started to ‘seem’ more and more like a ‘bad child’. What has teacher essentially created?

An Educational ESP

A self-fulfilling prophecy

A tracked insight

Personal reflection

People possess a complex of motivations, emotions, ideas and individual perceptions. Sociologically, this is known as what?

Objectivity

Subjectivity

Rationality

Individuality

A set of behaviors and attitudes that are considered appropriate and desirable by society are assigned to males and females, based on the masculine and feminine societal norms. What are these set of behaviors and attitudes called?

Gender stereotypes

Gender roles

Gender socializations

Gender normatively

When Simon socializes with his friends, he usually does so by playing video games, smoking marijuana, and making vulgar jokes. However, when Simon is with his parents his behavior is the complete opposite and he often criticizes those who smoke marijuana as irresponsible and those who make vulgar jokes as immature. Simon’s behavior is an example of:

Impression management

Impression supervision

Impression conflict

Impression deceptiveness

George believes that the people who stood up to introduce themselves on the first day of class are people who have been socialized to be outgoing, while Sophia believes that these people are seeking to make a good first impression on their classmates and the professor. George’s and Sophia’s ideas are both examples of:

Theory of motivation

Conflict theory

Functional analysis

Max Weber’s theory of rationalization

Lee and Sandra stayed up all night to complete a presentation and a proposal for a potential client who is interested in their marketing services. In Goffman’s dramaturgical terms, this would be an example of:

Teamwork in a front stage setting

Preparing for their next performance in a back stage setting

The use of sign-vehicles on a front stage

Organizational competence

When it comes to the interactional vandalism, which of the following scenarios best fit the definition of the concept?

An employee breaks their coworker’s laptop at work

A kiosk salesperson in a mall approaches passersby with their product and attempts to stop them to talk

A friend refuses an invitation to a colleague’s wedding

Two individuals cease all interaction and all contact with one another

Which of the following statements best describe the concept of ‘symbolic interactionalism’?

An individual integrates into society solely through shared values and traditions

Inequity in a society places an individual into a various levels of society

In individual develops a sense of self through the interaction with their environment

Interactions among individuals create stability, social cohesion and equilibrium in a society.

An employee texting their partner with familiar shortened ‘text-speak’, but emails their boss with a carefully written and grammatically immaculate email, is a behavioral example of:

Interactional staging

Impression management

Status reassignment

Impression supervision

According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, people can only communicate if

They know each other or have something in common

They have a consensus of meaning

They belong to the same or similar social group, role or organizational affiliation

They speak the same language or a number of languages

What is considered a nonverbal communication?

A form of communication used only in back-stage situations

A form of communication used only in the front-stage situations

An exchange of information through facial expressions and body language

A display of symbols which indicate social status

What does the Garfinkel’s concept of ethnomethodology mean?

It is a study of people who communicate using only gestures and body language, but not words

It is a study differences in verbal and non-verbal communication among people from different racial and ethnic communities

It is a study of methods that people use to make sense of what others say and do

It is a study of non-intrusive recognition of others, usually done unconsciously

In addition to Mira’s native language, English, she also speaks Mandarin. On her travels, she meets Jianyu from China and they attempt to communicate in Mandarin. Although fluent in the language, Mira is nervous about getting all the tones correctly and is using her hand to accentuate whether the tone is up, down, short or long due to the fact that an incorrectly pronounced word can mean a completely different thing to Jianyu.

What kind of communication are Mira and Jianyu engaged in?

Mira and Jianyu are engaged in verbal communication

Mira and Jianyu are engaged in nonverbal communication

Mira and Jianyu are engaged in both, verbal and nonverbal communication

Mira and Jianyu are engaged in symbolic interactionalism

A disgruntled patron enters a post office, red faced and with his fist clenched and approaches the clerk, loudly exclaiming ‘’I’m not angry, I would just like to enquire about my undelivered package, please’’. What kind of communication is this an example of?

Incongruent communication

Verbal communication

Nonverbal communication

Congruent communication

According to Goffman, why do individuals engage in presentation of self?

Because individuals are trying to fit in a particular group

Because individuals are trying to create the best impression of themselves

Because the societal norms require individuals to present themselves in a certain way

Because presentation of self is essentially a manipulation of others to have them view things from that individual’s perspective

Any animal action that can be observed and documented is known as what?

Learning

Instinct

Behavior

Imprinting

Which of the following statements is true in regards to response?

A conditioned response is the one that is not learned and occurs naturally due to stimuli

An unconditioned response is the one that is not learned and occurs naturally due to stimuli

A conditioned response is not learned but occurs naturally due to stimuli

An unconditioned response is the one that is not learned but occurs naturally due to stimuli

What is the main similarity between the human and animal behavior?

Both human and animal behavior is strictly influenced by learning

Both human and animal behavior is strictly influenced by genes

Both human and animal behavior is a mix of learning and genes

Both human and animal behavior is vastly different from one another

In Tryon's Rat Experiment, what is likely to occur with a rat that is ‘maze-dull’:

The rat is unlikely to be able to learn other things

The rat is likely to pass the dull trait to their offspring

The rat is unlikely to mate with a ‘maze-bright’ rat

All of the above are correct

What type of behavior is the sensitive phase and critical period associated with?

Imprinting

Cognitive

Conspecific

Kinesis

Which of the following statements is true?

Animals are inherently programmed to respond and learn some things quickly and more easily than others, while not to others

Classical conditioning is successful in getting animals to learn to associate any stimuli

Instinctive learning programs can be used to explain while most people tend to speak only their native language

All of the above are correct

From an evolutionary perspective, females are likely to be attracted to males who show which kind of traits?

A similar beliefs, values and norms

Confidence and high self-esteem

An ability to provide

A strong ability to empathize

A strategy used by people to appear more attractive or to gain a favor with another person is known as what?

a. The complementary effect

b. Manipulation

c. Ingratiation

d. The favor effect

Heather has recently lost her parent to cancer. After some time, Heather decides to disclose her feelings of grief to Mike and Jamie. Mike sympathizes with Heather and tells her of his experience with the death of his favorite aunt. Jamie reacts compassionately and empathetically, but does not engage in self-disclosure. Who will Heather like better, based on their reactions?

Heather is likely to like both of them equally, as both of their reactions are sympathetic and equally valuable to Heather

Heather is likely to like Mike more because he shared a story affecting his life, engaging in self-disclosure

Heather is likely to like Jamie more because his reaction prompts self-validation for Heather

Heather is likely to like Jamie more because his reaction showed genuine understanding and empathy

Which of the following statements cannot be said to be true when it comes to a correlation between similarity and attractions?

Similarity leads to attraction because individuals tend to interact with those who are similar to them

Similarity leads to attraction because individuals tend to assume that those similar to them are more likely to reciprocate the feelings of affinity and liking

Similarity leads to attraction because individuals that are similar tend to validate the beliefs and attitudes of individuals similar to them

Similarity leads to attraction because those similar to one another are also physically attractive.

What is a physical attractiveness stereotype?

A stereotype that presupposes that physically attractive people are less intelligent

A stereotype that presupposes that physically attractive people do not have to work hard to get what they want

A stereotype that presupposes that physically attractive people possess socially desirable traits based on their attractiveness

A stereotype that presupposes that physically attractive people are promiscuous

Tim and Emily are both considered unattractive by the conventional societal beauty standards. They are both employed at a job that offers various growth and money earning opportunities. Which of the two is more likely to have harder time climbing the corporate ladder such as being passed up for promotions or raises?

Both Tim and Emily are likely to have equally hard time

It is not possible to determine based on the information provided

Tim may have harder time climbing the corporate ladder

Emily may have harder time climbing the corporate ladder

What is understood as a relational aggression?

Relational aggression is an aggressive outburst aimed at scaring an individual who has some relation to the aggressor

Relational aggression is a premeditated physical violence, such as murder of a family member

Relational aggression a social act of aggression, aimed at hurting others through sabotage of their relationship with peers

Relational aggression is any type of aggression committed in a domestic violence

From the following examples, which one is not a biological reason for aggressions?

Hormones

Biochemical makeup

Observations

Genetics

Kaiden is a chronically aggressive child, prone to verbal outbursts and physical violence directed at his peers and those older than him. At a playground, he gets hit in the head by a ball thrown by one of the other children that was not meant for Kaiden. Considering Kaiden’s aggression, what kind of attribution would he make about the event that just occurred?

Kaiden is unsure about the intent of the individual who threw the ball

Kaiden will not make an attribution to the event

Kaiden will attribute the hit as being an accident

Kaiden will attribute the hit as being done on purpose

Set 4

What can we learn from the Bandura’s classic Bobo doll experiment and the social learning theory and aggression?

The children in the experiment have demonstrated that aggressive behavior can stem innate desire to hurt another

The children in the experiment have demonstrated that aggressive behavior can stem from natural instinct to hurt another

The children in the experiment have demonstrated that aggressive behavior can stem from violent cartoons

The children in the experiment have demonstrated that aggressive behavior can stem from imitation

A two neighboring countries enter into a conflict when one neighboring country motivated by irredentism declares war on another. The country declaring a war can be an example of what kind of aggression?

Displaced aggression

Instrumental aggression

Sanctioned aggression

Social aggression

Keith has been working at his accounting company for years. He has been looking to get promoted for a while into a post he feels well deserved. The company has been stalling Keith’s promotion for a while without much explanation and this has made Keith progressively angry as he believes ethnic minorities within the company are the reason for his lack of promotion.

What is the above an example of?

Social aggression

Work aggression

Instrumental aggression

Displaced aggression

What is understood as an attachment style?

The innate tendency of individuals to become attached to another

The type of behavior that are seen predominantly in romantic relationships

The orientation the individuals have towards self and others

The type of behavior that are seen predominantly in non-romantic relationships

Compared with other attachment styles, adults with the secure attachment style are more likely to report:

A much greater degree of self-reliance

A much greater degree of self-centeredness

A greater degree of self-evaluation

A much greater degree of relationship satisfaction

Stefanie has always had a great relationship with her father. Whenever they spend time together, Stefanie feels empowered, optimistic and confident. When Stefanie attended college, she met Jason who is on the same course as her. Although Stefanie did not know Jason very well, she realizes that Jason evokes the feelings of confidence and optimism in her. According to the relational self-theory, which of the following statements is true?

Stefanie and Jason are likely to enter a romantic relationship that will mirror the relationship of Stefanie’s mother and father

Stefanie has developed a secured attachment because of her good relationship with her father

Jason is likely similar to Stefanie’s father

Stefanie and Jason are likely to engage in consummate love

At a family retreat, Miranda and John notice that Jacob and Brynn often ignore their child or even reject their child’s request for attention or help. In turn, the child seems scared of new situations and is very reluctant to form relationships with Miranda, John and their child. What kind of attachment style has Jacob and his wife’s child likely developed?

An avoidant attachment style

An anxious attachment style

An anxious-avoidant attachment style

A secure attachment style

Kevin has told his friends about his constant worry about his relationship with his girlfriend. He believes that she will not open up to him and be closer to him, despite all the love, devotion and attention he gives her. What could a social psychologist conclude about Kevin’s relationship from the information given?

Kevin has a secure attachment style

Kevin has an anxious/preoccupied attachment style

Kevin’s girlfriend has a secure attachment style

Kevin’s girlfriend has an anxious/preoccupied attachment style

Helena has a small child who tends to cling to her constantly when she’s around, but cries and complains when she leaves. What can a social psychologist tell Helena about her child’s behavior and attachment?

Helena’s child’s behavior is normal at certain stages of development

Helena’s child has developed an anxious attachment style

Helena’s child has developed a secure attachment style

Helena’s child’s attachment development has a probability of impairing their cognitive development

Hidden curriculum is acknowledged as the socialization process of schooling. Accordingly, researchers argue that each student has different parental background and when each attends to school, he/she encounters the norms of schools that will prepare them to involve in the life of public sphere(s). He defines these norms as “independence”, “achievement”, “universalism”, and “specificity” and suggested that these norms are required to teach them in order to collaborate with modern industrial society. One theorist argues that schools have universalistic and particularistic hidden aspects that enable an unequal environment for

students. Although some of them are visible such as syllabuses, school time and exam procedures that might be accepted as universalistic, some of them are hidden such as social activities, reward systems that might be accepted as particularistic. Some identify the hidden curriculum as what is being taught and how one learns in the school as he also indicates that schools not only provides instruction but also more such as norms and principles experienced by students throughout their education life. Researchers argue that hidden curriculum, the school and classroom life, is the reproduction of schooling that enables to understand schools’ hegemonic function(s) that also maintains power of state notes that there are three dimensions of hidden curriculum: Contexts of schooling, including the student-teacher interaction unit, classroom structure, and the whole organizational pattern of the educational establishment as a microcosm of the social value system. Processes operating in or through schools, including values acquisition, socialization, and maintenance of class structure. Degrees of intentionality and depth of “hiddenness” by the investigator. She claims that there might be unintended outcomes of schooling; however, these outcomes may not be nearly as unintended as one thinks. Schools are considered as the places where educational ideologies are performed to maintain existence of dominant cultures.

Adapted from http://www.ozelacademy.com/EJES_v1n2_Kentli.pdf

Various definitions of the hidden curriculum are discussed in this passage. What would be the most accurate general definition of this term?

The elements of socialization that take place in school.

Curriculum that teachers secretly use during their work.

Set of rules regarding students’ behavior at school/college/university.

Interpretation of any study curriculum from sociological perspective.

Why is understanding the existence of the hidden curriculum is important?

It helps to efficiently control students and brings relief to faculty staff.

It supports dominant cultural values and existing social structure and serves as one of the sources of socialization.

It allows schools pursue their dominant cultural values and protect the society from deviance.

It is not important and has to be erased from schooling systems.

At what cultural level the hidden curriculum operates?

Individual level

Group level

Organizational level

Unconscious level

What can serve as sources of the hidden curriculum?

Oral culture (e.g. storytelling, peers conversations)

The physical organization of the study environment

Teachers’ and administration’s treatment of the student

All of the above

Read the following statements carefully.

1) The hidden curriculum represents the difference between formal ways of working that is supported by official sets of rules and informal ways of working, or “the way we do it”.

2) When students learn how to work in a team while performing a team project for one of the courses, they are being affected by the hidden curriculum.

3) The hidden curriculum includes the norms, values and the belief systems throughout the curriculum, the school and classroom life, and gets spread through daily routines, curricular content and social relationships.

4) The hidden curriculum must work in conjunction with the formal curriculum, and eventually all elements of the hidden curriculum must become parts of the formal curriculum.

Which of the following statements is/are TRUE?

Only statement 2.

Only statement 3.

Statements 2 and 3.

Statements 1, 2 and 4.

It appears that students are in fact sensitive to specific types of teacher behaviors. However, the way they actually interpret teacher behaviors remains unclear. Although several students in the same classroom setting may perceive (observe) similar teacher actions directed toward them, there may be considerable variability in the way students interpret and evaluate these actions. Knowing how they interpret behaviors would help to explain why some expectancy effects vary so greatly from student to student. Thus it is important that researchers begin to explore the specific causes that high and low expectancy students attribute to the teacher's actions. Authors have extended this theory to describe how a student may interpret teaching behaviors as being attributed to both internal and external factors. They contend that students may perceive teaching behaviors as being classified to one of four categories: self-attributions, teacher attributions, environmental attributions, or complex attributions. Implicit in these four categories is the notion that each one requires a specific cognitive process that can significantly affect subsequent student behavior and/or performance. Research suggests that the nature of the learning tasks may significantly interact with the way students interpret certain teacher behaviors. Meyer contends that the perceived difficulty of the learning tasks for which the student is praised or criticized may be highly influential in forming the student's self-perception of ability. For example, the teacher may give praise to a student for performing an easy task or even exhibit empathy for struggling with those tasks that are difficult. The teacher might also help this student more than others even though he or she didn't ask for it.

Adapted from http://journals.humankinetics.com/AcuCustom/Sitename/Documents/DocumentItem/9805.pdf

What does the term “teacher expectancy effects” stand for?

The way teachers are affected by their students’ expectations for their future performance.

They way teachers are affected by their colleagues’ expectations for their future performance.

The way students are affected by their teachers’ expectations for their future performance.

All of the above.

The passage states that students may interpret teaching behaviors as being attributed to different factors, and provides four types of attributions. What are the self-attributions the student makes?

Students’ attribution of the teacher’s actions to personal factors.

Students’ attribution of the teacher’s actions to characteristics of teachers.

Students’ attribution of the teacher’s actions to the situation.

The combination of all three mentioned above.

If the student makes self-attributions due to low teacher’s expectations, how does is affect the student’s image of him/herself?

The student decides that the teacher is not being fair and becomes angry with the teacher for low expectations towards him/herself.

The student concentrates on meeting the minimum requirements and perceives study curriculum as being too easy for him/her.

The student mirrors the teacher’s low expectations, and a sense of learned helplessness ensues.

The student explains to him/herself low expectations of the teacher by deciding that he/she is a favorite student of the teacher.

The passage states that students may interpret teaching behaviors as being attributed to different factors, and provides four types of attributions. What would be an environmental attribution?

Students’ attribution of the teacher’s actions to personal factors.

Students’ attribution of the teacher’s actions to characteristics of teachers.

Students’ attribution of the teacher’s actions to the current situation.

The combination of all three mentioned above.

What can serve as (an) example(s) of students’ attributions toward the environment?

The student explains low performance expectations from the teacher by the difficult nature of the task.

The student explains low performance expectations from the teacher by the high level of competitiveness in class.

The student explains low performance expectations from the teacher by the lack of the necessary equipment.

All of the above.

In the last paragraph of the passage the concluding part of the last sentence is missing. Which of the following options is the logical conclusion of that sentence?

a. …that he or she is the favorite student of this teacher.

b. …that the teacher believes in his/her ability to perform tasks better than other students, and gives him/her a special training for that purpose.

c. …that the teacher does not think he or she is very capable, and this lowers the student's estimate of his/her own ability.

d. …that the educational program is way too difficult for students and teacher’s help on a regular basis is a part of a curriculum.

A tourist guide seeing that a few tourists want to eagerly take his renowned city tour but cannot afford to pay his regular fee decides to let go of the fee and gives them a tour free of cost. This scenario best demonstrates:

Kin Selection

Altruism

Conflict Theory

Positivism

Hugh visited his hometown after a decade and went to visit the local market for groceries. He observed that during his childhood, vendors used to be more differentiated in their offerings and the way they behaved with customers and now all of them have adopted a similar approach sacrificing originality to efficiency.

The term which can best define this change:

Social Darwinism

McDonaldisation

Rational choice theory

None of these

Mr. Port is well placed and affable amongst his social acquaintances. He and his close friends meet every month for dinner. Though they go Dutch, the venue and other choices are almost always made by Mr. Port. What kind of behavior does this indicate?

Political affluence

Exploitation

Possession and exercising of power

Mr. Port's meritocracy

An organization involved in providing vocational training overworks its employees. Along with long work hours and workload on weekends they provide no work life balance alternatives to their employees. However, the top management provides them with physical goods as incentives for their work as well as constantly remind them how valuable they are to the organization. Why do you think the attrition rate of this firm is the same as other firms which don't overwork their employees as much.

False Consciousness

Occupational Prestige

Employees living the American dream

Capitalism

The figure below shows cancer risks of different demographic classes. Implementing which concept would help to reduce the disproportionate distribution of risks?

Creating a classless society.

Providing more political power to the lower classes.

Providing economic benefits in proportion to the health risks faced by different demographics

Environmental justice by distributing the pollution burden amongst all classes equally.

Test anxiety is a psychological condition in which people experience extreme distress and anxiety in testing situations. While many people experience some degree of stress and anxiety before and during exams, test anxiety can actually impair learning and hurt test performance. A little bit of nervousness can actually be helpful, making you feel mentally alert and ready to tackle the challenges presented in an exam. The Yerkes-Dodson law suggests that there is a link between arousal levels and performance. Essentially, increased arousal levels can help you do better on exams, but only up to a certain point. Once these stress levels cross that line, the excessive anxiety you might be experiencing can actually interfere with test performance.

Excessive fear can make it difficult to concentrate and you might struggle to recall things that you have studied. You might feel like all the information you spent some much time reviewing suddenly seems inaccessible in your mind. You blank out the answers to questions to which you know you know the answers. This inability to concentrate and recall information then contributes to even more anxiety and stress, which only makes it that much harder to focus your attention on the test. Test

anxiety can also result in behavioral and cognitive symptoms such as negative thinking and difficulty concentrating. People experiencing test anxiety might compare themselves to other students and mistakenly believe that they are the only person suffering from such terrible anxiety. Other symptoms of test anxiety can involve emotions such as a sense of helplessness, fear, anger, and disappointment.

Based on the passage, how can nervousness be helpful to a person?

Acting as an explanation for poor performance

Being able to socialize with people with similar traits

Helps to cope with one's fears

By improving arousal level to perform up to the degree where they don't panic

What can the level and nature of cognitive symptoms during a test anxiety help decipher?

The limitations of standardized education

The person's position on the Yerkes-Dodson curve in terms of arousal

The role played by the environment and other people during anxiety

The cognitive abilities of the demography the person belongs to

Often due to changes in economic demand, immigrants involved in certain professions often end up from being mere working class people to millionaires. Such a transition could be understood further by studying:

Immigration trends

Social hierarchy

Horizontal mobility

Vertical mobility

The behavior to build and have homes so that one has a particular place where one can return to after a day's work to rest and nourish oneself can be best described as:

Central place foraging

Group foraging

Solitary foraging

Patch selection

In U.S. Metropolitan areas, whites and blacks tend to live both in different jurisdictions and in different neighborhoods within jurisdictions. First, blacks may prefer to live near other blacks, either because they enjoy the company of black friends and neighbors or because they share common preferences for local amenities, such as community centers or neighborhood restaurants. This self-segregation hypothesis is a racial variant of the "ethnic enclave" explanation for the segregation of new immigrants. Second, whites may use legal or extralegal means to exclude blacks from white neighborhoods. Historically, these tactics have included racially restrictive covenants on property and explicit violence against black neighbors. Some scholars argue that blacks still face systematic, albeit more subtle, discrimination by realtors, landlords, and financial institutions. Finally, residential segregation can arise even without coordinated attempts to exclude black households from white neighborhoods. If a sufficient number of whites leave areas as they become racially diverse, these individual actions can have a large effect on racial residential patterns.

What does the phrases 'enjoy the company' and 'share common preferences' indicate best here?

Ethnocentrism

Town watch theory

Social identity theory

Identity politics

The mention of discrimination by white realtors, landlords and financial institutions in the passage can be categorized as:

Collective action

Exploitation of the small by the great

Exploitation of the great by the small

We-intention

People leaving racially diverse areas as a cause of segregation comes under:

Repatriation

Collective intentionality

Individual action

Perceived injustice

Any ethnic class preferring to isolate themselves from the majority class by taking certain decisions in terms of residence and locality is carrying out:

Collective narcissism

Self- segregation

Racial segregation

Negative social capital

What theory suggests than individuals of a group segregated yet interactive with other groups have an increased motivation when it comes to differentiating themselves from individuals of other groups?

Positive social capital

Conflicting identity

Social identity similarity

Intergroup similarity

Suppose people of a particular class prefer to reside in areas populated by people of other classes especially to avoid too much interaction with people of their own class, what is the term for such phenomena?

Out group favoritism

Multi-culturist preference

In group derogation

Group prejudice

What causes social exclusion in a modern industrialized society?

Poverty

Unemployment

Illness

Lack of education’

When a safety inspector decides to shut down production in a certain plant under a safety clause violation situation, what kind of power is he imposing here?

Legitimate Power.

Expert Power.

Referent Power.

None of these.

Bystander effect is understood as –

a. The ability to get one’s way even in the face of opposition to one’s goal

b. A tendency of nations to act on their own

c. When someone is less likely to help another if other potential helpers are present

d. None of these

Who among the following is a blue collar worker?

Waiter

Carpenter

Cashier

Maid

When a person votes in such a way that might actually benefit those of a wealthier class rather than benefiting those in his or her own economic range. What kind of consciousness are they guided by?

Class consciousness

False consciousness

Artificial consciousness

None of these

In the table below, one can see that the proportion of difficult life event movers as well as other movers is almost the same. However, in terms of social class, excluding the professional class, there is a continuous decline in terms of movement to deprived areas as the social class of people decline. What can be the reason for this trend?

People from the lower social classes are in a better position to handle difficult life events and mental health deterioration

Lower social classes includes more number of males than females and overall female movers are in more number than male movers

Shifting requires very high expenditure which can only be afforded by the upper income groups

People from the lower social classes are already residing in deprived areas, reducing the likelihood of movement due to difficult life events or other causes.

Selecting people solely on the basis of seniority is an example of:

Seniority advantage

Institutionalized discrimination

Seniority segregation

Institutionalized racism

A toddler engaging with strangers freely when the parents are present but is hesitant in their absence shows signs of:

Secure attachment

Anxious-ambivalent attachment

Anxious-avoidant attachment

Disorganized attachment

The figure shows the distribution of breast cancer patients over a geography in a research to determine impact of location for survival. Lesser RSVC indicates more chances of survival. What can we observe from the six different criteria of the RSVC effect:

It shows that location has zero effect on cancer survival

RSVC on the basis of location decreases as the tumor of the patient moves to the next stage.

RSVC on the basis of location is more consistently distributed when considering partner status and diversely distributed when considering tumor stages.

RSVC for single females and females with unknown partner status is identical

Mr. Smith wants to spend evenings with his sons when he returns from work, however, his older son would like to spend evenings practicing basketball with his school team. Mr. Smith believes that his son expects him to spend time with him and thus is making this effort. What kind of a situation is this?

Role confusion conflict

Personal roles reversal

Intra-personal role conflict

Interpersonal role conflict

Groups which are created with the purpose of performing certain functions and roles of the members change depending on the state of those functions are called:

Primary groups

Secondary groups

Tertiary groups

Reference group

The smallest possible social group, consisting of two people, is called a:

Triad

Couple

Marriage

Dyad

Students part of the placement committee in a university ensure that their close friends can get employed in campus before other students. This shows what kind of behavior?

In-group favoritism

In-group competition

Positive distinctiveness

Predictive power

A research states that "An American having the average income of the bottom U.S. decile is better off than 2/3 of world population". The term best describing this trend is:

Purchasing power parity

Distribution of wealth

Global inequalities

American Dream

Exams conducted to determine the group of people who are eligible to work in civil services, public administration and other decision making bodies is an example of which system?

Meritocracy

Exam system

Monopolistic competition

Social capital

What term denote severe deprivation of basic human needs which is caused not just by lack of income but also due to lack of access to the means which satisfy those needs?

Below poverty line

Income poverty

Deprivation line

Absolute poverty

Jean's education being left midway due to financial reasons, he couldn't complete his education like his friends and now after a few years could feel them behaving a little distant than before. How do we refer to this behavior?

Social exclusion

Social isolation

Forced exclusion

Education bias

Saul's grandparents came to America from another country. His parents studied in Canada and became doctors. Then Saul travelled to Belgium to study arts and then settled in Europe. What kind of mobility is this?

Intra-generational mobility

Intergenerational mobility

Dyad mobility

International mobility

This theory states that a small number of people in a society hold most power, especially its policy planning and economy which is independent to the state's elections process.

Power theory

Think tanks theory

Club theory

Elite theory

Max Weber defined this as honor or deference attached to a social status and distributed unequally as a dimension of social stratification.

Esteem

Admiration

Prestige

Nobility

The below figure shows the under-5 mortality rate in Ghana with (C. showing the distribution of this problem across regions in Ghana. The deaths have declined over the last decade but the distribution across the geography, even after continuous reduction in death rates has been the same. What further research can improve the under 5 mortality rates across Ghana?

The under-5 mortality rates in 1990 should be used to measure the progress from then to now.

The difference in under-5 mortality rate between north Ghana and south Ghana should be studied to observe the causes behind this geographical inequality.

Research under-10 mortality rates in Ghana

Apply RSVC models on the rates between 2000 and 2010

The figure shows the distribution of neighbourhoods in a city for different social classes, that is, the middle, lower and upper class. What does the figure indicate?

Higher class neighborhoods have distinctive behavior from the other two classes

Lower class neighborhoods have distinctive behavior from the other two classes

There is a consistent behavior in terms of distribution for all the three social classes.

Middle class neighborhoods have distinctive behavior from the other two classes

The table below shows the research outcome of relationship between physical activity and neighborhood safety. What does the findings indicate?

There is a significant level of physical inactivity in low income neighborhoods due to safety issues at night.

There is no relation between physical inactivity and the average income levels of neighborhoods

There is no relation between physical inactivity and night time safety issues in neighborhoods

Males and females perceive the night time safety issues at the same level

Emphasis on structures and activities that transmit social inequality from one generation to the next comes under which concept?

Social capital

Underproduction

Social reproduction

Inequality unrest

This organizational theory insists on the capacity of non-humans to participate in systems and networks:

Android theory

Gaia Theory

Non-human Actor theory

Actor-network theory

What best describes the situation where senior management of an organization are discussing whether they should keep the profits to themselves or distribute it among all stakeholders.

Principal-agent problem

Selfish foraging

Externalities

Retain-distribute problem

A system where each level controls the level below and is controlled by the level above to form a formal hierarchy is a:

Principal-agent problem

Bureaucracy

Externalities

Retain-distribute problem

The vice chancellor of a university can decide to change dates of certain academic events if he feels that these changes will benefit the university in some way. HE can do this because he has:

Merit

Knowledge

Bureaucracy

Authority

Threats and punishment are tools for:

Legitimate power

Reward power

Coercive power

Referent power

A situation where a person in power offers a proposal and the only choice the recipient would have is to accept that offer:

Dictator game

Bargaining game

Ultimatum game

Game theory

Elvin is liked by his peers as the students representative mainly due to his ability to shape the preferences of the teacher body through his appeal and persuasive ability. What kind of power does Elvin associate himself with?

Hard power

Soft power

Real power

Balanced power

Writing or reading groups and other hobby clubs are examples of:

Formal group

Super group

Mutual gain collectives

Affinity group

Mate selection by peahens on the basis of secondary sexual characteristics of peacocks is an example of which hypothesis?

Lordosis behavior

Phenotypic trait

Genetic preference

Fisherian runaway

When a female selects a mate for high quality genes and not material advantages, then what kind of fitness benefit is being aimed for?

Direct benefit

Indirect benefit

Genetic bias benefit

Natural selection

The ability of an organism to pass on its genes to the next generation and provide support to them is classified under:

Genetic behavior

Gene transmission

Inclusive fitness

Physiology fitness

Craig was working as unskilled labor in a plastic bottle factory. Then he found another job. This again was an unskilled job at a restaurant chain. What kind of movement is this?

Migration

Diagonal mobility

Vertical mobility

Horizontal mobility

When a school experiences a highly visible, traumatic event, such as a shooting or natural disaster, there is sometimes an expectation that the affected school should be exempt from academic performance standards. In certain cases, such as after hurricane Katrina in Louisiana or the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut, federal and state authorities have taken actions to waive affected schools from testing accountability requirements. These types of large scale tragedies garner the attention of the media and the public, drawing attention to violence in society and its effect on children. In a school accountability environment focused on high-stakes testing, the waiving of testing requirements at these select schools would seem to reflect a widely held belief that violence and trauma impact teaching and learning. However, the effects of gun violence and other types of violent crime extend far beyond these high profile events. Sadly, children attend schools in dangerous neighborhoods around the nation where violence is an almost daily occurrence. Exposure studies have examined direct and indirect measures of violent exposure, looking at everything from directly witnessing a violent event to hearing the violence transpire.

Cultural trauma is when members of a group feel that they have been subjected to a horrendous event which will change their future identity forever. What does the passage indicate about cultural trauma?

The focus of cultural trauma by media is restricted to major events while the same effects are being faced by many on a daily basis.

Cultural trauma is experienced only during childhood

Severity of cultural trauma on the psyche of people depends on how the media reports in

Media has played an important role in exposing cultural trauma in areas affected by daily violence

How does the passage in state that waiving testing requirements in schools which have faced trauma has given positive results to handle the effects of that trauma?

It mentions the research which declares such conclusions

It gives examples of how waiving tests has led to better output from students who have undergone trauma

Schools that have faced such events have shown better results in future if tests have been waived for a year

The passage does not instate any such suggestion or evidence

The phrase "focused on high stakes testing" indicates preparation for what kind of environment:

Natural selection

Altruism

Meritocracy

Bureaucracy

The phrase 'dangerous neighborhoods around the nation where violence is an almost daily occurrence' indicates that some neighborhoods are more prone to traumatic events than others. This may be due to

Varying neighborhood proximity to wilderness and nature

Residential segregation based on social class

McDonaldisation of some neighborhoods

None of the above

Children in neighborhoods with daily occurrences of violence have to face the consequences unwillingly. What aspect of their social class do these consequences affect?

Economic security

Power

Prestige

Ascribed status

Alice volunteered as the basketball coach for the local high school team and worked at the marketing department of a clothing company. Due to her hectic work schedule, she had to eventually stop her volunteering. What name can be given to her action?

Out-group

Status exit

Role exit

Game theory

Lyon is playing a basketball match. His main emphasis is not to win the match but to show off his playing skills and impress people in the audience which may include college recruiters. What do we call such intentions?

Impression management

Game theory

Sportsmanship

Storytelling

Which theory centers on the notion that humans rationalize their experiences by creating models of the social world and communicate it using language.

Cognitive constructionism

Social constructionism

Biological constructionism

Social framework

The condition in which people lack the minimum amount of income needed in order to maintain the average standard of living in the society in which they live is called:

Absolute poverty

Relative poverty

Below poverty

Period poverty

In a group discussion of four people, each person is intentionally using words and hand gestures to indicate not just what they mean but also what kind of a person they are. This is:

Self-presentation

Group presentation

Public presentation

Soft skills

John’s father runs a grocery shop. John finishes college and takes over the shop so that his father can retire. What kind of a status does John achieve?

Low status

Achieved status

Ascribed status

Null status

The figure shows the association between vacant properties and aggravated assaults for a particular city. What is the general trend as proposed by the figure?

Neighborhoods with lower number of vacant properties tend to have higher rates of violence on a comparative level.

Neighborhoods with higher number of vacant properties tend to have higher rates of violence on a comparative level.

Neighborhoods usually have less than hundred vacant properties in their vicinity

None of the above

The following figure shows different indicators of measuring cultural capital from a research which studied dietary intake in relation to cultural capital. Which two indicators have been the most discussed ones for studying cultural capital?

'Education' and 'Parental education'

'Skills' and 'Values, norms, philosophy of life'

'Participation' and 'Education'

'Participation' and 'Possession of cultural objects'

The figure below shows sexual behavior in gazelles. It compares the behavior of both males and females during rutting season as well as otherwise. What does the trend lines of their behavior suggest?

In females, the trend of group size to time scanning time takes a considerable downward shift during rutting season

In males, the trend takes an upward shift when group size is small but keeps on declining as the group size increases, then intersects the non-rutting season trend and finally moves downward.

In males, the trend of group size to time scanning time takes a considerable downward shift during rutting season

Both A and B

The figure below shows the details for a study focusing on relationship between childhood victimization and occupational success. Of the different victimization sub-sets based on race and gender from the sample, which category has the lowest mean?

Male

Female

White

Hispanic

Laura was from an economically deprived family. She took a student loan to go to college and worked as a barista in evenings after her classes. After years of hard work, she is now one of the most sought after lawyers in the country. What will we call her current position in society?

Achieved status

Ascribed status

Silver spoon

Official status

The approach to study sociology on a large scale where large populations and the social structure they formulate is known as:

Global Sociology

Inclusive sociology

Micro sociology

Macro sociology

The approach to study sociology focusing on everyday face to face human interactions on social level is known as:

Global Sociology

Inclusive sociology

Micro sociology

Macro sociology

This theory argues that wealth in unequally distributed amongst individuals and social classes in a society and the more powerful groups exploit the weaker groups:

Self-actualization theory

Social conflict theory

Global Sociology

World systems theory

392. The approach in sociology where analysis of social change and patterns is done not of nation states but of the world as a whole:

Micro sociology

Macro sociology

Global Sociology

World systems theory

The role of language in the formation of the child as a social being is emphasized in

Symbolic interactionism

Philosophy of language

Linguistic sociology

Symbolic communication

Tess is pursuing her passion towards painting. For economic reasons, she also is working as a copywriter at an ad agency. Soon client meetings, colleagues, work pressure and deadlines cause Tess to forget painting since it is very difficult to handle her hectic job and freely pursue painting. What kind of a situation is this?

Job strain

Role reversal

Role strain

Work life imbalance

Which among the following ascribed statuses has the tendency to become an achieved status?

Race

Religion

Gender

None of these

Who among the following professionals fulfil the requirement of “Pop Aristocracy” status?

Footballers

Entrepreneurs

Both

None of these

Who among the following has theorized the interaction of structure and agency?

Marshall Sahlins

Eric Wolf

Gayle Rubin

None of these

When a parent is a teacher of a class which includes the parent’s own child, which among the following roles the parent is in?

Role strain

Role conflict

Both

None of these

What among the following induces violent behavior in an adolescent?

Bad parenting

Frustration

Post-traumatic stress

None of these

The focus of ego-network analysis is –

Social equality

Transitivity

Centrality

None of these

From where do structures of social stratification arise from?

Social complexity

Social differentiation

Social inequality

None of these

Set 5

Social stratification is common in developed societies where a dominance hierarchy is useful in maintaining social order as well as provide a stable social structure. Which among the following theories propounded this given definition?

Conflict theory

Action theory

Dependency theory

None of these

Who among the following is the developer of the “three- component theory of stratification and the concept of life chances”?

Karl Marx.

Max Weber

Wright Mills

None of these

Inaccessibility of higher education among the lower income groups is a consequence of –

Social Reproduction

Social Hierarchy

Social Inequality

None of these

Ainsworth identified four primary types of attachment for a child. Which among following types rest on the relation where a child is unable to use the caregiver as the secure base?

Secure

Resistant

Avoidant

None of these

Church groups is an example of –

Primary group

Secondary group

Reference group

Social group

When you are offered empathy, concern, trust, intimacy, what kind of support is being discussed here?

Emotional

Companionship

Tangible

None of these

“The Social Construction of Reality’ is a book written by –

Steve Woolger

Michel Foucault

Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann

None of these

This theory is organized on the notions that human beings reduce their experience by creating models of the social world and share and actualize these models through language.

Social Constructionism

Structuralism

Post-positivism

None of these

Who among the following thinkers had an impact on the development of social constructivism?

Ian Hacking

Andy Lock

Michel Foucault

None of these.

What forms the key issue of microsociology?

Face to face interaction.

Social status.

Social roles.

None of these.

Use of which method will assist a researcher to construct an everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale?

Ethnography.

Ethnomethodology.

Historical.

Network analysis.

Social stability and change are studied under –

Microsociology.

Symbolic interactionalism.

Macrosociology.

None of these.

Within the similarity attraction effect what among the following has a major contribution?

Physical appearance.

Exposure.

Propinquity.

None of these.

A person is facing discriminatory problems resulting from majority policies like assimilation, exclusion, extermination, therefore prejudices related to which social stratification are being lived here?

Gender

Race

Ethnicity

None of these

In the micro level sociology which two components of the social structure are important?

Social status and social roles

Family and household

Race and gender

None of these

Sharon has many friends but is very close to three of her childhood friends. The four of them share not just the same likeness towards books and music but also have a close and personal relationship with each other. What kind of a group is this to Sharon?

Reference group

Personal group

Primary group

Secondary group

This theory proposes that no matter how democratic a system or organization is when it develops, it eventually turns into an oligarchy:

Capitalism

Iron law of oligarchy

Natural law of oligarchy

Corruption

A husband's smile and expression when he sees his wife after a long time is an example of:

Rutting season communication

Verbal communication

Nonverbal communication

Personal understanding

A person's preference towards his or her close family members than to distant relatives and non-relatives is referred to as:

Kin selection

Reciprocal altruism

Evolutionary altruism

Natural selection

Application of game theory to evolving populations of life forms in biology is referred to as:

Classical game theory

Prisoner's dilemma

Evolutionary competition

Evolutionary game theory

A bunch of people who are motivated by a common goal and linked to an external environment are assumed to be a part of:

Organization

Human Resource

Talent Technology

None of these

A body of people functioning secretly or illegally is known to be working for which type of organization:

Hybrid Organization

Voluntary Organization

Criminal Organization

None of these

Individuals occupy roles in society based on their capabilities and when they carry it out are known as:

Players

Actors

Workers

Deciders

A pattern of relationships between and among individuals and groups defined by qualities such as size, spatiotemporal cohesion, leadership, structure, sexual composition, etc., is:

a. Social Organization

b. Utilitarian Organization

c. Hybrid Organization

d. None of these

If an individual or a group of individuals faces discrimination from society and its institutions as a whole, whether the discrimination caused was intentional or unintentional but has occurred against the will of the individual or the group, what kind of discrimination are we discussing here?

Individual discrimination

Institutional discrimination

Societal discrimination

None of these

Use of the term 'police officer' and 'fire fighter' instead of 'policeman' and 'fireman' indicates what kind of language?

Secondary language

Culturally normative

Gender normal

Gender neutral

The physical, legal and cultural separation of people according to their biological sex is termed as:

Sex neutrality

Sex derogation

Sex discrimination

Sex segregation

The Ankh symbol originated in Egypt and spread across many cultures. Its original meaning has been lost but it has found new meanings across the different cultures it spread to. Which theory of cultural change discusses such phenomena?

Diffusion theory

Globalization theory

Dispersion theory

Dissemination theory

The largest and the poorest socio-economic group is also termed as:

Bottom of the triangle

Bottom of the pyramid

The top one percent

Bottom of the diamond

People who consider deprivation from money and material possessions as a desirable situation to reach a certain intellectual, moral or spiritual state is referred to as:

Absolute poverty

Voluntary poverty

Relative poverty

Achieved poverty

The belief of an individual regarding his or her social or economic class, the structure of the class and its interests is known as having a:

False consciousness

Natural consciousness

Class consciousness

Social consciousness

A person has been refused employment at an interview after he revealed that he is homosexual. This is an example of:

Discrimination on the basis of sex

Discrimination on the basis of gender

Discrimination on the basis of work experience

Discrimination on the basis of sexuality

An organism's potential ability to distinguish between close genetic kin and non-kin is:

Genetic selection

Family selection

Kin recognition

Kin determination

The term which describes the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class and gender as they apply to a given individual group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage is:

Intersectionality

Multi-dimensionality

Globalization

Complexity

Robin has to develop her own social role where she has to face the expectations of her team members as well her manager. What kind of a conflict is this?

Managerial role conflict

Intrapersonal role conflict

Interpersonal role conflict

Job responsibility conflict

A government sponsored medical research which has divided its two groups based on gender is an example of:

Permissive sex segregation

Voluntary sex segregation

Mandatory sex segregation

Administrative sex segregation

If negative treatment is meted out in a face to face or person to person manner, what kind of discrimination are we discussing here?

Systemic discrimination

Non-systemic discrimination

Individual discrimination

None of these

The auditory signal used by animals to attract mates is their:

Music signal

Mating reflex

Mating call

Lordosis indicator

When you identify yourself with a particular group of individuals, which form of social group are we specifying here?

In-group

Out-group

Inter-group

None of these

A research focusing on a small suburban area studying the social patterns based on the daily face to face interaction between the inhabitants comes under the area of:

Residential studies

Suburban studies

Macro sociology

Micro sociology

A group of friends in a workplace always prefer the managerial decisions of each other regardless of their effectiveness. This is mainly because they don't like the managerial decisions of other people because they are not a part of their group. What kind of behavior is this?

Out-group derogation

In-group derogation

Selfish derogation

Altruism

The tendency of people to form interpersonal relationships with those who are close by is called the:

Neighborly etiquette

Social Proximity

Proximity principle

Approximated principle

Social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or unpleasantness upon other individuals is referred to as:

Assertiveness

Aggression

Foraging

Dominant

Organizational structure where bad parts survive while the good parts thrive and allocation of benefits is based on each person's individual productivity is referred to as:

Pyramid

Matrix

Informal group

Ecology

Overt display of fear and tense body movements during the presence of parents is an instance of:

Secure attachment

Disoriented attachment

Anxious-ambivalent attachment

Anxious-avoidant attachment

This theory proposes that social actions are designed by their agents to create impressions that befit sentiments reigning in a situation:

Affect display theory

Emotion design theory

Affect control theory

Social benefit theory

Content, frequency, intensity and centrality are the key components of what kind of emotion?

Negative emotion

Collective emotion

Positive emotion

Religious emotion

The social institution of marriage is based on what emotion:

Scared

Jealousy

Love

Pain

The unconscious influence of attitudes a person may or may not be aware that they hold is referred to as:

Implicit stereotypes

Explicit stereotypes

Personality

Assumed stereotypes

The totality which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and other capabilities and habits acquired by a person as a member of society is:

Learning

Knowledge

Sociology

Culture

The mass produced and mass mediated consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century is knows as:

Industrialized culture

Facebook culture

Media culture

McDonaldization

Andy Warhol's paintings of everyday objects like a soup can or cola bottles shows an emphasis on:

Industrialized culture

Palette culture

Classical culture

Popular culture

A political campaign emphasizing the fear of terrorism is using what kind of appeal:

Emotional appeal

Rational appeal

Capitalist appeal

Logical appeal

When a child explores very little and is wary of strangers, even in the presence of parents is supposed to have what kind of attachment?

Secure attachment

Disoriented attachment

Anxious-ambivalent attachment

Anxious-avoidant attachment

Males are seen as better at mathematics than females is an example of:

Implicit gender stereotype

Feminism

Gender studies

Associated stereotype

A child ignoring the parents and shows no or little emotion on their departure or return has what kind of attachment?

Secure attachment

Disoriented attachment

Anxious-ambivalent attachment

Anxious-avoidant attachment

Values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization is known as:

Organizational enhancement

Organizational design

Organizational culture

Organizational integration

This is a perspective sociology which considers that individuals act out socially defined categories in day to day activities:

Roles

Wages

Employment

Rewards

The movement to end discrimination of gender altogether in society through means of gender neutral language and other means is knows as:

Gender refinement

Gender neutrality

Gender politics

Gender justice

The process of consumption of different culture by people from all cultures due to popular culture media and international travel is referred to as:

Pop art

Big Mac Index

Culture mixing

Culture globalization

Separation of men and women in prisons is an example of what kind of sex segregation?

Permissive

Voluntary

Mandatory

Administrative

A certain company manager examines a candidate and refuses to hire him/her based on a physical disability which would have not hindered his/her job performance, which form of discrimination is exhibited here?

Institutional discrimination

Individual discrimination

Structural discrimination

None of these

What is an in-group bias?

It refers to a preference or affinity for one’s in-group, or anyone viewed as outside the in-group

Any behavior intended to harm another person on being identified as a member of an out-group

It refers to a preference and affinity for one's in-group over the out-group, or anyone viewed as outside the in-group

None of these

When you dislike, compete, oppose a particular group of individuals, which form of social group membership is on display?

In-group

Out-group

Inter-group

None of these

Foraging where success depends not only on your own foraging behaviors but also on the foraging behaviors of others as well is:

Optimal foraging

Competitive foraging

Individual foraging

Group foraging

A person recently moved to another city in his country and was discriminated because he was born and brought up in a particular region of his country. This is an instance of:

Regional discrimination

National discrimination

Geographic discrimination

Birthplace discrimination

Having the same physical activities and sports facilities for both boys and girls in a school is an instance of:

Sports neutrality

Gender neutrality

Fitness neutrality

Education neutrality

A social action designed to be seen by others and to improve one's public self-image is:

Self action

Personality action

Dramaturgical action

Accepted action

A human being living in a society who obtains all food by foraging is a:

Farmer-gatherer

Hunter-gatherer

Social-gatherer

Domestic-gatherer

A dog communicating with a horse is an example of:

Mixed species communication

Gaze following

Intra specific communication

Inter specific communication

How does social facilitation affect an individual’s behavior?

improves performance of a known simple task

decreases performance of a known simple task

decreases performance of a new, more complex task

answers A and C are correct

Social facilitation changes performance in groups through:

cooperation

loafing

competition

deviance

Who would benefit least from social facilitation?

a child at a spelling bee

a concert pianist at a recital

a cyclist at the Tour de France

a lazy student in a group project

What is social loafing?

when people are motivated to work harder in a group

when people are lazier in a group

when people don’t go outside or get exercise

when people spy on others

Michelle hates group projects because she is always stuck doing the majority of the work and feels like she always attracts slackers. Why?

a lack of social facilitation

the social loafing of others

no social control means others are not accountable for their behavior

no peer pressure to do better

Dr. Brown wants to grade fairly and control for social loafing on the big group project of the semester. What would be the BEST thing he could do given the circumstances?

grade each individual differently and arbitrarily

assign everyone the same grade

assign equally weighted tasks and judge each individual group member based on their completion of the tasks

have everyone do a self-assessment

Who was the victim in the first case that inspired research into the bystander effect?

John Darley

Bibb Latané

Kitty Genovese

Amy Joyner-Francis

Why might a social scientist have trouble measuring or studying the bystander effect?

it would be hard to find someone off the street to describe what they see around them

in many cases, it would be unethical to simulate or replicate something for an experiment

you cannot get an IRB approval for observational studies

it isn’t actually difficult

What is the bystander effect?

the progressively decreased likelihood that people will help in a crisis situation if others are in a crowd

people performing better when others watch them

what happens when someone who goes to commit a mugging is deterred by the presence of others

something that must be controlled for in an experimental study

Which of the following most closely enables the bystander effect?

apathy

diffusion of responsibility

anonymity

social control

A surveillance camera shows 35 individuals pass an injured child on the street. The bystander effect suggests we will see:

all 35 people trying to help the child

adults nearby with similar injuries

very few or none will help the child, even if they notice

a mob going after the person who injured the child

Deindividuation is:

the loss of inhibition

the separation from a group of people

another term for formal education

the absorption into a group and consequent loss of identity

How might religious affiliation contribute to deindividuation?

positive social interaction

strong sense of fellowship

blindness to negative parts of religious ideology

all of the above

Which of the following is a factor in deindividuation?

group size

anonymity

diffusion of responsibility

all of the above

What is an example of social control?

internalization of an ethical system

a smoking ban in restaurants

fines and/or jail time for littering

all of the above

What benefit does codifying social control provide?

more deviance

ethnocentrism

discouraging crime

cultural imperialism

Which is an example of positive peer pressure?

when a person is pressured into drinking to have more fun at a party

when a chain email encourages people to donate blood after a natural disaster

being told one’s job is on the line if they do not perform a certain task

Peer pressure is never positive.

Ashley tells her friends that the political candidate they dislike will win the presidential election if they do not vote for her favored politician, so they had better do so. What is this an example of?

peer pressure

socialization

anomie

groupthink

What motivates conformity of negative behaviors?

informative influence

performative influence

normative influence

Both a. and c.

Which of the following is an example of informative influence?

researching the effects of vaccines and coming to your own conclusions

being unsure about the effects of vaccines, but trusting the opinions of friends

changing your opinion on vaccines because you don’t want your friends to judge you

all of the above

Jane is 12. She has two teenaged cousins, Jill and Jake. One day, Jill and Jake want to sneak into an R-rated film after buying tickets for another movie. They’re happy to take Jane, but she isn’t sure about breaking the rules. When she objects, her cousins make fun of her and call her a baby. Jane doesn’t want to be seen as immature or left alone in a theatre by herself. In order to stop the teasing, she joins them. What term best describes why Jane went to the movie anyway?

conformity, as a result of normative influence

groupthink

operant conditioning

sheeple mentality

What factor(s) influence conformity?

admiration of a group and/or its characteristics

group size

connectedness to a group (group cohesion)

all of the above

494. How does obedience differ from conformity?

They aren’t any different.

Conformity is when you do what authority tells you to do. Obedience is when you do what your family tells you to do.

Conformity is following the demands of groups, obedience is following the commands of authority.

Humans conform, other animals obey.

Types of obedience are:

compliance

identification

internalization

all of the above

One of Aly’s favorite singers is a vegan. She listens to his band’s music all the time and watches interviews with him talking about his diet and beliefs. Eventually, she stops eating meat and commits to becoming fully vegan in the future because she believes an omnivore diet is inhumane. What type(s) of obedience is Aly engaging in?

internalization

identification

Both A and B

admiration

The Milgram experiment used the following means to achieve desired results?

deception

confederates

non-randomization

all of the above

Which of the following is an example of group polarization?

feeling more certain of one’s viewpoints after rally for your political party

fans of opposing sports teams getting into a bar fight

an experimental movie splitting the opinions of critics into extremes

conflict theory

Sarah is sitting in a classroom where some of her classmates are debating the benefits of religion. There are some staunch atheists in the classroom who are presenting scientific and ethical data that dismiss the existence of God. They are decrying all potential good in religious belief, stating that it is for weak-minded individuals. Sarah is very Christian, however, and leaves the debate feeling more certain in her faith after she and others had the opportunity to assert their faith. What is this an example of?

deindividuation

groupthink

group polarization

folkways

Jack commits a hate crime soon after a public forum is held regarding the civil rights of a group he disagrees with. He claims group polarization contributed to his action, indirectly blaming the forum. Why might this be the case?

his self-control diminished

his opinion grew in strength

other people told him to do it, so he did

he thought he would get away with it

What is a good preventive measure for reducing the occurrence of groupthink?

allowing a leader to express their opinions to clear the air

critical engagement with multiple points of view

providing incentives based on an individual’s response

all of the above

Set 6

You are sitting in a seminar, when all of a sudden your professor declares something outlandish you take great issue with. Even worse, almost everyone in class seems to be agreeing with him. You are extremely uncomfortable with the topic of conversation, but you are trying to do well in class and fear that speaking up might hurt both your grade and your chances at friendship. Instead of arguing, you stay silent, nodding in assent. What occurred in this environment after your professor expressed his view?

social interactionism

rational choice

groupthink

social deviance

Groupthink can have negative consequences. Why?

people don’t express their individual opinions

people may not examine something critically for the sake of avoiding conflict

leaders get too much power

all of the above

How is groupthink related to conformity?

a group labels someone as a dangerous criminal, so the person conforms by committing more crime

groupthink tells people to commit an act of deviance and how to do so

someone under the influence of groupthink might conform to an opinion to avoid consequences

they are not related

Which of the following terms is most closely related to groupthink?

indirect peer pressure

social deviance

anomie

social more

Social norms are:

immutable facts of a society

dependent upon a particular historical moment

contextualized by situation

Both b) and c)

It is customary for people in the United States to tip service workers. This is seen as:

Polite

adhering to social folkways

an example of anomie

violating a taboo

What is anomie?

the disintegration of the connection between a person and their society/community

the performance of a taboo

a type of criminality

acting with anonymity

Which of the following is not a social norm?

Folkway

folk song

more

law

What is an example of a more?

honesty in one’s dealings

fidelity to one’s partner

both a) and b)

d) neither a) nor b)

Which of the following is true about a folkway?

It is considered morally wrong if violated.

It is illegal if violated.

It is grounds for expulsion of a community if violated.

It is seen as impolite or improper if violated.

Are all norms codified or formalized?

yes

no

they are all codified but not formalized

they are all formalized but not codified

Which of the following is a nearly universal taboo?

smoking cigarettes

same-sex marriage

cannibalism

premarital sex

What is differential association?

when a person has a diverse group of peers

a form of data analysis

an explanation for criminality that relates to learned behavior

the integration of various groups into the fabric of society

How is differential association related to agents of socialization?

being exposed to criminality and it being accepted in your family might make you think crime is okay

school provides messages that crime is not okay, so you are more likely to rebel and commit crime because of that

the government punishes crime, which pushes you away from criminal behavior

all of these above

Who might influence us to commit crime from the following?

our friends

our family

both of the above

neither, we act independently

When more perceived positive examples of the benefits outweigh those of the negative, someone is influenced to commit a crime due to the behaviors of others. What other social theory is linked to differential association?

anomie

rational choice

symbolic interactionism

innovation

Differential association in a group of peers might result from:

normative conformity

peer pressure

labelling theory

any of the above, depending on circumstance

What is learned in differential association?

the means by which a crime is committed

the motives or drivers behind a specific crime

the laws and consequences surrounding the crime

all of the above

Who first termed and described strain theory?

Emile Durkheim

Robert Agnew

Thomas Henricks

Robert Merton

Which of the following is NOT a facet of the typology of deviance?

conformity

rebellion

collaboration

innovation

We can apply strain theory to which of these situations:

a poor teenager sells drugs to pay for college

the development of punk music in response to conservative politics

the founding of a new political party by a faction of reactionaries

all of the above

Define the missing component of strain theory in this chart.

(Adapted from a chart from www.boundless.com)

structural functionalism

retreatism

symbolic interactionism

bricolage

What might be an example of cultural or social innovation, per Merton’s typology of deviance?

inventing a new instrument

using medical marijuana to stave off side effects of cancer

sending your children to the same school despite their loss of key teachers

none of these

Labelling theory is:

another term for discrimination

the categorization of others into groups

descriptive of how some actions and their performers become seen as deviant

how social scientists interpret quantitative data

Rick grows up in a poor neighborhood in the city. There is a lot of crime where he lives: drug use and distribution, violence, gang membership, etc. The police arrest individuals here far more frequently than most of the other neighborhoods in his city. He often hears police officers saying that people from his neighborhood all turn out to be criminals and that the children who live there are hopeless cases. Furthermore, the news constantly reports on the problems in the area. Rick feels sad and desperate regarding his circumstances. As a teenager, he winds up joining a gang and is arrested several times for getting into fights, breaking into cars, and shoplifting. One day, a cop tells him that he will always be a criminal. Rick is resigned to this life and continues down a path of crime.

What is Rick’s story an example of?

labelling theory

conformity

innovation

rational choice

The following situation has multiple questions.

Davis Park and Stone Heights are two neighborhoods in the [fictional] city of Trail’s End. Davis Park is a low-income area with a lot of crime. Stone Heights is a middle-class neighborhood with highly-ranked schools and low crime rates. They border one another but are strikingly different.

Last weekend, two separate incidents of petty crime occurred in each neighborhood. In Stone Heights, two teenagers broke into a car. In Davis Park, two different teenagers vandalized a church. In Trail’s End, which is a municipality and independently-governed, both first-time offenses of vandalism and break-ins can be punished with either a paid $1000 fine or juvenile detention. The teenagers in Stone Heights had their parents pay the fine for them. The Davis Park teenagers could not afford the fines, so they spent time in juvenile hall.

The news covered both events, but to different degrees. The vandalism was given an extensive story about the two “budding criminals.” Their mugshot photos were used when the story was on the air and videos of police officers and Stone Heights (not Davis Park) residents discussing the incident in a negative light. The other two boys were profiled as mischievous but privileged boys who were able to return to their normal life. They never commit another crime.

In juvenile hall, the Davis Park kids’ status as offenders was emphasized. They were told that if they didn’t shape up, they would be on a one-way path to jail. Some of the instructors there even told them they were no different from adult criminals and that they had no future due to their lack of money and dedication to staying on the straight and narrow.

If the Davis Park teenagers internalize the label of criminal and continue along on a path of crime by acting out, what is this an example of?

labelling theory

rioting

conformity

collective behavior

Why doesn’t labelling theory apply to the boys from Stone Heights?

they were not maligned in the same way as those from Davis Park

they never committed another act of crime

they did not internalize criminality and add it to part

all of the above

Which section of the chart belongs to the Davis Park teenagers?

the two left hand bars

the two right hand bars

both of the blue bars

the orange bar

What is the difference between primary and secondary deviance?

there is no distinction, these terms don’t exist

primary deviance is an inconsequential form of deviance whereas secondary is more serious

secondary deviance is an inconsequential form of deviance whereas primary is more serious

primary deviance happens to one person whereas secondary deviance happens to a group

How might a bad reputation affect a person’s future behavior per labelling theory?

they will improve their behavior and turn their life around

they will leave a society

their behavior will continue to be deviant based on their bad reputation

others will judge them less as time goes on

What sort of behavior does collective behavior refer to?

Spontaneous

Informal

Unstructured

all of the above

How many kinds of crowds exist, according to Blumer’s work on collective behavior?

2

3

4

just one

To the occupants of the Twin Towers, the September 11th attacks were unprecedented and unexpected. The event occurred to the surprise of the victims and survivors. Following the attacks, many people were in panic and disarray. There was mass hysteria as people ran from the towers after they were hit and as they began to crumble, trying to avoid fire and debris.

However, the passengers on Flight 93 had heard about the hijackings that led to the events in New York and Washington DC. They did not want further deaths, so they chose to act as a group with the concentrated, intentional effort to stop the attackers from going further. While they were strangers, in that moment, they became a team. They banded together to purposely crash the plane sooner and sacrifice themselves rather than perhaps hundreds or thousands of others. Flight 93 went down in a remote field in Pennsylvania.

Several of the leaders of the United States formed an emergency committee and met in a secret location to discuss the events and next steps. While the group was forced to meet under spontaneous and undesirable circumstances, there was a highly structured plan to purposely meet to come up with a solution and appropriate response.

Finally, in the days and weeks that followed, memorials were held all across the country. These events were emotionally laden as survivors, friends and family members, and sympathetic others gathered together to express grief and pain. The purpose of these memorials was to provide catharsis and an outpouring of sadness and memorialization.

What kind of crowd was in the first example (Twin Towers/NYC)?

Casual

Conventional

Expressive

Acting

What kind of crowd was in the second example (Flight 93)?

Casual

Conventional

Expressive

acting

What kind of crowd was in the third example (government higher-ups)?

Casual

Conventional

Expressive

acting

Goode (1992) came up with 4 distinct types of riots as in the chart below.

Which is an example of a revelous riot?

a dance party at your friend’s house

people storming the streets and destroying cars after their team wins the Super Bowl

looting supermarkets for food after floods destroy neighborhoods

all of the above

Families guide children towards social norms via:

formal education

informal education

material culture

They do not—they only share biological features.

Which of the following is NOT an agent of socialization?

your country’s government

the schools you attend

the clothes you wear

mass media

Why is it important to consider agents of socialization when looking at human behavior?

Behavior isn’t always explained by biology.

We inherit the norms of our culture, which in turn informs how we look at the world.

People can choose to reject or accept social norms imparted on them through socialization.

All of the above.

Segregation is the deliberate, forced separation of people according to race, gender, or ethnicity. Incredibly and sadly, some people, including research scholars, use that same term to describe the coincidental separation that occurs through freedom of choice, or because of cost factors like housing costs and travel logistics. When pushed, as such scholars were at the January 2015 School Choice and Reform International Academic Conference, they will admit that there is a big difference between forced sorting by, for example, race (true segregation), and incidental sorting, by choice (stratification, but NOT segregation). But even though there are well-known, appropriate words for the latter ― such as “stratification” ― they persist in applying the term “segregation” to school enrollment outcomes where no force was involved. It’s a practice that fair-minded people must condemn. It undermines clear thinking about policy reform. School choice expansion can increase stratification, but it does NOT cause segregation.

As a starting point to that needed discussion of possible de-stratification strategies, a word of caution. Sorting pressures that move children away from choices based on engaging themes, and/or towards pedagogical practices that sort children by other than subject-specific abilities, can have a perverse impact on intended beneficiaries. For example, pushing low socioeconomic status (SES) children into schools dominated by higher SES students can make them worse off. Stanford’s Professor Thomas Sowell has repeatedly shown that setting aside places for low SES students in high-prestige, high test score universities is typically disastrous for the low SES students. Whereas they very likely would have succeeded at a school with students of similar abilities, they flunk out of universities where they are on the lower end of each course’s grade distribution. Whether/which de-stratification efforts will yield similar effects at the K-12 level remains to be seen.

Adapted from http://educationblog.ncpa.org/segregation-vs-stratification-and-the-proscons-of-de-stratification-efforts/

Based on the information you have read above, what is the main difference between segregation and stratification/separation?

Separation and segregation are based on race, gender, ethnicity, or socio-economic characteristics, but unlike segregation separation is not forced or compelled.

Segregation is based on race, gender and ethnicity characteristics, while separation is based on socio-economic status.

Separation is based on race, gender and ethnicity characteristics, while segregation is based on socio-economic status

There is no difference between these terms.

The passage explains the difference between terms “segregation” and “separation”. What of the following is an example of segregation?

When searching for job openings, a person in a wealthy, developed nation is more likely than a person in a poor nation to find positions seeking applicants.

Parents, teachers, and friends convey expectations about one's class position that teach different skills and values based on status.

A wealthy person may receive higher quality medical care than a poor person, have greater access to nutritional foods, and be able to attend higher caliber schools.

Law statement: “No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro [sic] men are placed”.

What is TRUE about social stratification?

Social stratification of people is based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

Social stratification is socially defined as a property of a society rather than individuals in that society.

Social stratification is reproduced from generation to generation.

All of the above statements are true.

According to the passage, why pushing low socioeconomic status (SES) children into schools dominated by higher SES students can make them worse off?

Low SES students feel uncomfortable around higher SES students.

Teachers treat low SES students and higher SES students differently.

Low SES students in high-prestige universities end up on the lower end of each course’s grade distribution.

High SES students feel uncomfortable around lower SES students

Sociological literature defines multiple dimensions of segregation. The most popular dimension reflects the evenness of the population distribution across units. Using this dimension, educational segregation exists if:

Students are distributed unevenly by costs of the education across educational units.

Students are distributed unevenly by race across educational units.

Students are distributed unevenly by travel distance and transport logistics around educational units.

All of the above.

Kinship is one of the basic social institutions found in every society. People in all societies are bound together by various kinds of bonds, the most basic bonds are those based on marriage and reproduction. Kinship refers to these bonds, and all other relationships resulting from them. Thus, the institution of kinship refers to a set of relationships and relatives formed thereof, based on blood relationships (consanguineal), or marriage (affinal). Kinship basically has three degrees (Figure 3):

Primary kinship refers to direct relations. People who are directly related to each other are known as primary kin. There are basically eight primary kins – wife father son, father daughter mother son, wife; father son, father daughter, mother son, mother daughter; brother sister; and younger brother/sister older brother/sister. Secondary kinship refers to the primary kin’s of primary kin. In other words, those who are directly related to primary kin (primary kin’s primary kin) become one’s secondary kin. There are 33 secondary kin. Tertiary kinship refers to the primary kin of primary kin’s primary kin or secondary kin of primary kin primary kin of secondary kin. Roughly 151 tertiary kin have been identified.

Kinship is related to various sides of societies, like land, marriage, and rituals. The prime property of any rural family is land. So, land is related to all the kin members of the family. The sons, grandsons and other kins, which are related by blood and marriage, have their economic interests in land. In every society, marriage has certain rules, such as endogamy, exogamy, incest taboos and other restrictions. These rules are applicable to all the kins of the family. The role and importance of the kin members lies in the degree of close relationships among them. During a naming ceremony, it is the father’s sister, who has to give a name to the newborn. There are certain rituals, which have to be performed by mother’s brother during the marriages of daughters. Many changes are taking place in the institutions of kinship relations. These changes can be noted as demand for ownership titles by women, rules of marriage are being challenged and the traditional rules regarding divorce are also getting weakened.

According to the passage, what is kinship?

A relation between two or more persons that is based on blood.

A relation between two or more persons that is based on marriage.

The study of relations between two or more persons that is based on blood or marriage from anthropological perspective.

The socially recognized relationships between people in a culture, who are either held to be biologically related or given the status of relatives by marriage, adoption, or other rituals.

There are consanguineal and affinal bases of kinship. Examine the Figure 3 carefully, and determine what of the following examples represents the primary consanguineal kinship.

The relationship between husband and wife.

The relationship between parents and children.

The relationship between parents and children and between siblings.

The relationship between parents and children, between siblings, and between grandparents and grandchildren.

There are consanguineal and affinal bases of kinship. Examine the Figure 3 carefully, and determine what of the following examples represents the tertiary consanguineal kinship.

The relationship between parents and children and between siblings.

The relationship between grandparents and grandchildren.

The relationships between an individual and all his/her sisters-in-law, brothers-in-law, and parents-in-law.

An individual’s primary consanguineal kin (parents), their primary kin (parents’ parents), and their primary kin (parent’s parent’s parents).

What shows the importance of kinship for societies with relation to property and land?

All members of the society have to follow certain rules such as endogamy, exogamy, incest taboos and other restrictions.

The emancipation movement of women in rural societies.

Family members possess economic interests in land since their status depends on their property.

There is no relation between kinship and property and land.

The passage states “During a naming ceremony, it is the father’s sister, who has to give a name to the newborn”. What is demonstrated by this ritual?

The unfair segregation of kin members.

The importance of some of the kin members.

The existence of close relations between newborn’s father and father’s sister.

All members of the society have to follow certain rules such as endogamy, exogamy, incest taboos and other restrictions.

What is TRUE about kinship?

It exists only in rural societies.

It does not change over time.

It is related to property questions only.

It plays an important role in the field of politics and job distribution.

An increase in tension was shown to occur for sons and daughters who experienced significant parental acrimony or isolation arising from parental non-disclosure (where parents disclosed to the participant rather than their marriage partner or siblings). Participants strove to reduce the tension that arose through strategies such as empathy, confrontation and resistance. The experiences specifically associated with a parent coming out, namely increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice and reflection on sexual orientation, although minor, caused additional sources of tension at times. The ‘unusualness’ of a parent coming out seemed influenced by participant, family and community exposure to, and acceptance of, LGB diversity.

Our findings suggest that the manner in which parents and the family as a whole manage the changes and the support that they receive have an influence on the adjustment process of sons and daughters. As expected protective factors, such as positive parental support, reduced parental conflict and comfortably maintained child-parent and extended kin relationships facilitated a smoother transition for sons and daughters during the adjustment process. These factors seem even more important where societal sexual prejudice exists. Parents who come out later in life, and their spouses are less likely to be involved in LGB or heterosexual (straight spouse, for example) family support organizations or to know others in similar situations. It may be that feelings of parental protectiveness evoked by LGB prejudice strengthens the child-parent relationship, and possibly enhances resilience through this connection. We showed that parental non-disclosure to others resulted in vigilance and isolation, whilst parental openness enhanced child-parent communication. Immediate and extended family disclosure and support impacted positively on the family adjustment as a whole, which supports the association between disclosure or “outness”, positive self-acceptance and enhanced child-parent relationship quality.

Our findings support the premise that the age and developmental stage of sons and daughters at the time of separation and disclosure can result in experiential differences. For example, we found that sexual self-questioning was more salient for participants during adolescence, whereas older, adult children reflected more on the orientation of others following a parental disclosure of LGB. Mourning the loss of the parental union was also more intense for older participants, as they had more memories of their parents as a couple. They were also more likely to be a source of support to their parents than their younger counterparts.

The passage discusses the term of diversity. What is the general definition of diversity?

The acts of making all groups of people within a society feel valued and important.

Recognition, respect and value of people’s differences to contribute and realization of their full potential by promoting an inclusive culture for all persons.

Treating a person or particular group of people differently based on their skin color, sex, age, sexuality, etc.

Ensuring individuals or groups of individuals are treated fairly and equally and no less favourably, specific to their needs, including areas of race, gender, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation and age.

According to the study discussed in the passage above, why is enabling family members to access support important in family adjustment?

To maintain a good reputation of the society in front of other societies.

To support stigmatization process of the person who experiences the family transition.

To avoid negative psychological consequences such as depression, anxiety and stigmatization.

All of the above.

According to the study discussed in the passage above, older participants who experienced the family transition tend to:

Reflect more on the orientation of others following a parental disclosure of LGB.

Mourn the loss of the parental union more intensely.

Support their parents during the process of transition.

All of the above.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0094933 (passage and figure 3)

We look at marital interactions and relationships. Here relationship refers to the unit (couple), rather than to the two persons. We focus on a very ephemeral thing: what happens to the couple as they interact over time. It is not either person, it is something that happens when they are together, i.e., in a couple. The couple will create something that we call a ‘‘feeling state’’ as they talk to each other, as they smile, as they move. We model the feeling state of a couple as a noisy differential equation influenced by random events, parents, children, friends and the social distribution of marital status (mean-field of states), where the term ‘‘mean-field’’ refers to the distribution of couple feeling states in the society. Putting the study of social relationships on mathematical footing represents a major advance in our ability to understand and perhaps regulate these relationships for the betterment of all mankind. The novelty of the present study inheres in the analysis of the social distribution of feeling states (mean-field) on a generic couple. Since the society, friends and parents of a couple may influence them in an aggregative manner, a mean-field approach is suitable for such an interaction. The study can be useful to design or evaluate an adequate intervention. It also suggests that knowing many divorced people may influence the status of a marriage. The more divorced people you know, the riskier your own marriage. However, a marriage doesn’t break down just because friends are divorcing. Marital breakdown depends on many factors including effort and mean field.

In fact, we study the dynamics introduced in the ‘‘Mathematics of marriage’’ book in which we take into consideration a control term ae and a noise term. The dynamical system in the case where

h(x)=rx–b*tanh(cx), (24)

is written as

dx(t)=(–rx(t)+b*tanh(cx(t))+ae(t))dt+σdB(t), (25)

with r,a,b,c>0. The choice of the function tanh(x)= in (24) is widely justified in the ‘‘Mathematics of marriage’’ as well as in evolutionary game theory as a resulting from the imitative logit dynamics. The model is widely supported by many psychologist and sociologist authors. We choose b=c=1. Then, the sentimental dynamics with noise becomes

dx(t)=[–rx(t)+tanh(x(t))+ae(t)]dt+σdB(t), (26)

where the effort e(t)≥0 is a control variable. The parameter r>0 refers to the type of the society where the couple lives. According to the type of the society, we analyze the uncontrolled sentimental dynamics, or the sentimental dynamics of a couple without effort (e=0).

The study analyzes the uncontrolled (e=0) sentimental dynamics, according to the type of the society. As shown in a Figure 3, in a high type society (r≥1), the uncontrolled system (e=0) converges to zero independently of the starting point. How can this figure be interpreted?

This can be interpreted as if the couple feeling state will degrade over time if there is no effort.

This can be interpreted as if the couple feeling state will grow over time if there is no effort.

This can be interpreted as the marriage stays for life.

This can be interpreted as the inevitability of the divorce situation.

According to the study, what are the main factors influencing marital breakdown?

The number of divorced couples around the person.

Effort that a couple applies to sustain their marriage.

The distribution of couple feeling states in the society, i.e. “mean-field”.

All of the above.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0153205.PDF

In this paper, we focus on the influence of professional and institutional loyalties on responses to allegations of child sexual abuse. We extend prior research by experimentally testing a formal theoretical framework: namely, a social identity perspective on responding to deviance. Social identity theory makes the case that our self-image reflects not just our personal identities – the idiosyncratic traits, behaviors and memories that make us distinct as individuals – but also our social identities, which refers to that aspect of our self-definition that we draw from our group memberships. When a particular social identity is salient (e.g., our gender, profession, or religion), our sense of self is influenced by the normative attitudes and behaviors of that identity; particularly so if the group is important to you (i.e., you’re a “high identifier”). Importantly for the current research question, social identity theory also works from the premise that people are motivated to see their group membership through a positive lens: so just as we are motivated to think that we are good people, we are motivated to believe that the groups to which we belong are good groups, worthy of pride.

Social psychological research on deviance has shown that group members are especially keen to derogate and reject norm-breakers within their ranks. One might expect from this research that Catholic participants would be more motivated than anybody to derogate and exclude church members who face serious and credible allegations of child sexual abuse. But across two studies we found the opposite tendency: Catholic participants were more likely than non-Catholic participants to cast doubt on the credibility of the accusations, and to defend the credibility of the accused. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Because allegations of child sexual abuse are typically referred to those with the power to deal with the accused appropriately, the recipients of allegations are also likely to be high identifying members of the same institution as the accused. Our data confirm that such highly identified ingroup members are the least willing to believe that the accusations are based on fact. The results of the current study provide a possible explanation for the failure of senior group members to respond appropriately to allegations of child sexual abuse in the institutional context.

Which of the following statements illustrate the main findings of the study regarding relations between social identity factors and child sexual abuse in the institutional context?

Failures to respond to allegations of child sexual abuse in the institutional context take place because Catholic people are more likely than non-Catholic people to defend the credibility of the accused.

Failures to respond to allegations of child sexual abuse in the institutional context take place because people who are most likely responsible for receiving and investigating are highly identified ingroup members who aim to protect the group’s reputation.

Failures to respond to allegations of child sexual abuse in the institutional context take place because it is a long-standing source of a highly public series of scandals and tension and upset for Catholic people.

Failures to respond to allegations of child sexual abuse in the institutional context take place because church members are so convinced of the sanctity of their senior officials that they struggle to believe that they could be capable of child abuse.

What is FALSE about family abuse?

Family abuse is when one member of the family abuses, mistreats, or neglects other people in the family.

Abuse can be only physical or sexual.

Neglect of the children is also a form of abuse.

Family abuse can be directed to children, spouses, elderly members of the family, etc.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0156809.PDF

According to Durkheim’s social perspective, which regards religion as a powerful moral force that induces conformity, some authors believe that religion would act as an agent of socialization, by allowing social interaction and attachment through the religious practice of the cult. We analyzed the influence of religion on the woman within her social context with a sample of Spanish pregnant and postpartum women, focusing on the association between sexuality and religion/spirituality. The interest of this study lies in describing the sexual experiences of pregnant and postpartum women and their association with religious/spiritual beliefs, from a socially learned perspective. Spirituality has been historically associated with religion. Religion is an element of spirituality. Therefore, we can state that religiosity and spirituality have had a fruitful and contradictory role, because, although most health professionals show a low level of interest for religious matters, the populations have beliefs, practices and experiences related to religion. For this reason, it is important to understand these concepts. The word religion derives from the Latin word religion, which means union (reconnect) between humanity and transcendence (more human). Thus religion allows individuals to attach a meaning to their beliefs, experiences and practices in different life situations. In this case, religion would be a sacred source of motivation, sense and meaning, i.e. the capacity to build resistance and cope with the adversities that can influence the health of individuals and their behavior.

Although we find accounts of women associating sexuality with higher levels of satisfaction, some accounts also report difficulties associated with sexuality, such as those related to the very restrictive sexual norms imposed by religiosity/spirituality. Based on our observations throughout the study, we found that the women are reluctant to address sexual issues, which is related to a situation of prejudice influenced by thoughts of “what would they say or think” deeply rooted in the religious concepts existing in the study area. There seems to be a code of conduct to which they must adhere to, which is manifested within the cultural and historical context that influences these women’s lives. Within the scope of our study, we can say that pregnant and postpartum women are pressured by the religious or social norms verbalized by their mothers, mainly in the rural context where discourse does not always match the practice, imposing on pregnant and postpartum women a set of beliefs that change their sexual experience.

According to the passage, why are the studies on religiosity important for the society?

Because religion is a source of power, and strong religious beliefs allow pregnant and postpartum women to deal with uncertainties and unconventional situations.

Because we need to emancipate women’s sexuality from religious suppression.

Because religion is a powerful agent of socialization, secures social interaction and attachment of the persons to the society.

Because we need to indicate religious persons and communities in rural areas and educate them on modern values and beliefs.

According to the study, how is women’s sexual experience related to their religiosity?

Women experience difficulties associated with religiosity as a result of their sexuality.

Religiosity helps pregnant and postpartum women to address sexual issues.

Religious concepts manifest the cultural and historical contexts of the society and exist separately from women’s sexual experiences.

Women experience difficulties associated with sexuality as a result of strong religious norms present in the society.

Sourced from: http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesen/socfwk/ch/ch17d.html

Many types of religious organizations exist in modern societies. Sociologists usually group them according to their size and influence. Categorized this way, three types of religious organizations exist: church, sect, and cult. A church is a large, bureaucratically organized religious organization that is closely integrated into the larger society. A relatively recent development in religious organizations is the rise of the so-called megachurch, a church at which more than 2,000 people worship every weekend on the average. Compared to traditional, smaller churches, megachurches are more concerned with meeting their members’ practical needs in addition to helping them achieve religious fulfillment. As might be expected, their buildings are huge by any standard, and they often feature bookstores, food courts, and sports and recreation facilities. They also provide day care, psychological counseling, and youth outreach programs.

A sect is a relatively small religious organization that is not closely integrated into the larger society and that often conflicts with at least some of its norms and values. Typically a sect has broken away from a larger denomination in an effort to restore what members of the sect regard as the original views of the denomination. Because sects are relatively small, they usually lack the bureaucracy of churches and often also lack clergy who have received official training. Their worship services can be intensely emotional experiences, often more so than those typical of many churches, where worship tends to be more formal and restrained.

A cult is a small religious organization that is at great odds with the norms and values of the larger society. Cults are similar to sects but differ in at least three respects. First, they generally have not broken away from a larger denomination and instead originate outside the mainstream religious tradition. Second, they are often secretive and do not proselytize as much. Third, they are at least somewhat more likely than sects to rely on charismatic leadership based on the extraordinary personal qualities of the cult’s leader.

Based on the information on sects provided by the passage, which of the following would be the best example of a contemporary sect?

Christians

Amish

Mormons

Baptist

According to the passage, which of these statements illustrates the difference between sects and cults?

Sects are bigger then cults and unlike cults rely heavily on strong and charismatic leader.

Sects originate from larger religious traditions, while cults start off outside the mainstream denominations.

Members of cults actively attempt to attract and convert more people, while sects often exist secretively.

There is no difference between sects and cults.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0133538.PDF

The cross-country frequencies of the two response variables in Fig 1 show that homonegativity is a problem in Europe. In half of Europe more than 50% of the population find homosexuality never justifiable and in approximately a third of the countries more than 50% say they would not like homosexuals as their neighbors. Unsurprisingly, the respondents in most countries are much more reluctant to say they would not like homosexuals as neighbors than to say ‘homosexuality is never justifiable’. Thus, personal resentment toward homosexuals as a group is far less prevalent than a moral rejection of homosexual practice. In cross-European comparison, the Scandinavian and Western European countries are the least intolerant and Eastern and South-Eastern European countries the most intolerant on both indicators.

Interestingly, when looking at the random coefficients of religious believing, we see that they all vary significantly between countries. Fig 2 and Fig 3 visualize the pattern of the variation of the coefficients of belief in a Personal God and Belief in a Spirit/Life Force across countries for moralistic homonegativity. From Fig 2 and Fig 3 we see clearly that the cross-country pattern of the coefficients follows a divide between Western Europe versus the post-communist countries of Eastern- and South-Eastern Europe. The statistical effects of both beliefs in God and of fundamentalism (not shown here) are consistently stronger and statistically significant in Western European countries, but much weaker in the East and South-East. In many Eastern European countries they are not statistically significant at all.

In summary, traditional individual-level religiosity is positively related to homonegativity in most of Europe, except the post-soviet East, where homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. The high levels of homonegativity in Eastern Europe, on the other hand, are likely a response to homonegative and anti-Western discourses that prevail in many Eastern European countries. These discourses are largely secular. The only religiosity dimension that plays to these discourses seems to be religious belonging.

Examine Figures 1, 2, and 3 carefully. According to these figures, which of the following statements is TRUE about Eastern European countries?

Eastern European countries are more tolerate to homosexuality than Western European countries.

Eastern European countries show higher levels of homonegativity because of the traditional individual-level religiosity.

Homonegativity in Western European countries is a largely secular phenomenon.

Unlike Western European countries, the high level of homonegativity in Eastern European countries is a largely secular phenomenon.

The passage reflects on secularity of the discourses in post-soviet Eastern European countries. What does the term “secularism” stand for?

It is a strict belief in the literal interpretation of religious texts.

It is a model of a progressive transition from a ‘pre-modern’ or ‘traditional’ to a ‘modern’ society.

It is a belief system that rejects religion, or the belief that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education.

It is a cultural system of behaviors and practices, world views and societal organization, a specific fundamental set of beliefs generally agreed upon by a number of persons or sects.

Sourced from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022820027167#page-1

Over the last two decades concern about the misuse of therapist power and authority has led many clinical social workers away from traditional models and descriptions of practice. The critique of these models casts social workers as experts who impose their goals and values, who offer their version of truth, and who view clients who reject this version as “resistant”. Social workers’ discomfort with this view of the coercive use of clinical power has moved them toward models of treatment which are more interactive, which value the client's voice, and in which meaning is understood to be co-constructed in a collaboration between worker and client (Gergen & Kaye, 1976, Saari, 1991, Schafer, 1981, White & Epston, 1990). A focus on client narratives is common to many of these new models. Constructivist narrative models of treatment suggest that social workers must recognize and take responsibility for the power they inevitably exercise.

Jane's reluctance to engage with the analyst in the co-narration process may relate, in part, to her ambivalence about their role inequality. On the one hand, she relies on Dr. Conway to “get something out of” her narratives, to tell her what they mean. He is the authority, the expert. She does not, at this point in the treatment, have a strong sense of herself as a collaborator, a full participant in this process. But, as her story about her son reveals, she is also fearful that Dr. Conway will use his power and authority to pressure her to tell her stories before she feels safe. It is only in response to his acknowledgement of her fears that she is finally able to narrate her sexual experience and begin the process of co-cognition and co-narration of this sensitive material.

The passage reflects upon the use of power and authority in clinical practice. How do power and authority relate to each other?

Power and authority are synonymous to each other, and mean that a person has a right to command and control others.

Power is a consequence of authority, it comes to a person when (s)he gains a formal status of being above others in a formal hierarchy.

Authority is a manifestation of power, it exists where one person has a formal right to command and another has a formal obligation to obey.

Power and authority exclude each other, and one person can possess either power, or authority.

The passage provides an example of clinical practice. Why does Jane feel fearful during the conversation with Dr. Conway?

Because Jane is a woman and Dr. Conway is a man, he is stronger than her, and Jane fears that Dr. Conway will use his power during the treatment.

Because Jane’s case is very painful and frightening, and she fears that Dr. Conway will judge her.

Because Jane believes that Dr. Conway’s power and authority will pressure her to tell stories about her experience that never took place in the real life.

Because due to the relationship status as patient and doctor, Dr Conway has formal power and authority to pressure Jane to tell more stories even if she does not feel comfortable.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0121277.PDF

Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012.

The market virtues of capitalism framed the ideological platform of the Western World on the effects of foreign trade openness and global partnerships, to include free movements of capital and foreign direct investment among all countries. Multiplier effects were crucial to understand the evolution of prosperity and welfare during the Golden Age of 1945-1974. The less developed an economy was at the outset of economic development, the greater speed it would show in pursuing growth, catching-up with more developed nations, to cancel any divergence from the most developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to address the analysis of the dynamics of countries as complex systems. It seeks to assess similarities and dissimilarities among national economies in the historical process. Some of them pioneered industrialization, and some others were latecomers in achieving economic growth, mass consumption and economic maturation.

At the figures a different label with three letters and one number signals the results for each country and 12-years time period, namely {ARG, AUS, BRA, CAN, CHN, FRA, DEU, IND, ITA, JPN, MEX, RUS, GBR, USA} followed by the numbering {1,2,3} for 1977-1988, 1989-2000 and 2001-2012, respectively (p = 3). In the case of considering all time period of 36 years (p = 1) no number is attached to the three letters. Results show relative positions among countries, for each of the clusters that represent each 12-year period. Therefore, neighboring means high similarity, and distance means the opposite.

The passage states that the study “seeks to assess similarities and dissimilarities among national economies in the historical process”. What is the name of this approach in sociology?

Deterministic approach

Demographic approach

Comparative economic and political approach

Complex multidimensional approach

Examine figures carefully. Taking into account the approach that was used for this study, what does the drop of life expectancy in the Russian 1980s illustrate?

It illustrates the country’s adoption of communism and rejection of a market economic system.

It illustrates the country’s independence from other countries.

It illustrates the country’s achievements in industrialization, economic growth, mass consumption and economic maturation.

It illustrates the country’s difficulties resulting from the end of communism and the move to capitalism, through the introduction of a market economic system.

Sourced from: http://eml.berkeley.edu/~arodeml/Papers/DOL.pdf

The neoclassical growth model implies that automatic mechanisms will take an underdeveloped economy out of poverty. According to this model, an economy is poor because of a lack of capital. This implies that in poor economies the rate of return to capital is high, generating strong incentives for foreign investment and domestic capital accumulation. Yet, a casual look at the experience of many underdeveloped economies since World War II calls into doubt these automatic mechanisms: in many poor economies per capita income has remained stagnant for decades and both foreign and domestic investment have been relatively low as a percentage of total production.

This paper shows that if specialized intermediate goods are produced with decreasing average costs, there may be an equilibrium in which few of such goods are produced (i.e., an equilibrium with a shallow division of labor). There may be an equilibrium in which a large variety of intermediate goods are produced (i.e., an equilibrium with a deep division of labor). Therefore, there is the possibility of multiple equilibria. When there are multiple equilibria and the returns from the division of labor are sufficiently high, both the wage and the rate of return to capital are higher in the equilibrium with a deep division of labor than in the equilibrium with a shallow division of labor. In this case, the equilibrium with a deep division of labor is Pareto-superior to the equilibrium with a shallow division of labor. Furthermore, as long as there are positive returns from the division of labor, the former equilibrium dominates the latter according to the potential-Pareto criterion; in the context of a small, open economy, this just implies that production valued at world prices is higher in the equilibrium with a deep division of labor.

The passage describes the study focused on the division of labor. What of the following is the sociological definition of the division of labor?

An adaptation in which individuals learn the full process of production or necessary performing tasks.

The assignment of different parts of a manufacturing process or task to different individuals in order to improve efficiency.

An objectification of labor, existence of it independently from the worker, becoming a power on its own confronting the worker.

Shifting of the focus from individual products to cross-industry value experiences, based on digital technologies.

According to the passage, why is the equilibrium with a deep division of labor Pareto-superior to the equilibrium with a shallow division of labor?

Because the wage and the rate of return to capital are lower in the equilibrium with a deep division of labor.

Because the wage and the rate of return to capital are higher in the equilibrium with a shallow division of labor.

Because the wage and the rate of return to capital are lower in the equilibrium with a shallow division of labor.

Because the wage and the rate of return to capital in the equilibrium with a deep division of labor and the equilibrium with a shallow division of labor are the same.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001456.PDF

Among all the conditions in the world of health, mental health occupies a unique and paradoxical place. On the one hand is over-treatment and over-medicalization of mental health issues, often fueled by a pharmaceutical industry interested in the broadening of the boundaries of ‘‘illness’’ and in the creation of more and wider diagnostic categories and thus markets for ‘‘selling sickness.’’ On the other hand exists profound under-recognition of the suffering and breadth of mental health issues affecting millions of people across geographies, which is a global problem.

Over-treatment, especially when it results from ‘‘disease mongering,’’ is a persistent and troubling issue. The harms of over-treatment arise from situations where normal life experiences (such as menopause, shyness, grief, etc.) are deemed illnesses or when diseases are ‘‘created’’ from mild problems and symptoms (such as restless legs syndrome or female sexual dysfunction). In both situations, people become patients, and their problems are deemed to need medical treatment when they may not need it or could be harmed by it, or when nonmedical options are available. Over-diagnosis and over-treatment have been shown for a range of human conditions, but this phenomenon as it relates to mental health is particularly powerful. For example, the widespread over-diagnosis of conditions such as bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), especially among children, is now being documented – the US Centers for Disease Control recently estimated that 6.4 million children aged 4 to 17 had received an ADHD diagnosis at some point in their lives (amounting to 11% of all US children) – a 41% increase in the last decade that has been met with alarm and concern by many doctors and parents. Two thirds of these children are said to be on medication for the condition. Recent Canadian data reaffirm the concerns with excessive labeling of normal child behavior as pathological.

The passage reflects on the danger of over-medicalization. What is the general definition of medicalization?

The process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

The action of stopping something from happening or arising.

The process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment.

None of the above.

What is one of the most dangerous consequences of over-treatment or over-medicalization for individuals from the sociological point of view?

The following development of the illness to the critical conditions.

Wasting of resources on unnecessary procedures and medicaments.

Stigmatization of a person associated with being labeled ill.

All of the above.

Sourced from: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/52/4/460.full.pdf+html

Although research supports the stigma and labeling perspective, empirical evidence also indicates that a social safety net remains intact for those with mental illness, recalling the classic “sick role” concept. Using data from individuals experiencing their first contact with the mental health treatment system, the effects of diagnosis and symptoms on social networks and stigma experiences are examined. The rights and responsibilities associated with the sick role have important implications for social network and support processes.

The sick role and its effects on social support processes have implications for social networks that differ from those predicted by the labeling and social dysfunction perspectives. Namely, being diagnosed with a mental illness and entering the sick role may have a positive impact on social relationships, leading friends and family members to increase support and involvement. As before, research suggests that these processes are shaped by illness characteristics. The findings suggest that relative to those with less severe affective disorders, individuals with severe diagnoses and more visible symptoms of mental illness have larger, more broadly functional networks, as well as more supporters who are aware of and sympathetic toward the illness situation. However, those with more severe diagnoses are also vulnerable to rejection and discrimination by acquaintances and strangers. These findings suggest that being formally labeled with a mental illness may present a paradox, simultaneously initiating beneficial social processes within core networks and detrimental ones among peripheral ties.

What is the general definition of a term “sick role”?

An abnormal process in which aspects of the social, physical, emotional, or intellectual condition and function of a person are diminished or impaired compared with that person's previous condition.

Any of various disorders characterized by impairment of an individual's thoughts, emotions, or social functioning.

Experiencing symptoms of physical illness, such as nausea, aches and pains, dizziness, weakness, blurred vision, or malaise.

The accepted behavior pattern that one is permitted to exhibit during illness or disability.

The passage states that supportive processes to one’s illness are shaped by illness characteristics. Which of the following illustrates this statement?

A sick role response is more likely when an individual’s prognosis is perceived to be severe and uncertain.

Individuals are more likely to provide support when a person’s stressors are “unambiguous and visibly distressing”.

People are more likely to adopt a sympathetic and helping orientation toward those with mental disorders when they are perceived as having little control over their illness.

All of the above.

The passage reflects on the sick role and its effects on social networks. What is the main finding of this study regarding social networks?

Accepting and announcing of a sick role simultaneously initiates positive social processes within core networks and negative ones among peripheral ties.

Accepting and announcing of a sick role simultaneously initiates positive social processes within both core networks and peripheral ties.

Accepting and announcing of a sick role simultaneously initiates negative social processes within core networks and positive ones among peripheral ties.

Accepting and announcing of a sick role simultaneously initiates negative social processes within both core networks and peripheral ties.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0104895.PDF

Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country’s population that resides in rural India. The objective of this study was to explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication.

The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context.

What constitutes an efficient healthcare system?

Physicians, hospitals, finances, technologies, customers.

Hospitals, healthcare plan, finances, access to the mobile phone.

Governance, information systems, finances, human resources, technologies, service delivery.

Human resources, financial resources, technologies.

The statistics from the passage states that 99% of the respondents were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones, as well as that only 14% of them used text messaging (SMS). Which of the following hypotheses does logically follow these statistics?

Most of the population would not show any preferences regarding forms of communication.

Most of the population would prefer text messaging (SMS) regarding health issues alone to other forms of communication.

Most of the population would prefer voice calls regarding health issues alone to other forms of communication.

Most of the population would not show any interest in the possibility to receive health-related information via mobile phone.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0110171

Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

The passage reflects on illness experiences of mentally ill persons. What is the general definition of illness experience?

Any of various disorders characterized by impairment of an individual's thoughts, emotions, or social functioning.

Experiencing symptoms of physical illness, such as nausea, aches and pains, dizziness, weakness, blurred vision, or malaise.

The accepted behavior pattern that one is permitted to exhibit during illness or disability.

The ways in which people define and adjust to perceived interruptions to their health.

According to the passage, what were people with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments aiming to get?

They aimed to earn money and pay the bills.

They aimed to practice their skills of making videos and maintaining a YouTube channel.

They aimed to develop a community and sense of inclusion.

They aimed to frighten other people and protect their personal space.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0152021.PDF

Existing models of epidemic dynamics allow us to investigate many realistic scenarios such as population heterogeneity, social structures and mobility processes down to the individual level. Here, we adopt the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to depict the epidemic spreading process on the layer of contact network. On the other hand, the information about epidemic can simultaneously propagate via the other layer of the multiplex network, i.e., the communication network. In this work, we use Independent Cascade (IC) model of diffusion to characterize the disease information propagation. For the sake of simplicity, we assume that the infected individuals must be aware of the disease and try to transfer the information to their neighbors in the social network. As a result, by integrating the SIR model on one layer and the IC model on the other layer of the multiplex network, a dual spreading process can readily be modeled. In the SIR-IC model, an individual can be in four states as the following: active and susceptible (AS), active and infected (AI), active and recovered (AR) or inactive and susceptible (US). At each time step, individuals in susceptible state will be infected by their infected neighbors with probability β. However, the information diffusion makes a feedback on epidemic spreading when the activated individuals (informed and convinced the information) take protective measures to reduce the probability of being infected. At each time step in information diffusion process described by IC model, active individuals have a single chance to transmit the disease information to each of their inactive neighbors with probability κ.

In our model, the individuals do not know the whole network structure and the disease states of their neighbors. Instead, we assume that each individual knows the size of community he (she) belongs to. In general, how strong the sense of crisis an individual has is intimately relevant to the size of the community he belongs to, as aforementioned. To incorporate the negative effect of community size on people’s vigilance to disease spreading into the system, we let the parameter δ denote the degree of one’s neglect about the epidemic, which depends on the community size and can be formulated as follows: . Where Cj is a normalization of community size cj of an individual j, w is used to tunes the intensity of community size effect. Here we take w = 2.

What is social epidemiology?

The process whereby a person is made resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine.

The branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.

The study and analysis of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

The branch of epidemiology that studies the social distribution and social determinants of health.

Examine figure 8 carefully. What does the top right figure tell you about relations between community size and the evolution of the incidence?

The incidences for large communities are remarkably smaller than those for small communities, due to the negative effect of the community size on immunization.

The incidences for small communities are remarkably larger than those for larger communities, due to the negative effect of the community size on immunization.

The incidences for large communities are remarkably larger than those for small communities, due to the negative effect of the community size on immunization.

The incidences for small communities are the same as those for larger communities, due to the neutral effect of the community size on immunization.

Why do the authors state that the strength of individual’s sense of crisis is dependent on the size of the community he belongs to?

Because the equation states the negative effect of community size on people’s vigilance to disease spreading into the system.

Because the bigger the community, the more sources of information an individual has access to.

Because people who locate a large group has lower crisis awareness than whose in a small group because of the fluke mind.

The strength of individual’s sense of crisis and the size of the community he belongs to are not related in any way.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0141625.PDF

Inspired by a theory of cultural evolution proposed by D. S. Wilson and in similar form by Richerson and Boyd, Mchitarjan and Reisenzein assume that the culture-transmission motive (1) has originally emerged in the course of cultural evolution as a mechanism that aids cultural transmission and (2) has been shaped by the cultural evolution process to focus on those elements of culture in a broad sense (i.e., the totality of socially transmitted information) that are particularly important for the functioning of cultural groups (Hypothesis 2). These core cultural elements are assumed to comprise, on the one hand, the values and norms of the group and the ideology that supports them, such as beliefs about a common origin and a shared destiny; and on the other hand, group characteristics that are reliable outward signs of a person’s cultural belonging and thereby allow group members – the carriers of the same cultural values and norms – to recognize each other. These characteristics include, importantly, the group’s language or sociolect. In addition, language is also of fundamental importance for cultural transmission because it is the central channel for the transmission of cultural information. A factor analysis of the specific and general motive items included in the questionnaire revealed a strong common factor on which all items had from moderate to high loadings.

More specifically, the theory of cultural transmission in minorities assumes that the culture-transmission motive is transmitted together with specific cultural values and norms during socialization. This is achieved by social learning practices, largely completed before adolescence, that firmly anchor the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives typically fulfilled by groups: Individuals are explicitly or implicitly taught, as part of the socialization process, that adherence to the cultural system of the group provides them with a sense of identity and belonging, cognitive guidance, security, and the appreciation and support of the group members. The strength of the culture-transmission motive should be predictable from the perceived instrumentality of the own cultural group for the fulfillment of these motives (Hypothesis 3). Most participants ascribed to their culture of origin all of a set of frequently proposed social functions of groups to some degree, and the desire to transmit the culture of origin could be well predicted from these received instrumentalities.

The passage reflects on elements of culture. What is the difference between two elements of culture such as values and beliefs?

Values refer to a set of ideas that guide an individual on how to evaluate right versus wrong, whereas beliefs refer to a set of doctrines, statements or experiences a person holds as true.

Beliefs refer to a set of ideas that guide an individual on how to evaluate right versus wrong, whereas values refer to a set of doctrines, statements or experiences a person holds as true

The main difference is in relations of these two elements of culture: values define person’s beliefs.

There is no difference between values and beliefs.

The theory discussed in the passage presumes that the culture-transmission motive focuses on specific cultural elements such as values, norms, language, etc. It implies that immigrants can adopt many aspects of the majority culture. Why is the adoption of elements of the culture important for immigrants?

It allows them to overcome the new culture and remain with old norms, values and beliefs after the migration process.

It allows them to modify values, norms and beliefs of their culture of origin.

It allows them to adopt many elements of the new majority culture.

It allows them to integrate well into the majority society, particularly its job market and educational sector.

According to the passage, what is one of the role of the elements of culture like values, norms, beliefs, language, etc.?

They allow individuals to make acquaintances and serve as topics for a small talk.

They allow group members – the carriers of the same cultural values and norms – to ignore each other.

They allow group members – the carriers of the same cultural values and norms – to recognize each other.

The elements of culture are theoretical sociological terms and do not impact individuals directly.

The theory of cultural transmission in minorities assumes that the culture-transmission motive is transmitted together with specific cultural values and norms during socialization. What does this process do for individuals?

It is a side process which does not impact individuals directly, and we can observe in mathematical models only.

It secures them, provides cognitive guidance, and allows to get the appreciation and support and to build their identity.

It provides them with identity, shows elements of the other culture, and motivates them to migrate.

It distracts them from the learning of practical skills that can help to get the appreciation and success at the job market.

Sourced from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marina_Fischer-Kowalski/publication/259969499_Society_as_a_Hybrid_Between_Material_and_Symbolic_Realms._Toward_a_Theoretical_Framework_of_Society-Nature_Interaction/links/5433f5230cf2dc341daeeb7c.pdf

Therefore, society would be constituted by the systematic relation between a particular culture (whichever way this may be differentiated internally), a particular human population, and the material artifacts (inanimate as well as living) that it considers to belong to itself (cultural relation), and which it produces and reproduces (as a material relation). The precise notion of a system (that is, a unit that is able to reproduce a difference between itself and its environment) does not, however, apply to this concept of society. This means society can no longer be conceived of as a system, but rather as a unit that has historically variable and imprecise material delimitations.

According to this theory, the material world would consist of innumerable material elements (ordered in whichever way) and of countless feedback control systems which, to varying extents, are influenced (and have already been influenced) culturally – including the human bodies themselves as well as the most diverse human artifacts. This implies the human societies cannot be portrayed simply as subsystems of the biosphere, although we have no reservations against conceiving both cultural and natural systems as offspring of biological evolution. Human societies, however, cannot be reduced to cultural systems; that is, they cannot be reduced to systems of symbolic communication which are subsystems of a universe of information or meaning. In our understanding, human societies are irreducible hybrids between a natural, material world and a cultural world of recursive communication.

According to the passage, why can’t the human societies be portrayed simply as the accumulation of material elements?

Because human societies are pure cultural systems of symbolic communication.

Because both cultural and natural systems are offspring of biological evolution.

Because the human culture constitutes an important part of the human societies and is not material itself.

Because there are various systems that organize material elements, which are not material themselves.

Which of the following statements describes the material culture?

A way of life of a group of people that they accept, and that is passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next.

The physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture.

A domain of objective facts whose existence depends on collective belief.

The spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another.

Which of the following statements describes the symbolic culture?

A way of life of a group of people that they accept, and that is passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next.

The physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture.

A domain of objective facts whose existence depends on collective belief.

The spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another.

What is TRUE about the symbolic culture?

It exists only for as long as people continue to have faith in it.

It is a form of communication, which can be expressed without words, that is used by people who share a culture.

It is superior on people, arises naturally and does not require regular maintenance to exist.

All of the above.

Sourced from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/03068299710179026

For the whole of a biological organism it is the double helix known as DNA, as the code of life, which synchronizes the growth and development process of correlated biological parts. The organic whole of culture, by comparison, lacks such a concomitant structure of synchronization and integration. The evolution of culture is not a smooth process but is manifest in fits and starts, with some parts accelerating faster than others. The resulting periods of maladjustment can be long and entail a good deal of untold human suffering until the prerequisite social adjustment takes place.

The dynamics of the evolution of the organic whole of culture is predicated on a dichotomy of useful knowledge. (Brinkman, 1995, 1992). The advance and application of useful knowledge, however, itself experiences a cultural lag. It appears that in the evolution of knowledge, the “soft” or social sciences have tended to lag behind the “hard” or physical sciences. The hard sciences relevant to material technology and material culture have historically advanced with greater acceleration in comparison to the social sciences. Consequently, a major source of cultural lag is that whereas the process of a science-fed technology prevails in the sector of material technology, it has as yet to be institutionalized and applied with a similar vigor in the realm of social technology. The result of which appears in the classic case of a cultural lag in which material technology advances exponentially and the social techniques of control lag behind.

The passage uses the term “cultural lag”. Which of the following statements does define this term?

A way of life of a group of people – the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next.

The feeling of disorientation experienced by someone when they are subjected to an unfamiliar culture, way of life, or set of attitudes.

The spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another.

A gap between the technical development of a society (material culture) and its moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture).

According to the passage, a cultural lag appears when:

Technological advancements or changes in society occur faster than the changes in the rules and norms of the culture.

Technological advancements or changes in society occur slower than the changes in the rules and norms of the culture.

Technological advancements or changes in society occur with the same pace as the changes in the rules and norms of the culture.

Technological advancements and changes in the rules and norms of the culture do not occur in the society.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141875

Tibetan and Hui people account for a large population of minorities in Northwest China. As of 2014 Census, the combined population of minority groups comprised 8.49% of the total population in China, including 0.49% of the Tibetan and 0.75 of the Hui. Tibetan is considered one of the most ancient nationalities in China. There are approximately 6.4 million Tibetans living in Chinese territory, most of which are distributed in a remote area of China, such as Tibet and Qinghai and Gansu Provinces. In addition, the entire population of the Tibetan people believes in Buddhism and uses their own characters and language. The Hui ethnic group is the most widely distributed minority group in mainland China, especially in Northwest China .Dating back to the 13th century, the Mongol army conquered their territory westward, which resulted in a large number of people flooding into China to find refuge

.

As time went on, absorbing different ethnic compositions from Han, Mongolian, and Uyghur, this group of people has gradually evolved into a completely new ethnic group – Hui Chinese. The total population of Hui Chinese has reached approximate 9.8 million, and they use Mandarin mostly in their daily lives. However, Hui Chinese still use Arabic during some religious activities and communications owing to their belief in Islam. Globalization has brought about drastic cultural change within Chinese society, which has caused strong cultural shock among Tibetan and Hui ethnic minorities. In response, the phenomenon of cultural anxiety among these ethnic minorities has become increasingly pervasive. For instance, films about such ethnic minorities’ cultures have themes involving various challenges, transformations, and fissions. The stronger the cultural anxiety these minorities perceive, the more they will want to stick to their own ethnic identity.

What is the meaning of the term “cultural shock” used in the passage?

A way of life of a group of people – the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next.

The feeling of disorientation experienced by someone when they are subjected to an unfamiliar culture, way of life, or set of attitudes.

The spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another.

A gap between the technical development of a society (material culture) and its moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture).

According to the passage, what is the natural reaction of societies to the cultural shock?

A passive-aggressive behavior towards the globalization which is expressed in movies.

The evolving of new ethnic groups, as it happened with Hui, Han, Mongolian, and Uyghur groups.

The introduction of new religion and elements of culture like new language and social norms.

The appearance of cultural anxiety and desire to stick to the previously existed ethnic identity.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156305#sec019

“Assimilating to the hierarchical culture” emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses’ perspectives.

According to the findings, the culture within nursing organizations was perceived as an environment that did not support the transition of new nurses. Adjusting to a new culture was particularly difficult for nurses in transition as the culture contributed to forcing newcomers into almost unconditional obedience during the assimilation process. For these nurses, the first year or so in the assigned ward represented the most difficult period and was the time during which individual nurses began withholding opinions that opposed ward norms. This continued as nurses gained experience, and it transformed into a tendency toward expressing opinions concerning only those issues with which all members of the organization could sympathize.

This phenomenon could be considered consistent with the concept of employee silence, which has been studied as an emerging issue in human resources research during the past decade. Employee silence is defined as “non-communication resulting from a conscious decision of employees to hold back seemingly important information, including suggestions, concerns, or questions”. As nurses experienced the process of assimilation into the hierarchical culture of a nursing organization, they became accustomed to being silent, which further reinforced the silence throughout the process. This phenomenon needs our attention as it has stretched from the individual to the collective level.

The passage reflects upon the nurses’ experience of assimilation process. What is the general sociological definition of assimilation?

The amalgamation and modification of newly perceived information and experiences into the existing cognitive structure.

The process by which individuals acquire the social and psychological characteristics and adjust to the culture of a group, or nation, or the state.

The distinction made between social groups and persons on the basis of biological, physiological, and socio cultural factors, resulting in the assignment of roles and status within a society.

The process individuals have to go through to be able to work effectively and live comfortably in a place that is new and unfamiliar to them.

According to the passage, what was one of the outcomes of the assimilation process presented in that study?

A painless adaptation of new personnel to the culture of the organization.

Employees’ riot and boycott against existing in the organization culture.

Employees’ riot and boycott against hiring new personnel.

A tendency among recently assimilated nurses to express only those issues which matter for all members of the organization.

According to the passage, why did the phenomenon of employee silence appeared during the process of assimilation?

Because new personnel were forced to immediately and unconditionally accept the existing organizational culture.

Because the culture within nursing organizations was perceived as an environment that supports the transition of new nurses.

Because the existing culture of the organization did not contribute to the assimilation process of new personnel.

Because the existing culture of the organization was perfect and easy to assimilate to for new personnel.

Imagine the situation: a Ukrainian family moves from the country of origin to the USA. Which of the following scenarios demonstrates country’s acceptance of the multiculturalist model?

Circumstances and country’s policies force the family to adapt to a new culture and “become Americans” in order to successfully live in the new environment.

Circumstances and country’s policies allow the family to speak the language that differs from the major population, to wear different clothes, to eat different foods, but only at home.

Circumstances and country’s policies force the family to leave the country because of the cultural differences from the major population.

Circumstances and country’s policies allow the family to openly speak the language that differs from the major population, to wear different clothes, to eat different foods, and to feel included into the society.

Forming an opinion based on other person's distinct identity traits before becoming aware of the relevant facts is termed as:

Prejudice

Opinion bias

Fast thinking

Aggression

Attributing a low social status to those who do not conform to the typical expectations of personality and behavior associating the unexpected behaviors as a disability is known as:

Behavioral discrimination

Social discrimination

Neurological discrimination

Personality discrimination

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0129916

Several authors have identified, with different names, three models of integration policies in Europe. First, the “ethnic minorities”, “multicultural” or “individualistic-civic” model combines social and political tolerance and respect of cultural differences with facilities to acquire citizenship through residence or place of birth (ius soli), with the UK, Netherlands and Sweden consistently classified in this group. Second, the “guest worker”, “differential exclusionist” or “collectivistic-ethnic” model, with Germany as historical prototype, assumes a conjunctural presence of immigrants based on the labor market needs. This model bases citizenship on ancestry (ius sanguinis), puts in place few active integration policies, and goes along with low levels of social and political tolerance. Third, the “assimilation” or “collectivistic-civic” model, with France as an example, facilitates citizenship through the ius soli principle, but is not keen on public manifestations of cultural differences and requires adhesion to republican values.

In contrast with our hypothesis, and with the rather poor socioeconomic outcomes for immigrants in France, we found that residence in France, the “assimilationist” country, was associated with the lowest all-cause mortality in the Turkish- and Moroccan-born. In the present study, immigrants to France were found to have the lowest mortality risk as compared to local-born in France. A recent study on self-rated health found that immigrants had poorer health than natives both in France and in the Netherlands, and that ethnic inequalities were greatest among women in the Netherlands. The adhesion of countries to policy models has not been unequivocal and rigid over time. While France has been slightly moving from assimilationism to inclusiveness and multiculturalism, the Netherlands has walked the opposite path. The Dutch 1998 integration of newcomers act was considered a sharp critique to multiculturalism, while the 2003 citizenship act introduced integration tests for naturalization. Moreover, Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands have historically received a less inclusive, “guest workers”’ treatment as compared to migrants from former Dutch colonies.

What does the term “multiculturalism” mean?

Multiculturalism is the idea that individuals are determined by their culture and are unable to leave their own culture.

Multiculturalism is the practice or policy of assimilating or encouraging the assimilation of people from all ethnic groups and cultures of origin.

Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction.

Multiculturalism is the ideology based on the premise that the individual's loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpass other individual or group interests.

Set 7

What describes the “differential exclusionist” or “collectivistic-ethnic” model?

This model exists with the presence of both social and political tolerance and respect of cultural differences.

This model does not publicly display cultural differences and requires adhesion to republican values.

This model assumes few active integration policies, bases of labor needs and goes along with low levels of social and political tolerance.

All of the above.

According to the passage, how can the lowest all-cause mortality among the immigrants in “assimilationist” France be explained?

It is due to the fact that immigrants come to France for work and leave the country when they retire.

It is due to the fact that sociological studies are not reliable and there is a statistical mistake in findings presented at this passage.

It is due to the fact that countries tend to move from one model to another, what has happened to France.

It is due to the fact that France always publicly recognized cultural differences and implemented various integration policies.

Sourced from: http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/CHATMAN/papers/20_CulturesSubculturesDynamic.pdf

The conceptual dichotomy between unitary cultures and those characterized by subcultures may be rooted in the misconception that subcultures always consist of people who oppose the dominant culture. From its origin in sociology and anthropology, the term “subculture” has been associated with images of deviants, delinquents, gangs, and other nonconformists such as hippies, British punk teenagers, or occult members. Organizational ethnographers have found a variety of types of organizational subcultures, not all of which are based on expressing opposing views. Using a parent-child metaphor, Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1970) suggested that a subculture, like a child, could never be entirely different from its “parent,” the larger culture.

Recognizing that not all subcultures are countercultures, it is, therefore, useful to distinguish among subculture types. Martin and Siehl (1983) developed a typology of organizational subcultures, including enhancing, orthogonal, and counter cultures, and in which each type exemplified a different level of congruence with the dominant culture's values. Members of enhancing subcultures adhere to dominant organizational culture values even more enthusiastically than do members of the rest of the organization. They agree with and care about both pivotal and peripheral values, consistent with the larger organization’s core values, and intense commitment to particular peripheral values. Members of orthogonal subcultures both embrace the dominant cultures’ values but also hold their own set of distinct, but not conflicting, values. They embrace the pivotal organizational values but, simultaneously, hold values that are peripheral to those of the overarching culture. Finally, members of a counterculture disagree with the core values of the dominant culture and hold values that directly conflict with core organizational values.

The passage reflects upon phenomena of subculture and counterculture. What is the difference between subculture and counterculture?

The term counterculture is synonymous to the term subculture, and means that there is a group of people that have values and norms that are distinct from those held by the majority.

A counterculture operates within the framework of the dominant culture, whereas a subculture goes against one or more significant values of the dominant culture.

A subculture operates within the framework of the dominant culture, whereas a counterculture goes against one or more significant values of the dominant culture.

The term counterculture is synonymous to the term subculture, and means that there is a group of people that have values and norms that go against one or more significant values of the dominant culture.

The passage mentions a parent-child metaphor that was used by Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1970) to explain the relations between culture and subculture. What did the authors mean by this metaphor?

That the subculture goes against the dominant culture's values.

That the subculture is always in line with the dominant culture's values.

That the dominant culture's values are responsible for the emergence of the subculture.

That the subculture emerges from the dominant culture's values.

If a counterculture emerges in an organization, what consequences can it bring?

The emergence of a counterculture is useful for an organization because it can bring a new perspective on an organization and strengthen of the overarching culture.

The emergence of a counterculture is dangerous for an organization because it can strengthen the overarching culture.

The emergence of a counterculture is useful for an organization because it can help new employees to adapt to the overarching culture.

The emergence of a counterculture is dangerous for an organization because it can threaten the strength of the overarching culture.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0003890#sec001

The CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other public health agencies have leveraged popular social media to distribute up-to-date and accurate information on Ebola, while social websites such as Reddit, to which users can submit content organized by areas of interest, allow for the assimilation of unverified information. A literature review on the use of social networking sites for influencing health behavior demonstrated a particularly valuable aspect of social media: its cost-effective ability to reach hard-to-reach underserved and minority populations. Health information reaches consumers at various levels that differ based on demographic and socioeconomic factors, therefore, different groups receive, trust, and process health information differently. Smart phone apps and health reminders through text messages are some ways that technology has been used to help raise awareness about the epidemic, but there are still other ways that social media and popular culture can be used to further spread vital public health information.

Rather than frighten the public through scattered, gloomy newscasts about new Ebola cases, well-known popular culture tools should be used to disperse relevant health precaution information to a greater target audience using an entertaining, more recognizable form. Many consumers prefer to take initiative and seek desired information on their own by turning to the Internet for health information, with nearly 75% of Internet users searching for information about health in the past year. Popular culture can be used to educate mass populations about important information regarding the Ebola outbreak, being used as a hook to draw audiences in and as a familiar vehicle for information dissemination. Those professionals in charge of disseminating information must consistently be on the lookout for what characters are popular in the current time, and they must be creative in how these icons can be related to a disease or outbreak.

The passage reflects upon the ways in which popular culture and mass media can be used in the healthcare industry. What is popular culture?

The set of cultural products held in the highest esteem by a culture.

Any of the means of communication, as television or newspapers, that reach very large numbers of people.

The unifying expressive components of everyday life as enacted by localized, tradition-bound groups.

Contemporary lifestyle and items that are well known and generally accepted, cultural patterns that are widespread within a population.

According to the passage, “different groups receive, trust, and process health information differently”. How can the maximized audience be reached?

By diversification of mechanisms by which pertinent health information is disseminated.

By increase of socioeconomic status of minority groups to the level of major population.

By increase of general level of trust in the society.

By issuing the law which compels every member of the society to use mass media.

According to the passage, how can be popular culture used by healthcare professionals?

To educate mass populations about important information regarding health issues.

To attract and draw mass population in the discussion of health issues.

To distribute information about health issues by using means of communication familiar to most of the population.

All of the above.

According to the passage, what is the biggest advantage for healthcare industry of using mass media and popular culture?

It is cost-effective and has access to the majority of the population.

It is cost-effective and allows to reach underserved and minority populations.

It is cost-effective and has less harmful consequences for the environment.

It is cost-effective and helps to promote the products of mass media.

Sourced from: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/407/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10818-008-9031-z.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10818-008-9031-z&token2=exp=1469187193~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F407%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10818-008-9031-z.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10818-008-9031-z*~hmac=bb7444b2585ebc0f7c4b5f8593042fa093985ec703e3bc4083d985748063bacd

‘Culture is crucial for understanding human behavior. People acquire beliefs and values from people around them, and you can’t explain human behavior without taking this reality into account’. The role of culture in the determination of human behavior, how culture comes to be and the division of labor between genes and culture in the determination of human behavior are central topics of this interesting and important book. Cultural evolution outpaces biological evolution by a wide margin and it explains the very great change in human circumstances over the last 100,000 years. Cultural evolution, a much faster process than biological evolution, is an adaptation because it better keeps pace with rapid changes in the environment, including the social environment. Moreover, social learning via imitation allows the individual to avoid costly trial-and-error individual learning. But, importantly, if environmental change is very rapid, individual learning may be superior to cultural transmission: though fast, cultural evolution is not necessarily fast enough to keep up with extremely rapid changes in the environment and might thus result in learning a behavior variant that is already out of date.

Cultural evolution also has the advantage that new components of culture are not usually a product of randomness, but rather often are the product of a conscious attempt to improve on those currently in use. Successful new variants can then be adopted by others through a process that Richerson and Boyd call biased transmission, where the bias can be a product of a benefit-cost decision-making process on the part of the adopter of the new cultural variant. The various forms of culture that do not belong to Homo sapiens do not exhibit much in the way of cumulative cultural evolution where existing variants are modified and improved upon. The process of gene-culture coevolution has given large brain Homo sapiens adaptations that facilitate a level of rapid and accurate social learning that is not present in other animals. For example, though young chimps learn to crack nuts by watching the behavior of their mother, she never watches their efforts nor attempts to correct their errors.

What is the general definition of the term “evolution”?

A gradual process in which different kinds of living organisms change into a different and usually simpler form.

A gradual process in which different forms of cultures change into a different, simpler or more complex form.

A gradual process in which different kinds of living organisms change into a different and usually more complex or better form.

A gradual process in which different kinds of living organisms change into a different, simpler or more complex forms of cultures.

According to the passage, what is TRUE about cultural evolution?

Cultural evolution is always fast enough to keep up with rapid changes in the environment.

Cultural evolution is a product of randomness and usually is slower than biological evolution.

Cultural evolution is usually a product of a conscious attempt to improve on the components of culture that are currently in use.

All of the above.

According to the passage, what distinguishes gene-culture coevolution of Homo sapiens from evolution of other animals?

The ability of Homo sapiens to share attention that enables the parent to teach the child and correct errors on the part of the child.

The fact that cultural evolution is a much faster process than biological evolution.

The fact that people unlike animals acquire beliefs, values and behavior patterns from people around them.

Gene-culture coevolution of Homo sapiens does not distinguish from evolution of other animals in any way.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022515#s3

Socio-economic development has proven to be insufficient to explain the time and pace of the human demographic transition. Shifts to low fertility norms have thus been thought to result from social diffusion, yet to date, micro-level studies are limited and are often unable to disentangle the effect of social transmission from that of extrinsic factors. It is widely agreed that fertility decline is not simply an adjustment to changing socio-economic circumstances, and that additional understanding can be gained by taking into account the social transmission of fertility ideas and behaviors. In particular, social diffusion has been invoked to explain why, among both preindustrial and industrial countries, fertility varies widely at any given level of development. Social transmission has been suggested to explain the spread of low fertility norms during the European demographic transition: using provincial data (1870-1960), Coale & Watkins showed that, once a region in a country has begun to decline, neighboring regions with the same language or culture follow after short delays, even if they were less developed. It has thus been argued that fertility decline reflects the spread of key attitudes (e.g. about the Ideal family size) and behaviors (e.g. uptake of birth control technologies), a process partly independent from societal structural changes (e.g. decrease in mortality rate, availability of contraception), which can account for a unique portion of the variation in the timing and pace of change. We used data which included the first ever use of modern contraception among a population of over 900 women in four villages in rural Ethiopia, where contraceptive prevalence is still low (<20%). We investigated whether the time of adoption of modern contraception is predicted by (i) the proportion of ever-users/non ever-users within both women and their husbands' friendships networks and (ii) the geographic distance to contraceptive ever-users. Using a model comparison approach, we found that individual socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. parity, education) and a religious norm are the most likely explanatory factors of temporal and spatial patterns of contraceptive uptake, while the role of person-to-person contact through either friendship or spatial networks remains marginal.

What is the difference between cultural diffusion and cultural transmission

Both cultural diffusion and cultural transmission refer to the process of spreading cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another.

Cultural diffusion refers to the process of spreading cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another, whereas cultural transmission refers to the way a group tends to learn and pass on information within a society or culture.

Cultural diffusion refers to the process of spreading cultural beliefs and social activities within a society or culture, whereas cultural transmission refers to the way one group tends to learn and pass on information to another.

Both cultural diffusion and cultural transmission refer to the way a group tends to learn and pass on information within a society or culture.

Why does an example of Coale & Watkins’ finding provided in the passage illustrate the process of cultural transmission and not the process of cultural diffusion?

Because low fertility norms have spread to the groups of another culture.

Because it shows that low fertility norms can spread to the neighboring regions.

Because low fertility norms have spread to the groups with the same culture.

Because it shows that low fertility norms cannot spread to the neighboring regions

https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2095388.pdf?_=1469192837308

Among the major changes altering the aging process from one cohort to the next are the unprecedented twentieth-century declines in mortality (associated with social changes in standard of living, education, childbearing, and public health and medical practices). A century ago in the United States one-third of those born in each cohort had died before reaching adulthood; today over three quarters of the cohort members survive to at least age 65, and increasing proportions to age 85-with women, as is well known, outliving men. This remarkable extension of longevity has untold consequences for the shape of the life course and the ways life is experienced in a range of intermediate social structures. For one, longevity allows education to be prolonged: in colonial times, children rarely went beyond grammar school; by the first part of our century, 38 percent of young adults had graduated from high school, a figure that rose to over 70 percent in the 1970s and 1980s. So, too, retirement, as I have noted, which was rare and short-lived early in the century, now typically occupies one-fourth of the adult life course. Role relationships in the family have been extended: among couples marrying a century ago, one or both partners were likely to have died before the children were grown; today (if not divorced) they can anticipate surviving together for an average of 40 or 50 years. Today, parents and children live a larger share of their lives as age-status equals than as adult-dependent-child. As dying has been postponed, it now occurs more often in sterile medical settings than in family groups; thus the process of dying itself has been transformed and the meaning of death redefined.

In addition to increases in longevity, many other cohort differences in the aging process are also mediated through changes in social conditions prevailing in various parts of the system. Thus cohort declines in the age of menarche seem related to improved nutrition in particular societies or families. The role of retiree may disappear for cohorts under the demands of war mobilization, or arrive in life's prime for members of cohorts experiencing economic retrenchment. Perceptions of "reading readiness" are affected by pedagogical ideologies to which different cohorts of children are exposed: the practice of sending three- and four-year-olds to school, favored in this country earlier in the nineteenth century and again today, was reviled at the end of the century when "precocity" was viewed as a disease. In seventeenth- and eighteenth-century America, the status and care of elderly ministers deteriorated because of long-term declines in economic prosperity and spiritual ardor in the society as a whole.

What is the general definition of the life course?

The time-related deterioration of the physiological functions necessary for survival and fertility.

Withdrawal from one's occupation or position, especially upon reaching a certain age.

The permanent cessation of vital bodily functions, as manifested in humans by the loss of heartbeat, the absence of spontaneous breathing, and brain death.

A sequence of socially defined events and roles that the individual enacts over time.

The passage describes cohort differences in the aging process. What does the term “cohort” mean?

Cohort is a group of subjects who live in one society and belong to the same age group.

Cohort is a group of subjects who have shared a particular event together.

Cohort is a group of subjects who have shared a particular event together during a particular time span.

Cohort is a group of subjects which is formed by the sociologist during the statistical analysis based on age.

According to the passage, what are the untold consequences of the extension of longevity on the life course?

The decrease in the percentage of young adults graduating from high school.

The transformation of the process of dying and the meaning of death.

The prolongation of the status adult-dependent-child.

The extension of the work experience and delay of the retirement.

Sourced from: http://www.joe.org/joe/2001december/iw2.php

http://study.com/academy/lesson/social-theories-of-aging-definitions-examples.html

The social theories of aging attempt to explain how people age. There are three main theories: Disengagement theory, Activity theory, The Social Clock. Each of these attempts to explain how a person ages into older life. The disengagement theory is the process of individuals withdrawing and isolating from prior social interactions due to age. This is one of the oldest theories put forth, and was originally posited around the 1950s. Work in the 1950s was often very hard on the body and the medical care was not what we are used to today. These life and medicine issues led to shorter life-spans and a less vigorous old people. Back then, it was quite intuitive to say that as people grew older, they would disengage from activities they were part of because they no longer had the stamina or energy to stay involved.

Freedom, slowing down, companionship, loss, changes, loneliness, faith, and active engagement were main themes among elderly participants in our study. Everyone mentioned the enjoyment of freedom and the challenge of physical decline. Freedom from work and financial strain gave them choices to do volunteer work, attend activities, and enjoy their lives. Slowing down has brought some mixed feelings to their lives. Some people wanted to do more and felt disappointed that they had to slow down. Others felt good because they have time to enjoy their lives more. Slowing down provided quality time for older couples to enrich their companionship. They spent more time together to travel, visit, and do things together. Serving others and engaging in communities and senior citizens centers increased their productivity. They valued senior citizens centers and enjoyed visiting people there. A 72-year-old widower said, "My life would be miserable if there were no senior citizens centers. I like to come to the center and help serve coffee or tea. I can practice remembering people's names and talk to them when they are in line."

Because they were capable of doing things and being active, they felt they were not old. Age was just a number to them. One widow said, "Age is just a number. I don't like the number because people usually view the age in a negative way." Some people did not even like to hear the word "aging" or "old" because of negative perceptions about being old. Although they did not think they were old, about half of them admitted that they had no choice. One said, "Aging does not mean anything to me. I am not old. But I will get there and have no choice."

What is the social theory of aging?

Expected progressions from midlife to older life based on biological factors.

Expected progressions from midlife to older life based on social factors.

Expected progressions from midlife to older life based on economic factors.

Expected progressions from midlife to older life based on political factors.

What social factors of 1950s led to the development of the Disengagement theory of aging?

The expected engagement of the elderly people to activities due to work conditions and the degree of development of the health care.

The expected disengagement of the elderly people from activities despite the work conditions and the degree of development of the health care.

The expected disengagement of the elderly people from activities due to work conditions and the degree of development of the health care.

The expected engagement of the elderly people to activities despite the work conditions and the degree of development of the health care.

Based on the information you have read why is the Disengagement theory of aging NOT relevant to nowadays reality?

Because nowadays elderly people do not have time, financial strain and enough medical care to involve in volunteer work, to travel, to serve others and engage in communities and senior citizens centers.

Because nowadays elderly people continue to naturally disengage from activities due to the social factors.

Because elderly people who lived during the development of that theory have died, and therefore, they do not spoil the statistics nowadays.

Because nowadays elderly people have time, financial strain and enough medical care to involve in volunteer work, to travel, to serve others and engage in communities and senior citizens centers.

What is the social significance of age?

There are certain perceptions and connotations of age that are accepted and widely spread in the society and as a result in a way define socio-economic status of elderly people in that society.

Due to their age elderly people no longer have the stamina or energy and as a result they require extended medical support.

There are certain perceptions and connotations of age that are accepted and widely spread among elderly people and as a result in a way define socio-economic status of the society.

All of the above.

Sourced from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lesley_Doyal/publication/11661976_Doyal_L_Sex_gender_and_health_the_need_for_a_new_approach._BMJ_323_1061-1063/links/00b49521c6995c8b22000000.pdf

The differences between male and female reproductive systems have always been an important consideration in healthcare delivery. Despite recent progress, around half a million women continue to die each year as a direct consequence of pregnancy and childbirth, and more than 10 times that number are seriously disabled. If health services are to meet the needs of both women and men then all these sex differences need to be taken seriously in the planning and delivery of care. But biological influences are only part of the complex of factors shaping the health of women and men. Socially constructed gender differences are also important in determining whether individuals can realize their potential for a long and healthy life.

An extensive literature documents the relation between gender divisions and women’s health. Researchers have explored a wide range of social, economic, and cultural factors, showing their links with physical and mental wellbeing. Gender inequalities in income and wealth make women especially vulnerable to poverty. In some parts of the world this makes it difficult for them to acquire the necessities for health, especially during the reproductive years when family needs are greatest. Social norms about the divisions of responsibility mean that many women have very heavy burdens of work, especially those who combine employment with domestic duties, pregnancy, and childrearing. Within the household women often receive little support, and too many are abused by other family members. Anxiety and depression are reported more often by women than by men in most parts of the world, yet there is no evidence that women are constitutionally more susceptible to such problems. As well as affecting their health, gender inequalities may also limit women’s access to services. Around the world many millions of women continue to be deprived of basic health care as a result of poverty and discrimination. There is still evidence that women are treated by some doctors as less valuable than men. This can lead to demeaning attitudes as well as the unequal allocation of clinical resources. This gender bias is especially evident in the context of medical research, where studies have shown that women have too often been excluded from studies for inappropriate reasons.

What is the difference between terms “sex” and “gender”?

Gender refers to the natural biological differences between men and women, whereas sex refers to the cultural, socially-constructed differences between them.

Sex refers to the natural biological differences between men and women, whereas gender refers to the cultural, socially-constructed differences between the two sexes.

Sex refers to the natural biological differences between men and women, whereas gender refers to the cultural, socially-constructed similarities between the two sexes.

There is no difference between these terms.

According to the passage, what are the consequences of the differences between genders for women’s health?

Gender inequalities in income and wealth make men especially vulnerable to poverty, which leads to the difficulties for women to acquire the necessities for health.

Women are constitutionally more susceptible to anxiety and depression due to the biological inequalities between genders.

Gender inequalities in income and wealth deprive women of basic health care.

Due to gender inequalities women are treated by some doctors as more valuable than men.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0157805

In the current review gender is viewed as the social and cultural construction of masculine and feminine identities, roles, norms and relationships, rather than an immutable personality trait grounded in biological sex. We thus view children and adolescents as actively involved with defining or challenging the social constructions of masculinity and femininity through interactions with their social and cultural environments. While what is considered as typical or dominant norms about masculinities and femininities vary both within and across time and settings, in this paper we are particularly interested in the factors related to attitudes that perpetuate unequal power relation between men and women or that stigmatize those who do not ascribe to culturally defined norms (e.g. boys that act “feminine”).

This systematic review provides a robust evidence-base of the key individual and interpersonal relationship factors that shape gender attitudes during early adolescence. In the current review, peers emerged as one of the strongest influences on personal gender attitudes among 10-14 year olds. There is some research highlighting that schools and teachers in particular are important institutions for gender socialization during childhood and adolescence. Studies show that when girls remain in schools, gender equality is enhanced by delaying marriage and reducing early childbearing. However, our review suggests that schools can also reinforce stereotypical gender norms by promoting male dominated sports in physical education that reinforce toughness and competition, and excluding girls and boys who do not conform to such values. Another societal level institution that is hypothesized to play a role in shaping gender attitudes is both receptive (e.g., TV, radio) and social media. Gender attitudes also appear to vary by ethnicity, race, immigration history and social class. For example, several studies highlighted that masculinity norms of minority groups may differ from those of the dominant culture. This reflects the intersectionality of social, cultural, and economic factors as they influence and shape multiple types of social norms and inequalities including gender norms.

What does the term “gender norms” used in the passage mean?

The set of rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors.

A way of thinking about how rules, resources and power are allocated and used.

The widely accepted social rules about roles, traits, behaviors status and power associated with masculinity and femininity in a given culture.

A set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.

The passage states that gender is a social and cultural construct. What does it mean?

It means that society and culture do not create gender roles, and these roles are prescribed for a person by his/her biological sex.

It means that society and culture create gender roles, and these roles are prescribed as ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific gender.

It means that gender is a construct that exists without relation to a particular society or culture.

It means that society and culture follow natural gender roles emerged as a result of human evolution.

According to the study described in the passage, what are the key individual and interpersonal relationship factors that shape gender attitudes during early adolescence?

Socialization processes that take place within the family and during the school period.

Socialization process as a result of interaction with social and mass media.

Ethnicity, race, immigration history, and social class.

All of the above.

According to the passage, how can schools reinforce stereotypical gender norms?

By excluding girls and boys who do not conform to the value of sport and exercises.

By excluding girls from sport games, delaying marriage and reducing early childbearing.

By excluding boys from tough and competitive sport games.

By excluding girls and boys who do not conform to the values of toughness and competition.

Sourced from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053246

All over the world the labor market is strongly gender segregated, leaving women and men exposed to different work environments in different occupations (horizontal segregation) and hierarchical positions (vertical segregation), with consequences for women's and men's health status. However, the gender segregated labor market is not the only aspect of gender inequalities with an impact on health status. In fact, gender equality is multidimensional and includes several dimensions of gender relations in division of labor, emotions, symbolic representations as well as power and decision making. Within an organization these patterns of gender relations constitutes a gender regime and can include inequalities between women and men in the shape of discrimination in relation to opportunities, access to services and allocation of resources or benefits. All of these aspects of gender inequalities influence women's and men's working life and can lead to gendered experiences of somatic and mental health status. Gender inequalities can therefore be seen as social obstacles that prevent fairness in health status between women and men making it an important issue for public health research.

Previous research in the field of occupational health has often used a risk factor approach to health outcomes which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. A contextual approach that includes many different aspects of gender equality can therefore add new perspectives that enable us to grasp how gender equality at the workplace relates to health status. We understand gender as a social relational process that is being constructed in women's and men's everyday life. When approaching the area of gender equality, work and health experiences, an underlying premise of our research is the notion that similar life circumstances for women and men would lead to similar health outcomes, sometimes referred to as the convergence theory.

What is the general meaning of the term “segregation”?

A promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single culture.

A setting apart or separation of people or things from others or from the main body or group.

The determination of people by their culture and setting them apart from other cultures.

The practice or policy of encouraging the assimilation of people from all ethnic groups and cultures of origin.

What is the definition of the term “gender segregation”?

The situation whereby opportunities for career progression for a particular gender within a company or sector are limited.

The concentration of men and women in different kinds of jobs or sectors.

The physical, legal, and cultural separation of people according to their biological sex.

The physical, legal, and cultural separation of people according to social constructions of gender.

According to the passage, what elements do constitute a gender regime at the workplace?

Gender relations in division of labor and power and decision making within an organization.

Gender relations in emotions and symbolic representations within an organization.

Gender relations in division of labor, emotions, symbolic representations as well as power and decision making within an organization.

The physical, legal, and cultural separation of people according to social constructions of gender.

According to the passage, how do gender inequalities prevent fairness in health status between women and men?

Gender inequalities result in different opportunities, different degree of access to services and allocation of resources or benefits for women and men.

Gender inequalities give women and men equal opportunities, access to services and allocation of resources or benefits.

Gender inequalities promote fairness in health status between women and men.

All of the above.

Peach is the oldest among her sociology classmates. They look up to her for support and leadership. For them, she should serve as the “responsible older sister,” and they expect her to know more than they do. Ms. Peach feels compelled to act based on these stereotypes and sometimes regard it unfair. Ms. Peach’s experience can be associated with:

Cohort

Ageism

Gerontology

Ageing

In a sociology class, Mrs. Jess introduces her students to the field of social gerontology. Considering you have been in Mrs. Jess’s sociology class before, what is social gerontology?

It is the study of biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging

It is a subfield of gerontology that focuses on the physical aspects of aging

It is the study of genes

It is a subfield of gerontology that focuses on the social aspects of aging

Sex refers to the biologically determined differences between male and female, whereas gender describes the culturally and socially constructed characteristics that pertain to masculinity and femininity. Which of the following statements is/are true about sex and gender?

The reproductive system helps determine one’s sex

B. Gender role is reinforced in the statement: “Men are aggressive and women are emotional.”

Gender differs across cultures

All of the above

Danny visited a friend at a hotel, and while waiting at the lounge, he felt the need to go to the restroom. He asked the hotel receptionist for direction, and she pointed him to the right side of the lounge. When he reached the restroom area, Danny saw two different doors, each having a sign – both are silhouettes of a human but one wore pants and other wore a skirt. This is a usual example of:

Gender discrimination

Social constructionism

Gender segregation

Sexual orientation

Racialization has been a part of the world’s history. It pertains to the process of attributing people or groups of people to a particular “race” or “category” of persons that impacts the way they are treated or viewed. Which of the following is false about racialization?

Racialization fosters the perceived dominance of certain groups of people

Racialization is an immediate process

Racialization can lead to racism

Racialization produces social hierarchy

Mikaela is American; she lives in a diverse community. Mikaela met a new family who had just recently earned their American citizenship. Throughout her life, she had met several immigrants and yet she do not know the difference between foreign born and native born. Which among the two is the correct term that would describe the new family Mikaela met?

Native Born: Earned American citizenship

Foreign Born: U.S. citizen since birth

Native Born: People who are US citizens at birth. People who were born in the United States territories or those in abroad who have at least one U.S. citizen parent.

Foreign Born: An individual who was born outside the U.S.

Karla had always believed that Asians; Japanese, Filipinos and Chinese contributes the largest number of immigrants in U.S . Is this correct?

No, the largest immigration group are from Mexico, India and Caribbean nations.

Yes, they had migrated in the U.S. since the “Great Migration”.

No, the largest immigrants in the U.S. are from Europe; Italians, Germans and Greeks.

Yes, along with them are the Koreans, Arabians, and Singaporeans

Mr. Jackson is an African-American. His grandparents were part of the "Great Migration". He was born and raised in America; he has no knowledge of African culture. Yet, people had often called him "black", "nigger" and many more. This is an example of discrimination in relation to his…

Ethnicity

Race

Country

Nationality

Many members of the LGBT community still face discrimination. Accordingly, all binational same-sex couples are being denied of the ability afforded to heterosexual American citizens and green card holders to sponsor their foreign born spouse to immigrate properly. In relation to this, what is the meaning of heterosexual?

A person attracted to the opposite sex

A sexually attracted to his/her own sex

Sexually attracted to both sex

All of the above

This concept traces the connection between population growth and society's use of technology. An example of which, medical practitioners specifically those medical technologies, are successful in increasing reproductive success but families nowadays are choosing to have fewer children.

Malthusian Theory

Population Projections

Demographic Transition Theory

Population Pyramid

What is the difference between role strain and role conflict?

Role strain describes how you do not like your role and role conflict describes how people do not like your role.

Role strain describes how the same social status imposes conflicting demands and expectations on an individual, and role conflict describes how incompatible expectations can arise from two or more social status held by the same person.

Role strain describes how the same social status can place unnaturally high expectations on a person while role conflict describes how those expectations are diffused by having several different roles to play in your life.

There is no real difference between the two and it depends on your perspective.

Sociologists who ascribe to the interactionist paradigm argue that when studying crime and deviance what is important is how society views individuals based on certain actions. In the interactionist view, how could the labels of “criminal” or “deviant” be problematic?

The police often have difficulty determining who has a criminal record and cannot do their jobs effectively without this knowledge.

These labels could lead to the individual who is labeled actually committing more crimes or acts of deviance as a self-fulfilling prophecy.

These labels fail to inform us why certain individuals commit crimes in the first place.

Labels do not have an effect on people and are inconsequential. They should therefore be ignored.

Anomie is a sociological concept defined as social instability resulting from a breakdown of standards and values, or personal alienation and uncertainty caused by a lack of purpose or ideals. Which of the following phenomenon can be possibly caused by anomie on both a personal and structural level?

The growth of technology

Dislocation of workers from rural to urban areas

Suicide

The recent economic recession

Which reason(s) below could explain why many older adults often experience anomie?

They feel disconnected from their children who they no longer directly care for.

Loss of independence due to retirement and/or lack of ability to care for themselves.

They are often no longer able to engage in activities that society deems ‘productive.’

II only

I and II only

III only

I, II, and III

The ideal type (the standard that society dictates its members should aspire to) of the American family is the nuclear family, with married parents and their children living in the same household. In a sociological perspective, which of the following statements can be inferred about the nuclear family?

Those who were not raised in a nuclear will feel out-casted from the rest of society.

The nuclear family is the natural way in which families develop.

The nuclear family serves numerous social, emotional, and economic purposes in American society.

Non-nuclear families are often seen as ‘dysfunctional’ or ‘deviant’.

Research shows that men are more likely to give credit to themselves for accomplishments or success while women tend to praise others and give them credit for their successes. This difference is illustrated by which of the following concepts?

Female is an ascribed status and male is an achieved status.

Gender norms often dictate that women must be empathetic and focused on others’ needs while men must be independent and hard-working.

We live in a matriarchal society where women don’t need accomplishments to achieve a high social status.

Men and women act on their own and their beliefs and attitudes are not influenced by factors beyond themselves.

‘Sex’ and ‘gender’ can best be described by which of the following.

Sex is an achieved status and gender is ascribed.

Sex refers to biological differences and gender to social differences and identity.

Gender refers to biological differences and sex to social differences and identity.

Gender is achieved status and sex is ascribed.

Which of the following illustrates a role strain for most men in American society?

Expectations for men to be the financial provider for the family while also partaking in household and child-rearing duties.

Mid-managers often feel allegiance to their supervisors and those they supervise.

Men tend to focus on their success and achievement rather than on the needs of those around them.

Patriarchal norms dictate that men act a certain way and many men conform to these standards while many men choose not to.

The following tables represent the self-reported religiosity based on several demographic factors.

Attendance at religious services by gender

% of adults who attend religious services…

Attendance at religious services by race/ethnicity

% of adults who attend religious services…

Attendance at religious services by household income

% of adults who attend religious services…

Attendance at religious services by educational group

% of adults who attend religious services…

Sourced from: Religious Landscape Study. 2013. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/.

Which of the following illustrates a potential stereotype threat when looking at the results of this study?

Minorities are much more religious than whites.

Religiosity can be a significant predictor of individuals’ past and future behavior.

Education level is not a statistically significant factor of religious service attendance.

Over a third of adults with a post graduate degree attend religious services at least once a week.

Which of the following is the best example of impression management?

Parents feeling constrained by the need to provide economically, socially, and emotionally for their children.

A jobseeker attempting to show an interviewer the best side of themselves.

A freelance journalist writing an article anonymously to protect his identity.

None of the above

Which of the following explains the potential psychological implications of role strain?

A woman with schizophrenia does not know how she can provide for her family with her condition.

Research has shown that internalization of the male gender role causes men to deal with emotional distress by isolating themselves from social connections to prove independence rather than seeking help from others.

Women experience a conflict in dividing their time between roles of homemaker, mother, and employee.

Men’s lifespans are less than women on average due to increased risk-taking, not seeking help from others, and less overall focus on overall health and wellness as compared to women.

Salespeople often use the door-in-the-face technique to get potential customers to agree to purchase products or services that under normal circumstances they would not purchase. Which of the following describes how this technique is typically applied?

Ask the customer if they want to purchase the product or service and if they show interest tell them they should purchase immediately because the rebate will end soon.

Ask the customer if they want to order the highest level of the product or service. If they say they do not, then scale down until they agree to purchase something.

Ask the customer if they want a free trial. If they do, then gradually move them towards purchasing the product or service outright.

Ask the customer if they want to purchase the product or service. If they do not, then go to the residence because law of averages will play out eventually.

Mark is a sales manager for a major telecommunications firm. He often advises his employees to emphasize that the free trial for their service expires at the end of the month. Which persuasive technique is Mark advising his employees to use?

Foot-in-the-door technique

Straw man argument

Time sensitivity technique

Extrapolation technique

Which of the following represents an opposite, yet corollary, persuasive technique to the door-in-the-face technique?

Speaking in generalities

Foot in the door technique

Clusters of three

Red herring technique

Which of the following scenarios demonstrates the potential impact of unintended leading questions in research?

In a study of children’s perception, 50% more of the children sampled said that two trains colliding in a video were going 60 mph or faster when asked “How fast are the trains moving?” than when the children were shown the same video and asked “How slow are the trains moving?”

Surveys carried out by interest groups tend to show data that is skewed towards their cause.

A research study of sexual health outcomes for adolescents in a major US city who had taken a sexual education course showed that their self-reported sexual activity mirrored that of the control group of adolescents who had not taken a sexual education course.

Opinion polls of political candidates often collect data on potential voters’ favorable and unfavorable opinions of candidates by asking, “Do you have a generally favorable or unfavorable view [of the candidate]?”

Which of the following research studies illustrates the power of ascribed roles and group behavior?

A. Bodo doll experiment

B. Stanford prison experiment

Tinsely’s bathroom study 

Autoethnography of a professor

Table 3. Percentage of cohort participants in each cluster reporting psychological distress and work characteristics (w = women, m = men).

Sourced from: Elwer, Hyarryon, Bolin, and Hammarström. “Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress”. January 9, 2013. PLOS One. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053246

Which of the following statements can be inferred from the data?

Traditionally unequal workplaces are statistically correlated with psychological distress for both men and women across socioeconomic positions, type of work, and occupational sector.

Men do not experience any psychological distress working with things in gender equal workplaces.

More women than men tend to work in positions where they work with people across the different workplace types.

More information is needed to make any inferences from the data.

What could be interpreted as one potential problem with attempting to conceptualize a “gender equal workplace”?

Many people do not believe that gender equality should be a goal in the first place.

The workplace encompasses many different industries and you cannot make realistic generalizations across different industries.

Conceptualization of the term is not actually necessary in order to study it.

There are numerous variables that a researcher can use to define “gender equal” and choosing just a few variables necessarily excludes others that may also provide significant insights.

Convergence theory states that as societies become increasingly industrialized, they begin to resemble other industrialized societies in their forms of social organization. In which of the following areas below could an understanding of convergence theory be the most useful?

In understanding how democratic countries elect dictatorial leaders if certain social and economic conditions are met.

In understanding how mental health disorders develop among recently returned military veterans.

In understanding how globalization affects traditional cultures and lifestyles.

In understanding mass migration from rural areas to urban areas in poorer countries as they begin to industrialize.

Sourced from: Table 4. Path Analyses of Neighborhood Characteristics, Life Events, and Health Outcomes, Adjusted for Socio-demographics, CCAHS, 2001–03. King, Ogle, and Dowd. “Negative Life Events Vary by Neighborhood and Mediate the Relation between Neighborhood Context and Psychological Well-Being”. US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3979681/.

What can be inferred from the data above?

Life events correlate significantly to neighborhood characteristics.

Being from a disadvantaged neighborhood or a neighborhood perceived as disordered is significantly correlated with levels of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-rated health outcomes.

Depression is the factor most closely correlated with disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Being from a disadvantaged neighborhood or neighborhood perceived as disordered has no correlation with any of the health outcomes researched in the study.

Which of the following represents a functionalist approach to understanding crime?

Functionalists see crime as the result of competition over scarce resources and will only be decreased with more equitable distribution of goods and services.

Functionalists see crime as the result of individuals not internalizing the cultural values that are reflected through laws and social norms.

Functionalists see crime as a natural tendency of various racial and ethnic groups and social classes.

Functionalists see crime as the result of breaches in behavior that go against the collective sentiments and serve as examples of non-normative behavior for the rest of society.

Which of the following represents a stereotype threat from the data?

Levels of poverty tend to be correlated with negative health outcomes.

Poor people tend to have less resources to address health problems than middle or upper class people.

Poor people make poor choices and lack moral values and that is why they are unhealthy.

Rich people take advantage of the poor through policies that contribute to negative health outcomes.

Which of the following is the best option for designing a study on the correlation between crime rates and poverty?

Distribute a survey to all Americans asking them to self-report whether or not they have committed a crime within the past 10 years and their income level.

Compare existing crime statistic and household income data across a random representative sample of American cities and municipalities.

Administer a telephone survey to a random sample of households from each of the 10 largest metropolitan areas in the continental US.

Interview 25 convicted felons from different states about their childhood upbringing and motivations to commit their crimes.

“The 14-item Psychological Wellbeing (PWB) subscale of the Mental Health Inventory was used to assess psychological wellbeing. The Inventory has been confirmed as applicable to adolescent samples [47], [48]. The PWB subscale includes items relating to general positive affect (e.g. How much of the time, during the past month, have you felt cheerful, light-hearted?) and emotional ties (e.g., During the past month, how much of the time have you felt loved and wanted?). For each item, respondents are asked to consider the extent to which they have felt this way during the previous month. Items are rated using a six-point Likert scale with varying response sets; responses are summed across the 14 items such that higher PWB scores equate to greater wellbeing (possible range 14 to 84).”

Sourced from: Blond, Lusher, Williams, and Butler. “Friends or Foes? Relational Dissonance and Adolescent Psychological Wellbeing”. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3911895/

Which of following is another example of an effective use of a Likert scale in research design?

Asking a sample of adolescents to rate their perceptions of various commercials on a 10 point scale.

Asking a sample of American adults to rate their political views as “Very Liberal”, “Liberal”, “Conservative”, or “Very Conservative”.

Extended interviews with military veterans before deployment, immediately following return from deployment, 5 years following return from deployment, and 20 years following return from deployment.

A market research firm asking a sample of teenage Americans whether or not they agree with various statements about products on a scale from “Strongly Disagree”, “Disagree”, “Neither Disagree or Agree”, “Agree”, or “Strongly Agree”.

The researcher’s use of the Mental Health Inventory to measure psychological wellbeing is an example of which of the following?

Representative sampling

Conceptualization and operationalization

Reliability and validity of data

Cluster analysis

Robert Merton’s Strain Theory of Crime and Deviance

Institutionalized Means of Attainment of Goals

Accept Reject

Cultural Goals

Accept

Reject

*Reject Goals and rejects means of attainment = Rebel

Why is the Rebel seen as potentially dangerous to social order?

They do not accept the goals or means of attainment, therefore they will not achieve success.

They reject cultural goals, norms, and values and will seek their own means of pursuing their own goals despite how it may be viewed by the wider society.

They accept whatever is handed to them and do not work for their own success.

Most people do not see them as a major threat to society.

Which of the following statements correctly matches the categorization of a Catholic priest with the justification for the categorization?

Ritualist because they following accepted means (baptism, administering sacraments, attendance at seminary, etc.) to achieve goals that are outside the norm of the wider society.

Conformist because they follow accepted means (baptism, administering sacraments, attendance at seminary, etc.) to achieve cultural goals of raising a family and contributing to the American economy.

Retreatist because they cut themselves out from society to practice spiritual disciplines on their own.

Innovator because they seek financial success yet do so through non-traditional means.

Which of the following correctly describes the social desirability cognitive bias?

A potential respondent find flaws in the questions of a researcher and declines to participate in the study.

Researchers discover differing results when a question is rephrased from “Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?” to “To what extent do you agree with the following statements?”

The inability of respondents to recall events that they see as innocuous in their lives.

A respondent providing answers to a question that they assume the researcher wants to hear in order to appear amicable, non-confrontational, or informed.

Which of the following is the correct definition of negativity bias?

When faced with two different options, most people will choose an option which upsets the current state of affairs the least.

People tend to be cynical and suspect of information produced by media outlets.

People have a greater recall of unpleasant memories compared to positive memories.

People will tend to vividly recall incidents where they received strong judgements of their behavior from their peers.

Which of the following cognitive biases could describe why some opinion polls on certain hot-button issues have remained stable with little change over time?

Subjective validation

Congruence effect

Outcome bias

Bandwagon effect

Which of the following biases could be used to explain why individuals’ viewpoints typically tend to remain stable over time, even when faced with new information, data, or evidence?

Contrast effect

Expectation bias

Confirmation bias

Stereotyping

Which of the following is described as the most perfect representation of a particular phenomenon and is used as a point of comparison to real world situations, social structures, events, groups, individuals, etc.?

Ideal type

Homophily

Gesellschaft

Reference group

Which of the following is the correct identification of and explanation for a ‘total institution’?

A school is a total institutions because students spend most of their time there.

Government is a total institution because the decisions of government officials affect the wider society.

A church is a total institution because a church service has its own norms of behavior and expectations for its membership.

A prison is a total institution because prisoners live a regimented life characterized by a set of rules, norms, and obligations that is cut off from the wider society.

What is not a potential impact of a total institution on the individual?

Increased sense of camaraderie with other members of the institution.

Difficulty in readjustment to life outside of the institution.

Greater connection to the outside world and feeling of euphoria.

A sense of a loss of independence.

Gerontology is often studied through a life course paradigm. How is a life course paradigm useful for understanding individuals socially, psychologically, and emotionally?

Researchers are able to study changes in individuals over longer periods of time.

Researchers can parse out various periods in someone’s life and compare and contrast it to other periods.

A and B are both correct.

Researchers cannot hope to figure out someone’s mental state just by doing a survey.

Which of the following is the best sociological explanation for health disparities between men and women (lower life expectancy for men)?

Men tend to have higher levels of risk-taking behavior and do not seek help from social supports when in distress.

Women are overall more active than men.

Men and women tend to share roles and men cannot multi-task.

Women have higher levels of emotional distress which causes them to become more tough than men.

Which of the following is a plausible explanation as to why many scientists believe that there are no ‘universal emotions’?

There are a number of ways in which humans can express emotions.

Emotions are often tied to cultural values and constructs and can differ across cultures.

People react to situations differently.

Most people have visceral emotional reactions to situations and you can always tell what a person is feeling.

Which of the following is a macrosociology sociological viewpoint of conflict?

Conflict occurs due to the struggle to obtain limited societal resources.

Conflict occurs because of people’s misunderstandings of one another.

Conflict occurs because humans tend towards a primal warlike and brutish state.

Conflict occurs because of a lack of religious values.

Which of the following is an example of cultural dissonance?

The advent of the internet caused many people to reject what it was doing to human social connections.

Americans feel a sense of loss of traditional cultural values due to the differing values of recent immigrants into the country.

When faced with new data about a situation people tend to change their minds rather rapidly.

A and B are both examples of cultural dissonance.

“200200 college students from a private university are invited to participate in a study of personality and health behaviors. The sample includes equal numbers of men and women between the ages of 181818 and 242424 (mean age =20.5320.5320, point, 53). Each participant completes questionnaires that assess personality traits, exercise, and diet. The exercise questionnaires record type, frequency, and duration rates of different types of exercises, while the diet questionnaire includes questions about dietary choices on a weekly basis (like frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption). Table 222 summarizes correlations between high scores of personality traits and high levels of positive health behaviors (indicated by higher scores on measures).”

*Statistically significant at p<.05.

Sourced from: “Big five personality traits and health behaviors”. https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/social-sciences-practice/social-science-practice-tut/e/big-five-personality-traits-and-health-behaviors.

Which of the following statements is not supported by the data in the table?

Openness is positively correlated with levels male exercise.

Extraversion is positively correlated with positive female diet choices.

Neuroticism is not statistically significantly correlated with levels of male exercise.

Conscientiousness is positively correlated with levels of female exercise.

“A study was conducted to assess the effect of different coping mechanisms on laparoscopic surgical performance. Twenty postgraduate year 222 residents were selected and offered a questionnaire assessing coping mechanism employed throughout medical school and the internship year. Results were categorized into positive and negative coping mechanism categories. The extent to which these mechanisms were utilized was also evaluated on a scale of 555 to 151515. Positive coping categories included: minimization, distraction, situation control, substitute gratification, reaction control, and positive self-instructions. Negative coping mechanisms included: escape, rumination, resignation, self-blame, and avoidance. Following completion of the survey, the residents were observed using a simulated laparoscopic surgical training device. After being oriented to the training environment, the residents completed a “difficult” setting, including difficult manipulation and unexpected bleeding of a major vessel.

Measured performance outcomes including time to completion, errors, and economy of maneuvers were recorded and correlated to the associated individuals coping mechanism evaluation. The results for negative coping strategies and associated errors are documented in Figure 111, while the results for positive coping strategies and associated errors can be found in Figure 222.”

Figure 111

Figure 222

Based on the results, intermediate levels of substitute gratification and reaction control would translate to which range of errors?

40-120

130-150

5-15

60-110

Which of the following is an example of social loafing?

A surveyor use leading questions to get her respondents to answer questions to support her cause.

A market research firm finds that most adolescents support brands that they can easily attach a memorable logo, commercial, or jingle to.

A student does do well in math and therefore does not try to make any contributions to a group project.

A manager is invigorated while giving a presentation and is able to motivation his employees to improve overall company performance.

Incest is an example of which type of social violation?

More

Folkway

Norm

Taboo

Which of the following constitutes a critique of the family as a social construct from a conflict perspective?

The family serves the purpose of providing for members of a society economically and ensuring they are instilled with societal values.

The family reinforces systems of inequality through maintaining the status quo and reinforcing patriarchal values.

The family has effect on the larger society.

The family does not allow individuals to develop a sense of independence.

According to social researcher Cooley, how is impression management linked to self-identity?

Humans are constantly involved in a three step process of imagining how others’ view us, how we may be judged by others, and then reacting to that judgement through further actions.

Humans always try to put our best foot forward and if we do not then we must move on psychologically.

Humans must diminish the ego and seek to act upon the id.

Humans identity exists internally and others’ impressions of us has no bearing on our own sense of identity, therefore we must not react to others’ judgements.

In the context of cognitive reinforcement research, what is an example of fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement?

A worker receives $13 an hour working 9AM-5PM Monday through Friday.

A child’s mother buys him a candy bar once he stops crying in the store.

Factory workers receive $5 for every 2 parts they are able to assemble.

A man receives emotional satisfaction from providing for his family economically

Which of the following describes the difference between causation and correlation?

There is no significant difference between the two concepts.

Causation demonstrates that an independent variable and a dependent variable are closely linked whereas correlation negates any connection between the variables.

Causation demonstrates that an independent variable directly leads to a resultant dependent variable whereas correlation simply shows that an independent and dependent variable are linked.

One cannot differentiate between the two without more information.

Which of the following is the correct top level in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs paired with the correct identification?

Physiological needs are the basic level of needs that humans require to survive.

Safety needs are the material and psychological needs that human require to feel a sense of safety and security.

Esteem needs are those needs required for humans to feel a sense of connection, belonging, and love with others.

Self-actualization is the achievement of one’s full potential which includes satisfaction from others and from productive and creative work.

How does Maslow’s hierarchy help us to understand human behavior?

Maslow’s hierarchy is about we what need and has no significant insights into our behavior.

Maslow’s hierarchy helps us understand humans’ motivations for behaviors while they seek to secure various positions on the hierarchy.

Maslow’s hierarchy helps us to understand crime, as criminals will do whatever it takes to jeopardize others’ sense of safety and security.

Maslow’s hierarchy helps us to understand primitive societies that do not have any understanding of self-actualization.

Jake, who is an American citizen, has a fascination with South American indigenous cultures and believes that indigenous forms of medicine and naturopathic healing are superior to Western medicine. Mark is an Italian American and views American culture as neglecting the importance of the family and often talks with his co-workers about much “better things were in Italy” and that he wants to go back. Which of the following terms best describe Jake and Mark’s beliefs?

Mark is xenophobic and Jake is a cultural imperialist.

Jake is ethnocentric and Mark is xenocentric.

Both men deny the merits of cultural relativism.

Mark is ethnocentric and Jake is xenocentric.

The tendency for people to not intervene in a situation when someone is being victimized when others are around is which of the following terms?

Social facilitation

Group cohesion

Social loafing

Bystander effect

Which of the following scenarios describes negative perceived behavioral control?

A student believes that a teacher is giving her poor grades on her assignments because she often challenges his views in class. She believes she has no chance of passing the final.

A laborer believes that by networking with his superiors and their connections that he can move up the company ladder.

A woman sees her husband as emotionally detached and recommends that the family seek therapy for their strained relationship.

A child is conditioned to not go into his parent’s bedroom at night by being given a reward for each night he successfully did not enter their room without permission.

Which of the following describes a research question that is taken from a macrosociology perspective?

How does children’s views of their parents change over time from age 5 to 18?

What are the conflicts created between workers and management of a company’s adoption of a new dress code?

Does the gridlock in Congress have an effect on government workers’ levels of productivity?

What are the views of workers in Detroit, Michigan of their elected officials following the 2008 housing crisis and subsequent recession?

Which of the following describes a research question that is taken from a microsociology perspective?

How do individuals who have experienced divorce approach dating and forming new romantic relationships?

What affect does the closing of a large manufacturing plant have on the local economy?

How does poverty level relate to various health outcomes internationally?

Have development organizations’ efforts at promoting democratic engagement had a positive effect on international governance?

Which of the following describes a situation where relative deprivation theory can be applied?

Individuals living in an economically distressed area do not see any opportunity for social mobility and thus feel a sense of hopelessness.

Strains on the family and dysfunctional family dynamics cause adolescents to explore deviant and criminal behavior.

Families in an impoverished subdivision petition their local government to promote job creation in their neighborhood and cite a neighboring affluent community what is possible for their own neighborhood.

Many people throughout the world survive on less than $1 per day.

Which is the best explanation of the difference between cultural relativism and cultural sensitivity?

Cultural relativism is believing that your culture is the best and cultural sensitivity is believing that all cultures have something to offer.

Cultural relativism is the concept that an individual’s beliefs and actions should be understood in terms of his or her own culture and cultural sensitivity is understanding that cultural differences exist without assigning value to them.

Cultural relativism is the imposition of one’s own culture upon others who are not from that culture and cultural sensitivity is the concept that an individuals’ beliefs and actions should be understood in terms of his or her own culture.

Cultural relativism is the understanding that cultural differences exist without assigning value to them and cultural sensitivity is the imposition of one’s own culture upon others who are not from that culture.

John grew up in an affluent and predominantly white neighborhood in the suburbs outside of Washington, DC. After accepting a government position and moving to a racially mixed community in Washington, DC, John experienced racial inequality and tensions for the first time. In John’s view, many of the African American young people in his neighborhood are lazy and jobless, do not value education, and have no motivation to improve their situation. Which of the following is a critique of John’s viewpoints based on a macrosociology view of power?

John’s personal experiences caused him to be sheltered. His views can change by more interaction with racial minorities.

Power dynamics facilitate John’s discrimination by accentuating the differences between the power and privileged and the powerless and less fortunate.

Racism is inherent in all of us and grows when we live near people who are different than us.

John’s prejudiced views are the result of a clinical mental health condition and he should see a licensed professional for treatment.

Which of the following is the best description of the American ideal of meritocracy?

Meritocracy is the belief that who you know if more important than what you know.

Meritocracy is the belief that universal access to education can improve the lives of all citizens.

Meritocracy is the belief that societal rewards are given to those who work the hardest and perform the best.

Meritocracy is the system by which we come to understand and appreciate American ideals.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of bureaucracy?

Delineation of formal roles that help to improve efficiency and remove ambiguity.

Systems of hierarchical command and information structures.

Formal records-keeping, control, and systematic planning and implementation of policies and procedures.

A belief in the independence of individual actors and entrusting them with progressively increasing levels of responsibility.

Set 8

Which of the following describes the concept of mechanical solidarity?

Mechanical solidarity is solidarity created through the interdependence of individuals in an industrialized economy characterized by division of labor.

Mechanical solidarity is solidarity characterized by a collective conscience where members of a society share common beliefs and attitudes.

Mechanical solidarity is created through bureaucratization and the imposition of formal laws and institutions by those in power.

Mechanical solidarity occurs through natural processes and is a founding principle of social psychology.

Social facts are values, norms, and structures that exist outside of individuals and can exercise influence on individuals. Which of the following can be considered a social fact?

Heart conditions

Spiritual beliefs and practices

Socioeconomic status

Personal time management

Which of the following could be a possible explanation for the age disparities in opinions of gay marriage?

Young Americans have been less likely to support gay marriage because they have grown up with it legalized in some states.

Older Americans have been more likely to support gay marriage because they have seen the lack of success of gay civil unions.

Young Americans have been more likely to support gay marriage because they are traditionally more liberal-minded on social issues.

Young Democrats and young Republicans show no differences in their opinions on gay marriage because it is universally accepted.

The belief that people behave in ways that minimize costs and maximize benefit is an example of which theory of human behavior?

Rational choice

Self-efficacy

Social learning

Hedonistic heuristic

According to sociologist W. I. Thomas, “if a person perceives a situation as real, it is real in its consequences.” The Thomas Theorem describes the social construction of reality. Which of the following studies explores the social construction of reality on a microsociology level?

Researching the life courses of survivors of the Yugoslav Wars and independence.

Interviewing an American driver who has recently moved to Britain about his attitudes on the traffic laws in both countries.

Researching the occupational lives of American workers from 1810 compared to those of 1990.

Interviews with individuals who have purported to be victims of extraterrestrial abductions.

Sociologists differ from social psychologists in which of the following ways?

Sociologists study individuals while social psychologists study systems.

Sociologists study beliefs while social psychologists study phenomena.

Sociologists study individuals and structures while social psychologists focus more on individuals.

Social psychologists study individuals and structures while sociologists focus more on structures.

Which of the following is the best research design to ensure validity and reliability of a study of American adults’ (age 18 to 65) perceptions of political television advertisements?

Collect phone numbers of all American adults and use a random number generator to call 100 of them.

In a focus group ask 8 individuals to watch a political advertisement and then have them discuss their thoughts.

Utilize a phone random phone dialing system to call approximately 1,000 American households.

Such a sample with data representative of American adults is not possible.

Which of the following research methods would be the best way to study the hypothesis that level of peer pressure correlates with number of rule violations among public school students?

Interview a sample of 12 middle schoolers from an urban high school about how much peer pressure they have and how much trouble they get in.

Survey a sample of 2,000 elementary, middle, and high school students about their perceptions of peer pressure and access their school records for number of in- and out-of-school suspensions.

Interview school administrators about their policies on bullying.

Research changes in school policies regarding discipline over the past 50 years.

A negative correlation between degree of wealth and the likelihood of being involved in criminal activity would indicate that:

Poverty makes people less likely to commit crimes.

Criminals are usually part of the middle class.

Criminals typically have difficulty achieving upper class status.

Poverty causes individuals to be more likely to commit crimes.

Why is replicability an important consideration in research design?

All studies should be conducted at least 6 times or their results are suspect.

IRB policies dictate that all studies have a level of replicability to protect respondents.

Often studies are replicated to ensure that results were not the consequence of random error or unforeseen mitigating factors.

Replicability is a function of researcher personal preference.

Which of the following is a conflict perspective on sexuality?

Social patterns influencing sexual norms and activity have changed considerably over time.

The broader our views on sexuality, the more variation we see in sexual behavior.

Sexual norms help regulate sexual behavior which assists in population control measures.

Sexuality is a creation of and a reflection of social inequality. Women are often valued in sexual terms.

What is one major critique of the functionalist perspective?

It lacks an understanding of basic human nature.

It is generally a conservative perspective and does not advocate for necessary changes.

It is much too individualistic and has nothing to say about larger social structures.

It serves the purpose of keeping the powerful in power and oppressing everyone else.

Which of the following describes is nonmaterial culture?

Music

Literature

Religious belief

Statues on Easter Island

Why would an understanding of the different forms of capital be important in understanding an individual’s position within society?

An individual could be wealthy yet lack cultural capital markers of that wealth and therefore lack social status.

An individual could have money stored away in investments and not appear to be wealthy.

Capital refers to materials of wealth while someone may be poor in capital but rich in spirit.

There are no different forms of capital.

Critics of capitalism discuss the concept of alienation. Which of the following could cause alienation from the products of one’s labor?

Workers often are not able to see how their work brings any measurable benefit to society.

Workers are unable to pursue endeavors that bring personal fulfillment.

Workers are unable to see the larger production process and are unable to connect with the final product to which their labor is but one part.

Workers are unable to connect with their coworkers on a personal level.

Jane is a server at an upscale Manhattan restaurant with a clientele of wealthy business people. Her family often complains of her inability to “turn off ‘server mode’” when she arrives home. They feel she is increasingly inauthentic and out of touch with the reality of what is going on in the home. Which of the following concepts could describe Jane’s internal conflict?

Improper impression management

Social facilitation at work and social loafing at home

Groupthink has changed her viewpoints

Strain as the result of conflict between front-stage and back-stage self

Which of the following is not a functionalist explanation for poverty?

Poverty occurs through a lack of skilled labor.

Poverty exists because of poor people’s lack of motivation and beliefs and values that contribute to their poverty.

Poverty is the result of stratification which allows certain people to acquire specialized knowledge and skills that are needed for highly important occupations.

Poverty is a natural process that cannot be explained through traditional means.

James has been unhappy with his position in mid-management in an IT department at a community college. James has decided to try his hand at graphic design and joins a sports marketing company. James’ move to a new position demonstrates which of the following concepts?

Vertical mobility

Stratification

Upper-class angst

Horizontal mobility

Which of the following is a negative consequence of the globalization of the economy from a microsociology perspective?

Workers in more affluent countries are laid off and replaced with workers in more impoverished countries.

Workers often feel disconnected from the final products of their labor and from the overall process of production.

Long work hours are needed to keep up the pace of change.

Managers have difficulty navigating cross-cultural norms of communication.

A voter will not vote for a politician because she is a woman and women are emotional and do not make rational decisions. This voter’s actions are an example of what?

Prejudice based on sex.

Discrimination based on gender.

Prejudice and discrimination based on sex.

Discrimination based on emotional factors.

Which of the following is a common justification for the wage gap between men and women?

Men are viewed as the providers in American society and deserve to be paid more.

Women are not as productive when on the job as men and bring less value to the company.

Women are obliged to take more time off on average to provide for childrearing and other domestic responsibilities, and the pay gap accounts for the lost productivity.

Men are seen as more intelligent overall.

The availability and popularity of sushi throughout the United States is an example of which of the following:

Cultural relativism

Cultural anomie

Cultural backlash

Cultural diffusion

Jack is a recently arrived Peace Corps Volunteer in a South American country. He experiences a profound sense of confusion about the norms and cultural practices in his host country. John is experiencing which of the following:

Culture shock

Cultural stagnation

Anomie

Cultural diffusion

Which of the following is the best explanation of the difference between a subculture and a counterculture?

A counterculture is simply a subset of a major organization whereas a subculture tries to break off from the organization.

A subculture is a group whose values, attitudes, and behaviors differ from the larger culture in which they are imbedded whereas a counterculture is a group whose values, attitudes, and behaviors are in direct opposition to the larger culture.

A counterculture seeks to overthrow the government while a subculture seeks to change the government from the inside.

A subculture is often scorned by the wider society while countercultures are generally accepted by the wider society.

Participant observation is defined as which of the following:

Systematic study of media content to observe various patterns.

Observation of a particular population that occurs by becoming intimately familiar with the population through direct involvement in their activities.

Asking intimate questions to respondents over an extended period of time.

Reading up on various societies in the encyclopedia.

Which of the following is the best definition of internalized racism?

The acceptance and belief of racist attitudes towards members of other racial or ethnic groups.

The acceptance and belief of racist attitudes towards members of your own racial or ethnic group.

The rejection of prejudiced and discriminatory attitudes or beliefs.

Systematic oppression of large groups of racial or ethnic minorities by those in power.

Which of the following is a functionalist critique of the American ideal of meritocracy from a macrosociology perspective?

American society does not reward individuals based on their merit, but on their ability to produce more capital and wealth.

Meritocracy is unevenly implemented across different sectors of American society.

We are in constant struggle to access scarce resources and only the fittest individuals are able to access these resources.

Meritocracy is a function of our interactions with one another and is highly subjective.

Gender differs from sex in which of the following ways?

Sex refers to whether you consider yourself male or female while gender refers to all the aspects that make you male or female.

Sex refers to biological differences associated with males and females while gender refers to the socially, culturally, and psychologically-determined differences between the sexes.

Gender refers to which of the sexes you identify with while sex refers to whether you are attracted to males or females.

Gender refers to the sex or sexes that you are attracted to while sex is whether you are male or female.

Which of these groups would be considered an age cohort?

A group of men and women of different ages who experienced WWII.

A group of children who were vaccinated against polio in a given year.

A group of steel workers age 21 to 75.

A group of Americans age 18 to 35.

Which of the following people is not conforming to socialized gender roles?

A woman who is very emotionally expressive and prides herself on being emotionally open.

A man who is a stay-at-home father and prides himself on his ability to keep a household.

A woman who works for a large fashion company in New York City.

A supervisor who believes that the company’s secretaries should be women because they bring a more welcoming and kind presence to visitors.

Mass society is described by which of the following?

Rural societies are just as large and impersonal with disconnected people as urban ones.

Societies has moved from small close-knit communities to large, impersonal masses of individuals which allows those in power to control and manipulate the populace.

Democracy has made power abuses more prevalent yet also makes collective action against elites easier.

Civic engagement cannot happen until people realize how their political system works.

Which of the following could describe how modernization has affected our alliances with others?

Families have reemerged as the strongest social unit.

Tribal alliances in developing countries have not seen significant change.

Individuals feel greater affinity towards their country than family or tribe.

Modernization has allowed party bosses to take advantage of the electorate.

Which of the following is the best definition of a minority group?

Races that are in smaller overall numbers than the majority race.

People who feel disempowered in a society.

Any category of people with physical or cultural distinctions that a society sets apart from the majority and places them in a subordinate status.

Any category of people who feel strong affinity towards one another and are skeptical of people who are not part of their group.

Many observers have attributed the success of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump to his distinctly ‘populist agenda’. Which of the following is the best definition of populism?

Political philosophy where multiple groups should coexist and have an equal stake in their country’s political future.

A theory of government leadership characterized by moderate viewpoints falling between polarized political parties.

A political philosophy characterized by laissez-faire economics and minimal state intervention in the lives of its citizens.

A political philosophy that emphasizes the power of regular people rather than a ruling elite to have power over their government.

Eugenics was consider a ‘pseudoscience’. Which of the following describes the theories eugenicists ascribed to?

The human species can be improved by encouraging breeding by those with desirable genetic characteristics and discouraging breeding by those with undesirable characteristics.

Humans have many different cultures, norms, behaviors, etc. and their beliefs and behaviors must be understood in the cultural context in which they live.

Some humans have larger skulls than others and those with large skulls tend to be Caucasians with larger brains.

People experiencing extreme suffering, especially people with incurable diseases, should be allowed to die by withholding medical measures or through painlessly allowing them to pass away.

Symbolic interactionist theorists often espouse Gordon W. Allport’s contact hypothesis as a way to combat racial prejudice and discrimination. Which of the following is the best description of the contact hypothesis?

Once indigenous societies come in contact with individuals who are not members of their societies, their culture is affected in irreparable ways.

Prejudice can be diminished once individuals are able to interact with those whose ways of life, experiences, and viewpoints are different than their own.

Racism can only be eliminated once everyone adopts a color-blind perspective.

Physical contact with those who are different than us is important to build empathy and trust.

Indigenous societies are often characterized as having a strong sense of collective conscience. Which of the following is the best description of collective conscience?

A strong bureaucracy characterized by formal laws, rules, and regulations.

Social order with power in the hands of ‘big men’ and village elders.

Shared beliefs, attitudes, and values that are a unifying force in a society.

Having empathy and a desire to treat others well.

Xavier is a successful real estate agent in Chicago. His friends describe him as someone who is very fashionable and does not “spare any expense” when it comes to his clothing, car, or housewares. Xavier defends his spending habits as essential to his professional image. Which of the following terms best describes Xavier’s behavior?

Constructive consumption

Cultural capital

Inadvertent prestige

Conspicuous consumption

Which of the following is a cultural universal?

Taboos against eating certain types of animals.

The family unit

Beliefs in supernatural entities

Particular climates that affect societal practices

In postmodern society, global stratification is maintained through which of the following?

Post-colonization

Colonialization

Neo-colonialism

Coup d’etat

Hegemony is best characterized as which of the following?

Control or influence of one country over another.

Control of an indigenous society exercised by its leader.

Powerful interests all vying for a stake in their government.

Feeling of disempowerment by minority groups.

Those who have been members of total institutions are often said to undergo a resocialization process after returning to society. Which of the following is the best definition of resocialization?

Experiencing a sense of helplessness caused by a lack of normalized social or ethical standards.

Learning of roles and attitudes required for a new social environment or role.

Learning of specific rules of engagement in different circumstances.

Establishing norms and roles within in a formal organization.

Jane is both a mother of two and a middle school teacher who is teaching in the school where her children are studying, what are examples of role strain and role conflict that she might encounter?

She does lots of things for the family. She shops, does the laundry, cooks breakfast and dinner, helps her children with their homework, brings her children to school and goes to parents-teachers’ meetings. As to being a teacher, she has to prepare lesson plans, check exercise papers, record scores and make exams.

She was well taught and raised knowing how to become a good mother but soon realizes that she does not have enough time to provide her children with nutritious food, to do the laundry properly, and to teach her children moral guidelines in an ever changing world. As a teacher, she is caught up with the academe world and has a hard time balancing the two roles. In addition, she wouldn’t want to be her children’s teacher.

She is so stressed with house chores and house roles. Also, she has a hard time preparing for her classes and checking her students’ papers. She is planning on submitting her resignation letter soon.

She usually orders food from the restaurant for dinner. She brings her family’s laundry to the laundromat. And hires a house helper to clean the house. This brings strain to the family’s budget. But doing this allows her to be able to do her lesson plans, check her students’ papers and have time with her children.

James was a teenager when he started drinking alcohol and smoking. Eventually, he ended up selling and using narcotics. He started to doubt himself, feel depressed, and lose hope. He rearranged his priorities; he quit school, he deliberately got into trouble and became unfaithful in his relationships. He moved from place to place in search of fulfillment. This lead him away from his family, friends and has brought him into all sorts of trouble with people and the police. After the death of a friend due to drug overdose, he realized he needed help. He decided to enter a rehabilitation center. Upon completion of his rehab program, he felt peace and fulfillment which he hasn’t felt for many years. He then moved to an area where he has been living for 2 years; sober and drug free. James experienced:

Role Exit

Role Strain

Role Conflict

Organizational Change

Which among the given situation is a good example of a primary group?

Albert is close with my siblings and see them frequently. Their relationship is based on kinship, without any other goal.

Jackson is a university student and has no time talking with his classmates in between classes.

Shania doesn’t like her job and colleagues. He tries her best to leave work immediately when it’s time to go home.

Greg is a member of a row boat club but only joins every two months.

Justin works at a large manufacturing company that makes cars. They work at a very large warehouse where people are quite far from each other. Each worker has a common goal, to make a car and get paid. They follow certain rules and guidelines when they are at the company. This kind of group that Justin is in is a perfect example of:

Primary Group

Work Group

Secondary Group

Out Group

Miss Knowls is the new school principal, she is smart, kind, and beautiful. Everything was going well. She gets along well with the students and teachers. Mrs. Douglas, the president of the school board didn’t like the appointment of Miss Knowls to the position. Mrs. Douglas found out that some of the board members don’t like her too. They started a plot to remove Miss Knowls from the school. They started to make stories and fabricate accusations against her. Eventually, the other school board members were left with no choice but to replace Miss Knowls while the students and other teachers couldn’t do anything but ask why. In sociology, what group is Miss Douglas a part of and what group are the students and other teachers a part of?

Ingroup and outgroup

Conspirators and spectators

School Board and school body

Primary group and secondary group

After 3 break ups, Joan finally got married. She loves her husband very much. They always try to look after each other. Joan has a 2-year-old daughter who she loves dearly. At work, she has a best friend who is also her assistant. They usually work together to meet deadlines. The relationship that Joan has with her husband and with her secretary is a perfect example of what kind of group?

Primary Group

Temporary Group

Dyad

Couple

John works in a law firm. There are two other people working in the office aside from him. He brought his favorite ice cream to work and puts it in the fridge. During his break time, he went back to get his ice cream and found out that it was missing. Since there are two other people in the office, he could not pinpoint the culprit. This scenario is an example of what kind of social group?

Dishonest Group

Triad

Lawyers

Primary Group

Facebook has been a big part of communication and recreation of a number of people worldwide. Many relationships have also been formed as well as strengthened through similar social media. This is most related with:

Social Network

Inter-connection

Relationship

Socialization

The L.A. philharmonic, the university that you are attending, and the United States Marine Corps are examples of

Primary groups

Social network

Formal organizations

Institutions

Some people suggest that bureaucracy acts in a greedy manner and behave like monopolies. What are they suggesting? Choose the best answer.

Agency chiefs seek to expand their agency’s power, size, and budget. Because bureaucracies face no competition, they have no real incentive to improve efficiency.

The bureaucracy is significantly independent, where power comes from different sources within the organization. It also caters to a wide array of clients and is hindered by lots of civil service laws.

Since bureaucracy is greedy and monopolized, they look for more competition and tries to improve its efficiency to be able to beat its competitors. It also seeks to increase its power, size and budget.

Agencies get what they need and conduct transparent operations. However, they are often channeling their benefits into unexplained projects.

Sociological theories of race and ethnicity have been dominated by the metaphor of the social construct, which suggests that they are ideological categories concealing `real' principles of social structure. This idea is problematic because it elides the sense in which race and ethnicity operate both as functional principles of material exclusion and sources of social meaning. The paper examines critically the metaphor of social construction in leading contemporary theories of race and ethnicity, arguing that too often the context and the content of these processes of construction are not clarified and that, paradoxically, this can lead to the implicit incorporation of a racial essentialism into the explanatory enterprise. An alternative, symbolic approach to theorizing race and ethnicity is suggested which avoids these pitfalls. Drawing upon Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice and anthropological ideas of symbolic kinship, it argues that race and ethnicity can be theorized as both categories of material exclusion and of social meaning. The implications of this approach for understanding the historical construction of racial and ethnic categories are discussed, along with the implications for the relationship between sociological analysis and political activism in the arena of race.

What is the main reason that sociological theories of race and ethnicity are considered ideological rather than practical?

These theories are not explained and clarified by their proponents.

Social structure is a complex term and it is impossible to recognize the factors behind it.

The actual concept of social structure is not revealed by these theories as these theories represent the ideology of the small group of researchers.

Factors which affect the race and ethnicity in one country may not influence them in the other country.

What can be inferred from Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice and anthropological ideas of symbolic kinship according to the above passage?

The factors in the history which are the basis of race and ethnicity and the way in which sociology and politics are inter-related.

All the contemporary sociological theories are pure ideological and there is a need to devise a practical mechanism.

Race and ethnicity cannot be studied alone as there are multiple range of factors behind them.

Social construct dominate the sociological theories and real principle behind them should be revealed.

The people carrying a belief that their race is higher in standard than others are called

Bio centric

Centro centric

Ethno centric

Negligent

Birth rates have increased and death rates have decreased rapidly which is a cause of rapid population growth. Which stage of demographic transition is reflected by this statement?

Stage-I

Stage III

Stage-IV

Stage-II

Which theory says that the increase in population is geometric whereas food increases arithmetically?

Malthusian theory

Wealth flow theory

Ecological footprint

Population ecology

The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

What can be concluded from the study conducted by Tea Party according to the above passage?

White Americans self identification with Tea Party declined overall.

White Americans self identification with Tea Party generally increased over time.

Movement identification through Whites assertion of national decline had an inverse relation with racial prejudices.

Racial prejudice increases as the self identification of Whites with Tea party increases.

Individuals who lay stress on economic equality and oppose the capitalism are called as

Conservatives

Socialists

Liberalists

Nationalists

The attribution of complex features or characteristics to a racial groups is called

Social construction

Discrimination

Racialization

Racism

Judging a person or group of people on the basis of their physical characteristics such as appearance and cultural differences is known as

Racial discrimination

Racism

Racial prejudice

Internalized racism

Race consciousness, and its articulation in theories of race, is largely a modern phenomenon. When European explorers in the New World "discovered" people who looked different than themselves, these "natives" challenged then existing conceptions of the origins of the human species, and raised disturbing questions as to whether all could be considered in the same "family of man.” Religious debates flared over the attempt to reconcile the Bible with the existence of "racially distinct" people. Arguments took place over creation itself, as theories of polygenesis questioned whether God had made only one species of humanity ("monogenesis"). Europeans wondered if the natives of the New World were indeed human beings with redeemable souls. At stake were not only the prospects for conversion, but the types of treatment to be accorded them. The expropriation of property, the denial of political rights, the introduction of slavery and other forms of coercive labor, as well as outright extermination, all presupposed a worldview which distinguished Europeans—children of God, human beings, etc.—from "others." Such a worldview was needed to explain why some should be "free" and others enslaved, why some had rights to land and property while others did not. Race, and the interpretation of racial differences, was a central factor in that worldview. In the colonial epoch science was no less a field of controversy than religion in attempts to comprehend the concept of race and its meaning. Spurred on by the classificatory scheme of living organisms devised by Linnaeus in Systema Naturae, many scholars in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries dedicated themselves to the identification and ranking of variations in humankind. Race was thought of as a biological concept, yet its precise definition was the subject of debates which, as we have noted, continue to rage today. Despite efforts ranging from Dr. Samuel Morton's studies of cranial capacity4 to contemporary attempts to base racial classification on shared gene pools,5 the concept of race has defied biological definition. . . .

What were initially the racial thoughts of Europeans when they saw people who looked differently than them?

Europeans questioned their belonging to a human race and discussed that whether people of different appearance than them should be considered as a human or not.

Europeans debated whether to integrate those people in their culture or not.

Europeans feared that those people will steal away their identity and racial superiority.

Europeans were of the view that people of different appearance were meant to be their sub ordinates

Why did the author say that science at that time was a field of controversy?

Science at that time neglected this issue and there was no significant research to prove that all racial classes belong to human species.

Science generated controversy because many scientists presented theories on the basis of variations in human beings.

Science at that time proved that despite variations people of different appearances belong to the human species.

None of the above

When we identify a group of people on the basis of their common physical appearance that they share, we are actually describing their

Ethnicity

Race

Nationality

Social group

Some people believe that human specie was originated from a single human who travelled the world and four races came into existence. What is this belief called?

Racial formations

Monogenesis

Hypodescent

Internalized racism

A child who has a mixed race ancestors but is assigned the race of the socially subordinate parent. This practice is called as

Central axis

Hypo descent

Social construction

Monogenesis

There are neighborhoods in some parts of America which are home to the immigrants belonging to the same race. What term can be used to describe them?

Homogeneous

Ethnic neighborhoods

Assimilation

Old immigration

Many political refugees come to Europe and America every year and seek protection against conviction in their own country. What term is used to describe this process?

Extradition

Asylum

Naturalized citizenship

Deportation

How do the distinct spatial choices of particular immigrant groups shape regional population change? Understanding this is high on the public policy agenda, in particular in countries with a tradition of immigration, such as USA and Australia, where immigration represents a major driver of population dynamics. This is even more evident at the regional level, which is also subject to regionally specific demographic and economic trends, and internal migrations of the native population. In many regions immigrants have become an indispensable part of labour markets, supplementing and sometimes substituting the native labour force. Regions with large inflows of immigrants have to deal with diverse challenges and consequences of immigration, including the effects on infrastructure capacity, availability of services, housing costs, employment levels, impacts on local wage equilibria and crime rates, among many others ]. Despite the importance for population change and general population projections, immigration and the ethnic composition of the regional population is difficult to predict.

What can be concluded from the above passage?

Immigration should be discouraged as it is a threat to the country’s local culture.

Immigration has benefits as immigrants merge into the local population and help the economy.

Countries should plan carefully the inflow of immigrants as they can bear its consequences later on.

Immigration has no effect on the local population.

Researchers, policymakers, and practitioners are often interested in a number of demographic characteristics of students, such as race and ethnicity, language background, immigration status, and poverty. For example, the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation requires schools and districts to report student test scores separately for major racial and ethnic groups, English learners, disabled students, and poor students. Yet while demographic populations are often viewed as distinct, in fact, these populations frequently intersect. For example, according to U.S. Census data, 19 percent of school-age children (5 to 17 years of age) in the United States in 2003 were language minorities, which means they spoke a language other than English at home. But among some ethnic and racial minorities, the percentage was much higher: 65 percent of Asian children were language minorities and 68 percent of Hispanic children were language minorities. Census data also reveal that a relatively small proportion of school-age language minorities report speaking English with some difficulty. Among all children, only 6 percent did not speak English well, while among Asian children 18 percent did not speak English well and among Hispanic children 21 percent did not speak English well.

The above study tells us about the language minorities in the U.S. What can be concluded from the study conducted by U.S. census data?

Ethnic and cultural differences do not meddle with the English language spoken by the school children.

All immigrants after settling in U.S have adopted English as their mother tongue.

Among all the immigrants Asians and Hispanics have adopted English as their language at their homes.

Asians and Hispanics have least accepted English as their first language at their home.

People who believed in Darwin theory of evolution are of the view that all species have evolved gradually from other species. Most people consider this belief as far from reality and only the opinion of one particular group. What is this belief called in terms of sociology?

Social construct

Quality hypothesis

Hypertension

Essentialist perspective

Social interactions are often supported by progressive communities. People are often given certain benefits access to resources if they are connected to their communities. Which term is used to describe it?

Weathering hypothesis

Ethnic enclave hypothesis(barrio advantage)

Data quality hypothesis

Ethnicity

Sarah complains that she is not getting promoted on merit as compared to her male colleagues. Which term can be used to describe this situation?

Prejudice

Discrimination

Gender inequality

Ethnocentrism

The belief that women are not serious about their careers and may leave the job quickly can be labeled as

Stereotype

Discrimination

Gender inequality

Ethnicity

People in certain cultures believe that women should do household chores and men should go out and make a living for their family. What term is used to describe it in terms of sociology?

Gender discrimination

Gender roles

Gender inequality

Social construct

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) was the key figure to analyze the population statistics. His formulation on population was a landmark in the history of population theories. He generalized the relationship between population factors and social change.

In his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) Malthus argued that because of the strong attraction of the two sexes, the population could increase by multiples, doubling every twenty-five years. He contended that the population would eventually grow so large that food production would be insufficient.

Human capacity for reproduction exceeded the rate at which subsistence from the land can be increased. Malthus further wrote ‘Population when unchecked increases in a geometrical ratio. Subsistence increases only in an arithmetical ratio.’

Malthus contended that the world’s population was growing more rapidly than the available food supply. He argued that the food supply increases in an arithmetic progression (1, 2, 3, 4, and so on), whereas the population expands by a geometric progression (1, 2, 4, 8, and so on). According to him, the population could increase by multiples, doubling every twenty-five years. He said the gap between the food supply and population will continue to grow over time. Even though food supply will increase, it would be insufficient to meet the needs of expanding population. Moreover, the famine and other natural calamities cause widespread sufferings and increase the death rate, which is nature’s check against population.

What can be inferred from the above passage about the imbalance between population and food growth?

Population control mechanisms should be devised to tackle the imbalance of food and population in the coming years.

Food grows geometrically whereas growth of population is arithmetic.

Food growth should be emphasized to tackle natural calamities in the future.

Both a and c

Malthus theory contends that there will be a scarcity of food resources in the future if the population continues to grow at this rate. There is another theory that not only food but other natural resources such as water, clean air and fuel etc are also depleting rapidly. What is this theory called?

Malthusian theory

Critics of Malthus

Neo-Malthusian

Weathering hypothesis

Though population increases at faster rate than the food production; however, at some point population growth will grow according to the available resources. Population growth follow the income resources. What is this called?

Population principle

Malthusian

Weathering hypothesis

None of the above

Which factor/factors affect demographic growth of a region?

Education

Socioeconomic development

Infant mortality

All of the above

The above graph reflects different stages of transition of a population. What is this graph called?

Weathering hypothesis graph

Malthusian graph

Demographic transition model

None of the above

Increased decline in birth rates whereas slow decline in death rates causing a slight increase in population reflects which stage of demographic transition?

Stage-I

Stage-II

Stage-III

Stage-V

In UK both birth and death rates are low which cause a balance population. UK is at which stage of demographic transition model?

Stage V

Stage-III

Stage-IV

Stage-II

In Germany birth rates are lower than the death rates. This results in a population decline. Germany is at which stage of demographic transition model?

Stage-III

Stage-V

Stage-II

Stage-I

The world and most regions and countries are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the huge expansion of human numbers: four billion have been added since 1950. Projections for the next half century expect a highly divergent world, with stagnation or potential decline in parts of the developed world and continued rapid growth in the least developed regions. Other demographic processes are also undergoing extraordinary change: women's fertility has dropped rapidly and life expectancy has risen to new highs. Past trends in fertility and mortality have led to very young populations in high fertility countries in the developing world and to increasingly older populations in the developed world. Contemporary societies are now at very different stages of their demographic transitions. This paper summarizes key trends in population size, fertility and mortality, and age structures during these transitions. The focus is on the century from 1950 to 2050, which covers the period of most rapid global demographic transformation.

Which one of the following statements can be concluded from the passage above?

In the next half century the overall population in developed and developing countries will increase at an alarming level.

Population in developed countries will increase in the coming years because of better life conditions and will decrease in developing countries.

Population will decrease in developed countries whereas it will increase at a rapid rate in developing countries.

Population increased rapidly since 1950, however, it will decline in the next half century.

The above diagram reflects how various age groups are distributed in a population. Such a graphical illustration of population is called

Population pyramid

Demographic transition model

Malthusian model

None of the above

Stage –I of the population pyramid is concave. What does it reflect?

Wide base, low life expectancy

Wide base, higher life expectancy

Narrow base, high life expectancy

Wide base, high life expectancy

Stage-II of population pyramid is triangular. What does this reflect?

Wide base, low life expectancy

Wide base, higher life expectancy

Narrow base, high life expectancy

Narrow base, low life expectancy

Narrow base, very high life expectancy represent which stage of population pyramid?

Stage-II

Stage-I

Stage V

Stage-III

Accurate and complete data on immigrants and emigrants is very difficult to obtain. Immigrants may be incompletely observed because countries may keep track of airplane arrivals, but seldom of all arrivals. Further, they may only note permanent resident visas, and not the conversion of visitors to residents. Forced immigrants may only include those requesting asylum, and not all forced migrants. There also are problems with the reporting of emigrants. Few governments know when people have left permanently, and they may only track departures by mode of transport (air, bus, car). Even these reports are likely to be grossly underestimated, particularly for settings with significant forced refugee movements when people cross at unregulated borders or times. Interpretation of the NMR is also problematic, as a low figure can result from low levels of movement or from high counterbalanced in and out flows.

Why an accurate data on immigrants is difficult to obtain according to the above passage?

Governments inaccurately collect the data and they don’t have proper mechanism to do so.

Immigrants are protected by international treaties and laws therefore; government cannot take action against them.

Governments do not keep track of visitors and some visitors turn into permanent residents later.

Both b and c

What can be concluded from the above graph?

Decline in birth rates overall.

Rapid decline in birth rates in Asia since 1960.

Highest birth rate decline in Africa since 1960.

Both a and b

What does mortality rate reflect?

People who die of diseases or illness.

People who die because of wars.

People who die due to natural calamities

All of the above

Effect of disease or illness on the affected individuals above and beyond mortality is known as

Disability adjusted life measurement

Proportionate mortality

Quality of life measurement

Case fatality rate

The total number of deaths reported in a given period of time divided by 1000 represents

Crude death rate

Mortality rate

Proportionate mortality

Quality of life measurement

Fertility and mortality, which are central elements of the demographic transition, exhibit a varied spatial pattern. Total fertility rate refers to the total number of children a woman can be expected to have during her child bearing years at current birth rates. In 1950, the average total fertility rate in the more developed countries was 2.8, while the average in less developed countries was 6.2, ranging from 6.6 in Africa to 5.9 in Latin America. By 1998 fertility rates had fallen dramatically in most regions, to a low of 1.4 in Europe and 2.0 in North America -- both below replacement fertility of 2.1 -- and 2.8 in Asia and 3.0 in Latin America. Only Africa lags behind in the trend toward lower fertility, its average rate remaining at 5.6, and in sub-Saharan Africa, 6.0. Once again, however, scale is an issue. Regional averages disguise tremendous variation among individual countries. For example, in Asia, some countries, including China, South Korea, and Thailand, are at below-replacement fertility while other countries, such as Pakistan, Cambodia, and Laos, remain at fertility levels above 5.0. Likewise, in sub-Saharan Africa, the average fertility of 6.0 includes a range that extends from a low in South Africa of 3.3 to a high in Niger of 7.5.

What can be inferred from the above passage?

Fertility rate of a country is dependent on its economic progress. If a country has stable and developed economy it has low fertility rate.

Fertility rate is independent of the economic progress of a country. Economic progress and stable economy do not have effect on fertility rate.

Developed countries have high fertility rates due to the economic progress.

Developing countries have low fertility rates due to lack of economic progress.

Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children (1, 2).a Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of child survival chances in relation to ethnic groups across countries in the region, including the majority of African countries that have experienced relative peace over the past decade or more. This shortcoming is conspicuous insofar as early cross-national analysis of ethnicity and mortality, using data from the 1960s and 1970s, concluded that "ethnicity ... exerts a strong influence on mortality in countries where ethnic groups appear to be sharply differentiated" (3). Neglect of mother’s ethnicity, in particular, as an influence on child survival, is remarkable in the light of countless studies that have emphasized the central importance of maternal characteristics and behavior for child health in Africa.

Which one of the following statements can be concluded from the above passage?

Ethnicity does not have any effect on child mortality rate.

Child mortality rate in peaceful and war regions of Africa is the same.

Ethnicity strongly affects the child mortality rate in Africa.

Peaceful regions have lower child mortality rate.

Number of deaths in a given period which is divided by midpoint population suffering from that particular disease is known as

Case fatality rate

Specific mortality rate

Non adjusted mortality rate

Crude rate

Death percentage due to specific cause is termed as

Proportionate mortality

Specific mortality

Crude rate

Crude death rate

Disadvantage of crude death rate is

Difficult to understand

Difficult to calculate

Variations in different groups of the population

None of the above

Summary of mortality rate that has been adjusted according to a certain demographic characteristic such as age is known as

Specific mortality rate

Age adjusted rate

Crude death rate

Proportionate mortality

People belonging to one ethnic group are targeted in some parts of the Africa. Therefore, people belonging to that ethnicity are migrate towards other countries. What term can be used to describe this?

Pull factor

Push factor

Internal migration

Emigration

Set 9

People who leave their country to live in another other country are called as

Immigrants

Emigrants

Internal immigrants

External immigrants

Many people enter UK every year with an intention of making it as their new home i.e. to live permanently. Such people are called

Immigrants

Emigrants

Migrants

External migrants

My name is Paul. I am from Germany. My father was a farmer. We moved to the United States in the early 1900s because there were too many people living in Germany. Even though my dad was a great farmer, back in Germany we didn’t have enough land to grow enough food for our own family to live off of. We learned English quickly and built a place to live on our land. The work was hard because we first had to clear all the land before we could grow crops. Our only friends lived miles away. I felt lucky to have my family, but I could tell that my dad was lonely a lot. America wasn’t as easy of a life as other German immigrants wrote and told us about.

Which factor was responsible for the immigration of Paul family?

Push factor

Pull factor

Nationality

Ethnicity

My name is Clara. I came from Guatemala in 2008. I came to live with my aunt in Tucson, Arizona, because in Guatemala I didn’t have much of a chance for a good education. Many girls only go to school until they are 13, and then they get married. There are more chances for me to be successful here in America. I miss my family in Guatemala because they couldn’t come with me. I have a brother that lives there with my mother and father. For now, I am trying my best to get my education. That is the most important thing to my family back in Guatemala. I feel lucky to have an aunt that is an American citizen. She helps me try my best in school.

Which factor was responsible for Clara’s migration?

Push factor

Pull factor

Inequality

Nationality

Many factors that influence migration are difficult to predict. While social, political and economic developments are exceptionally difficult to predict precisely, judgements can be made based upon current situations. Ecological disruption is easier to pre-empt as there is a large body of scientific evidence to suggest that this factor will be a cause for concern in the near future. Environmental modelling, as well as worsening food and water security in many countries, shows that ecological issues are already beginning to present challenges globally. Ecological factors have the potential to become an increasingly significant force influencing migration over the 21st century.

Which one of the following statements can be concluded from the passage above?

A combination of factors which are unknown will result in migration in the future.

Current situation does not assist in predicting about migration.

Ecological and environmental factors are easier to predict as a factor responsible for migration.

None of the above

What does relative deprivation mean

Being deprived of something which one thinks that he/she has a basic right to have it.

Being deprived of something which is not included in the basic right of that person to possess.

Being deprived of something because a person has not worked hard to possess that thing.

All of the above

Relative deprivation can result in

Crime

Hatred

Outrage

All of the above

Following is/are the component/s of relative deprivation.

Intensity of difference between the two groups

magnitude of similarity between the groups

intensity of feelings against relative deprivation

both a and c

According to Davis following is/are the pre-condition/s of relative deprivation.

A person feels that he does not possess a specific thing

A person feels himself entitled to possess that thing.

A person compares himself with others who possess it.

All of the above

Relative deprivation theory refers to the idea that feelings of deprivation and discontent are related to a desired point of reference (i.e., reference groups). Feelings of relative deprivation arise when desires become legitimate expectations and those desires are blocked by society. Social satisfaction is the opposite of relative deprivation. Relative deprivation is generally considered to be the central variable in the explanation of social movements and is used to explain the quest for social change that inspires social movements; social movements emerge from collective feelings of relative deprivation (Morrison, 1971).

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the above passage?

Social satisfaction and relative deprivation independent of each other.

Both social satisfaction and relative deprivation can be present at the same time.

If there is a social satisfaction there will be no relative deprivation feeling in the society.

None of the above

A social movement that encourages a particular change is referred as

Proactive social movement

Reactive social movement

Social movement organization

Redemptive social movement

A social movement that rebels against a particular social change is called

Proactive social movement

Redemptive social movement

Reactive social movement

Reformative social movement

A social movement that strives to completely change the people is called as

Reformative social movement

Redemptive social movement

Reactive social movement

Proactive social movement

A social movement that tries to completely change the society is referred as

Reformative social movement

Redemptive social movement

Reactive social movement

Transformative social movement

The NSM-approach stresses that structural conditions and changes of society cause the emergence of social movements. It stems from a structuralist Marxist tradition, thinkers like Jurgen Habermas and Claus Offe have been influenced ¨ by the critical theory of the Frankfurt school (Horkheimer, Adorno), Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe come from the intellectual tradition of French structural Marxism (Althusser, Balibar). NSM theorists oppose economic reductionism and class reductionism: the emergence of SMs cannot be explained solely by economic changes and the position of actors in the production process. The NSM approach stresses non-class issues such as gender, ethnicity, age, neighborhood, environment, or peace.

What is the basic difference between NSM proponents and non NSM strategists?

NSM theorists favor economic reductionism whereas non NSM oppose economic reductionism.

NSM proponents favor economic whereas non NSM favor class reductionism.

NSM approach stress on geographical characteristics whereas non NSM favor economic and class reductionism.

Non NSM focus on geographical characteristics whereas NSM proponents oppose it.

Common people can influence an established status quo and political structure through organized social movement. What is this theory called?

Power elite theory

Pluralist theory

Social movement

Social movement combination

Presenting a case to the authorities in a written form using formal language and tone for a specific cause is termed as

Petition

Promulgation

Demonstration

Polarization

If a petition is unsuccessful, then the next step in a social movement is

Demonstration

Promulgation

Polarization

Revolution

To organize and effectively use the available resources in a social movement is called

Promulgation

Demonstration

Revolution

Resource mobilization

These ideological battles are fought out less in the streets than in behind the scenes meetings of museum boards, federal funding agencies, university administrators, mental health professionals, network news managers, etc., and, more openly via television and in classrooms, movie theaters, churches, mental health centers, and the courts. In one Women's Studies classroom, for example, a concerted attempt is made to "liberate" students from the intellectual and cultural domination of patriarchal (i.e., male-oriented) ideologies. Across the hall, a socially conservative professor of philosophy declaims against postmodernism, deconstruction, culturalism relativism, and other intellectual challenges to Western culture's traditional faith in logic, objectivity, meaning, and scientific method. These are but skirmishes in today's cultural wars, but they illustrate within an academic setting what is meant by cultural politics. It is an attempt by all sides to influence ideological thought via institutions such as the schools that are not often thought of as vehicles for propagandizing. Its methods include not just active proselytizing but control over what gets put before students in the way of textbooks, television viewers in the way of programming, museum goers in the way of art exhibits, and so on.

What can be concluded from the above passage?

It is better to fight ideological battle in the streets rather than in closed areas like classrooms, halls etc.

The purpose of ideological battle is to educate people and change their mid set so they are not fought in streets.

The best way to change the mind set of people is to change textbooks, to educate the young people in their class rooms about a cause or issue.

Both b and c

Refugee crisis, political asylum, technology, culture and economy are the factors which are affecting the following in a positive or negative way.

Globalization

Isolation

Communication

Both a and c

Now in the modern era, countries are connecting with each other better than they ever did in the past in terms of technology, economy and culture. What term can be used to describe it?

Progress

Competition

Globalization

All of the above

People from regions which are experiencing unrest move towards a new country as they fear that they would be prosecuted if they continue to live in their home countries. What are such people called?

Migrants

Refugees

Both a and b

Political asylum

Near distance to end user or consumer also is an important factor in globalization. The large markets as consumer bases in Asian countries have led many European, Korean to Japanese manufacturing conglomerates and shift their manufacturing and trading bases in Asian countries. That is going near the customer makes globalization. Utilization of built up capacities of production, sluggishness in domestic market and over production makes a manufacturing company look outward and go global. The development of overseas markets and manufacturing plants in autos, four wheelers and two wheelers is a classic example.

Why companies are going global according to the above passage?

Companies are going global to shift their manufacturing base near to their customers.

Companies are experiencing slow growth in their domestic markets which is forcing them to go global.

Both a and b

Companies are going global because of strict regulations for businesses in their own countries.

The political issues of a country make globalization channelized as per political bosses. The regional trade understandings or agreements determine the scope of globalization. Trading in European Union and special agreement in the erstwhile Soviet block and SAARC are examples. The technological development in the areas of production, product mix and firms are helping organizations to expand their operations. The hiring of services and procurement of sub-assemblies and components has a strong influence in the globalization process.

Which one of the following statements can be concluded from the above passage?

Companies can go global only to an extent their government allows them.

Companies face no rules and regulations while making their operations global

Governments do certain agreements which bound them to allow their businesses in their countries to a certain extent.

Both a and c

Which organization helps in resolving trade issues and disputes and is a depiction of globalization?

World trade organization

United Nations

European Union

SAARC

Economies around the world are interdependent on each other and are integrating with one another for an increased trade of cross border goods and capital. Which term is used to describe this?

Economic globalization

Trade barriers

Outsourcing

Subsidies

On certain goods which are imported to a country a tax is imposed with an intention to raise their price in order to reduce their competition with domestic products. What is this tax called?

Subsidy

Tariff

Quotas

Outsourcing of goods

Often a financial support is given to a particular industry with in a country which is unstable or experiencing any loss. What is this called?

Tariff

Quotas

Subsidy

Duty free

Corporations which are operating in two or more countries are called as

Transnational corporations

Multi-national corporations

Both a and b

Global companies

Countries which are undergoing a less economic activity for more than 6 months are experiencing

Depression

Recession

Loss

Deregulation

Countries which are industrialized, wealthy, have high income and have a firm control over global market are referred as

Peripheral countries

Semi peripheral countries

Core countries

Developing countries

Countries that lag behind in education, health and have low income are known as

Developed countries

Core countries

Semi peripheral countries

Peripheral countries

Resources flow from poor countries to wealthy and developed countries. What is this called?

Urbanization

Dependency theory

Relative poverty

Social change

There is an increase concern over the effect of development on poor people as it exposes them to certain environmental hazards. Which term is used to describe it.

Global warming

Environmental racism

Urban ecology

None of the above

Absolute poverty means

Lack of essential resources like food, shelter, health and education

Being relatively poor compared to other members of the society.

Living beyond the poverty line

None of above

Globalization can bring benefits. It has been suggested that the countries that have been most involved in the processes of globalization are the countries that have benefitted the most from it. Greater economic interactions with the outside world, however, can also lead to greater anxiety about the social and cultural changes that come with economic adaptations.[9] The level of inequality present in societies can moreover increase, as local groups and individuals have to adapt to external actors, with new competition from elsewhere in the global economy, and other changes in their situations or position in the world. The spread of market capitalism that has been associated with globalization in the 19th and 20th centuries has frequently undermined the structure of local economies.[10] Traditional economic systems, although frequently characterized by high levels of internal inequality, usually have some mechanisms of reciprocity that include obligations on the part of both the well-to-do and the less well-to-do. More modern economic practices, however, can undermine the reciprocity elements without any beneficial reduction in levels of inequality, thereby increasing societal tensions.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the above passage?

Globalization supports capitalist structure of the economy which poise a great threat for small economies and businesses.

The disadvantages of globalization are more than the advantages it offers.

Globalization has also led to increased economic tensions and local economies often suffer due to it.

Both a and c

John takes an initiative after his graduation in computer science and starts his own technology consultancy business instead of searching for a job. What will be John called?

Business man

Entrepreneur

Stockholder

Business owner

The process of creating towns or cities and expanding them as more people start to live and work in central areas is called

Urbanization

Industrialization

Union

Illegal immigration

A document issued to a person which gives him/her a right to invent and sell something is known as

Copyright

Ownership document

Patent

Both a and c

A company has a control over a particular industry because it owns a major market share in that industry. What term will be used to describe this?

Monopoly

Trust

Free enterprise

None of the above

Within the span of a few decades from the late 19th to the early 20th century, the United States was transformed from a predominately rural agrarian society to an industrial economy centered in large metropolitan cities. Prior to the American industrial revolution, most Americans were reared in largely isolated agricultural households and small towns that were linked to the external world by horse drawn wagons (Olmstead and Rhode 2000: 711). Except for towns that were connected to railroads or water borne shipping, isolation and the costs of overland transportation meant that many rural communities were largely self-sufficient in food, clothing, and many other essentials of everyday life. This changed dramatically in the early decades of the 20th century, as the supply and lowered costs of manufactured goods created a consumer revolution for both urban and rural households. Many of these goods, which did not even exist a few decades earlier, were manufactured, marketed, and transported through a rapidly expanding national network of rail lines and highways.

Which one of the following statements can be concluded from the above passage?

Industrial revolution in 20th century transformed the lives of American.

Prior to industrial revolution, American society mostly depended upon agriculture as their livelihood.

Both a and b

Industrial revolution segregated the society into various social classes.

Pressures that human activities exert on the environment are steadily increasing and substantially affect ecosystem function . In particular, consistent expanding urbanization irreversibly transforms the structure and ecological processes of natural habitats . While some species seem to benefit from the urban environment (“urban exploiters”), many others seem unable to persist in cities (“urban avoiders”), and as a result, species richness and diversity overall is low in urban areas, especially for avian communities. Indeed, urbanization exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges because of the specific characteristics of urban environments (e.g., resource availability, micro-climate, species interactions, disturbances, pollution. While the impact of urbanization on communities has been well documented the mechanisms underlying organisms’ responses to urbanization are still poorly understood. Yet, the modified environmental conditions of urban environments expose organisms to new selective pressures that are likely to affect wild vertebrates. For instance, studies have reported differences in behavior, morphology, and physiology between urban and non-urban populations in a large range of species. Because the ability to successfully adapt to urban-related environmental changes can vary with species’ ecological and life history traits (e.g., dispersal ability, behavioral flexibility, diet, stress tolerance, annual fecundity organisms’ responses to urbanization differ highly among species. In a rapidly urbanizing world, it is crucial to understand not only how free-living organisms are affected by the urban environment, but also how they can or cannot adjust to its constraints.

The figure below shows body mass and tarsus lengths of sparrows in different regions with different urbanization levels.

Which one of the following statement depicts the main idea of the passage and the figure?

Urbanization has many benefits in contrast to a popular belief that it is dangerous for our eco-system.

Different species react differently to urbanization and therefore, with the passage of time deviate from their original behavioral patterns to adjust.

Urbanization should be discouraged as it is affecting our ecosystem and many species are at the verge of extinction due to it.

Both a and b

A population shift from central urban areas to surrounding areas of the city is known as

Suburbanization

Semi urbanization

Counter urbanization

None of the above

What is the term called when urban and suburb population move to the rural areas to escape the negative aspects of urbanization?

Immigration

Counter urbanization

Suburbanization

None of the above

The places which have significant immigrant population and are used by immigrants to enter a country are called

Immigrant cities

Refugee camps

Gateway cities

megacities

Which of the following factor contributes towards urban decline the most?

Government policies

Environmental factors

Economy

Law and order

One of the primary reason for industrial decline is

Technology

Loss of jobs

Environmental hazards

None of the above

It is observed that certain rich people move towards a rundown area and rebuild and reconstruct it in order to improve their housing. Which term is used to describe this.

Gentrification

Counter urbanization

Suburbanization

Both a and c

Which factor is responsible for gentrification?

Government policies encourage investment in housing in those areas.

Richer people are attracted towards that area because the prices of property are lower in that area.

People in that area sell their property at lower prices because of their economic conditions.

Change in social conditions as the average income of the people in that area increase.

When urban decline occurs?

People move towards the suburban areas.

People move towards the rural areas to escape the negative aspects of urbanization.

City becomes isolated with abandoned buildings as there high local unemployment and lack of investment.

People leave urban areas due to environmental hazards.

It is usually observed that when migrants enter a particular city, they tend to live in poorer areas. This cause a concentration and high ration of migrants from the same city, country, race or ethnicity in that area.Which of the following is the possible cause?

Government policies restrict them to those areas only.

They do not bring enough resources to support them in high income neighborhoods of the city.

They suffer from discrimination in the market. For this reason most of them remain unemployed or are paid low.

They do not have essential skills set to earn the money.

The following passage is from a study on religious involvement in young people. The study compared data from the 1960s till the current decade:

“These results suggest that religious organizations are rapidly losing the youngest generation of Americans, known as Millennials. Most still have some religious involvement, but significantly more are not involved with religion at all. This is noteworthy because religion is often considered a major part of social identity [39] and transmits moral values through a sense of community [40]. Many people turn to religion as a meaning system [41] and a source of coping resources [42] and social support [43]. With religious orientation declining, fewer young people will have these resources. However, it is possible that other groups and activities (such as online activities) may take the place of religion, though it remains to be seen if they will provide the same benefits. Even religious adolescents may not reap the full benefits of religious involvement, as its links with health are stronger in societies with more religious tradition [44]. It is also possible that declines in religiosity could have some positive effects as well. For example, decreases in religious orientation may also correspond to decreases in shame and guilt that many religious individuals experience [8, 9]. Such decreases may also lead to fewer religious and spiritual struggles, which are also common among religious individuals [10]. In any case, however, it would be naïve to assume that these changes would be without effect. Given the central role that religious orientation has historically played in the psychosocial development of young people [25, 38], these shifts are not likely without consequence.”

What might the decline in religious affiliation also correlate with?

a loss of conformity

a decrease of obedience

a weakening social institution and therefore changing social norms

all of the above

What might religious involvement be an example of?

social loafing

deindividuation

bystander effect

collective behavior

Mike is part of the growing trend of teenagers who is distancing himself from religion. He grew up in a particularly conservative, oppressive religious community. The harsh opinions on homosexuality, women’s rights, and other political issues that have grown important to him have pushed him away from the strict legalism of his faith. As a result, Mike forms an atheist club at his college. What might his response be an example of?

social facilitation

conformity

labelling theory

strain theory

What purpose does religion serve in the greater scheme of things, from a sociological perspective?

an agent of socialization

an agent of obedience

material culture

a conventional crowd

What does the change in religiosity and religious participation in adolescents reinforce about social norms?

social norms are depend on time, place, and circumstance

social norms are obsolete

social norms are incomplete

social norms have become taboo

A recent study explored the relationship amongst social norms, anonymity, and aggressive behavior in online debates. Aggression was operationalized through the following means:

“[I]mpolite statements, swearing, flirting, exclamations, expressions of personal feelings, use of superlatives] to profanity, typographic energy (e.g. exclamation marks), name calling, swearing, and general negative effect [72, 88]. We rely on the definition of online aggression in firestorms, i.e., large amounts of critique, insulting comments, and swearwords against a person, organization, or group formed by, and propagated via, social media platforms [1]. … Expressions of disgust and contempt are typical responses to morally offensive behavior [90].”

The authors looked at online petitions and subsequent highly controversial or incendiary debates. Some of the mitigating factors were the presence A significant element of their findings that non-anonymous situations (i.e. those in which the commenter revealed their real name publicly along with geographic location) actually demonstrated higher levels of aggression in these petition environments. The non-anonymous individuals, according to the authors, banded together despite weak social ties because of the opportunity for a) ideological agreement and b) enforcement of social norms. They also stated that “[p]eople have a strong feeling to stand up for higher-order moral ideals and principles. Commenting anonymously is a costly, wasteful behavior, as sanctions are less credible, create less awareness, less support and offer few benefits.”

Sourced from Rost K, Stahel L, Frey BS (2016) Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.PLoS ONE 11(6): e0155923. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155923

What concept challenges the results of this study regarding the effects of anonymity or non-anonymity on aggression in “online firestorms”?

deindividuation

operationalization

social facilitation

bystander effect

This image is a chart from the study described above:

Under what circumstances did the researchers anticipate the LEAST amount of aggression?

non-anonymous and low controversy

anonymous and low controversy

non-anonymous and high controversy

anonymous and high controversy

Why might enforcement of social norms increase the likelihood of non-anonymous social aggression?

social loafing

bystander effect

labelling theory

group polarization

What does the enforcement of social norms encourage in others?

social loafing

rational choice

conformity

taboo 

The following chart informs the next several questions.

Sourced from: Rekker R, Pardini D, Keijsers L, Branje S, Loeber R, Meeus W (2015) Moving in and out of Poverty: The Within-Individual Association between Socioeconomic Status and Juvenile Delinquency. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0136461. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.013646/

What is NOT true about the data in this chart?

Teenagers in low-risk neighborhoods overall perform fewer acts of delinquency.

A higher SES score shows privilege, which makes teenagers think they can get away with more, so minor and moderate levels of delinquency are greater than those in less privileged circumstances.

A teenager in a low-risk community but with the lowest possible SES score is more likely to perform an act of major delinquency than a teenager in a high-risk community with the same SES score.

A teenager from a high-risk neighborhood and with the lowest possible SES score is around 5 times more likely to perform an act of major delinquency than a teenager from a low-risk neighborhood with the highest possible SES score.

What does this chart suggest about the level of social opportunity available to young people in these neighborhoods?

Those who are most likely to perform acts of delinquency may have fewer opportunities and therefore turn to deviant activity.

Wealth decreased the likelihood of delinquency.

Teenagers in low-risk neighborhoods have no reason to commit delinquency.

both a and b

What is the approximate chance of a young person in a high-risk neighborhood and an SES score of 2 committing an act of moderate delinquency?

~10%

~5%

~17%

~33%

What theory does this chart represent?

strain theory

deviant theory

labelling theory

none of the above

The following questions are from a passage from the above study.

“Control theory (e.g., [17]) argues that a positive parent-child relationship can constitute a social bond that prevents delinquency. Our between-individual findings supported this notion by demonstrating that youths were less likely to offend if their parents knew more about their activities and spent more time with them. We furthermore expected within-individual changes in parenting to be related to changes in delinquency. Support for this hypothesis was limited to minor delinquency: Youths were more likely to commit minor delinquency during years in which they spent less time with their parents and during years in which their parents knew less about their activities. Drawing from the family stress model (e.g., [15]), we finally hypothesized that the association between SES and delinquency would partly be accounted for by parenting. Support for this hypothesis was limited. Between individuals, parental knowledge displayed a mediating role. However, we found no evidence that the within-individual association between SES and delinquency was accounted for by changes in parenting. In fact, we found no within-individual association with SES for any of the four parenting characteristics.”

Parental influence against delinquency is a form of what?

societal control

informal social education

folkways

symbolic interaction

What can we conclude about parents’ role in preventing major delinquency?

a young person is more likely to commit an act of major delinquency when their parents are more involved

a wealthier parent can keep a better eye on their child through nannies and surveillance, which prevents episodes of major delinquency

teenagers in high-risk neighborhoods have parents who warn them against crime, so they are less likely to commit acts of major delinquency

the study’s results are only conclusive about minor delinquency 

The following passage and graphs are from the same study.

Harrington JR, Boski P, Gelfand MJ (2015) Culture and National Well-Being: Should Societies Emphasize Freedom or Constraint? PLoS ONE 10(6): e0127173. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127173

“To date, this research is the most extensive examination of the relationship between freedom and constraint and a wide array of societal outcomes. Our results clearly support the notion that excessive constraint (tightness) and excessive freedom (looseness) contribute to poorer psychosocial, health, and economic/political outcomes, as well as lower overall well-being at the national level. Relative to more moderate nations, both very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates, lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes, lower gross domestic product per capita, and a higher risk for political instability.

These disadvantages associated with both extremes of freedom and constraint may stem from a common mechanism, namely the inability to control oneself and one’s environment, which has been identified as a core human need (e.g., [22, 23]). Excessive constraint severely limits individual choice and requires constant self-monitoring [11], while excessive freedom provides fewer guiding rules, greater social disorganization, and greater social unpredictability. Both can undermine perceptions of control, either by restricting autonomy in the case of excessive constraint or, in the case of excessive freedom, by not being able to coordinate because of the anomie and randomness in one’s environment. On the other hand, more balanced, intermediate approaches may promote a symbiotic relationship between constraint and freedom that fosters a sense of control and produces optimal psychosocial, health, and economic outcomes [1]. Put differently, a moderate degree tightness-looseness allows for both choice and a normative structure that permits prediction and coordinated action. It remains up to future research to determine if this mechanism is in fact contributing to the curvilinear relationships documented in this research.”

What does this study’s conclusions say about social control?

a lot of social control is good because it keeps people healthier

freedom to do what you want always results in positive consequences

political unrest and health are linked to one another

you are more likely to be happy the fewer elements of social control there are

Why does anomie occur in environments with extreme freedom?

there is unpredictability

a lack of social cohesion

less organization deprives people of a sense of structure and control

all of the above

Ukraine has the lowest “tightness” in terms of social structure, while Pakistan has the highest, and yet they have comparable women’s death rates of cardiovascular conditions and diabetes. What does this graph explain as to why both have such high morbidity rates?

Conforming to social norms is stressful and can cause a heart attack or stress eating.

You’re more likely to engage in risky behavior when there are no rules.

Oppression of women has health consequences.

It doesn’t actually explain any of these factors.

Where is the USA in terms of sociopolitical freedoms?

Bottom 33% of possible scores

Top 33% of possible scores

right in the middle of possible scores

the most free/”loose” of all the studied countries

Which of the following can we conclusively say from this graph?

Japan has the healthiest women in the world.

The USA is both more free and has fewer deaths by heart disease or diabetes than Germany.

A woman is more likely to die of a heart attack in Mexico than of a sudden illness.

Countries in the former USSR are healthier than countries in Western Europe.

Which three countries have the greatest amount of social control?

Israel, Estonia, and Ukraine

Italy, Belgium, and the United Kingdom

Turkey, Pakistan, and Ukraine

India, Malaysia, and Pakistan

Where would there be greater consequences, overall, for violating a social norm?

Singapore

Japan

China

Malaysia

Tom travels from the United States to Turkey. He is arrested for something that is acceptable in the US but apparently is illegal in Turkey. What might he refer to in his defense?

a difference in social norms between the two countries

less social control in the United States

a lack of socialization to Turkish customs and laws

all of the above

The following questions are based on variations of a scenario.

Andy is the guitar player and lead singer in a local rock band. He and his bandmates have recorded a demo extended play (EP) of six songs. They play live shows often and rehearse four times a week. Andy’s band got the attention of a producer who works for a well-known independent record label. The producer has seen them live and really likes the demo EP, and she has played it for her boss who runs the label. Andy and his bandmates are both very excited and nervous. They want to make a good impression and show their individuality. Another band is slated to try out for a spot on the label right after them, so it is imperative they do a good job.

Based on the concept of social facilitation, what song should Andy’s band not play?

a cover of a famous song the band has practiced together and played live before

a brand new song they haven’t had the chance to play in front of anyone yet

a song off their demo EP

any of them would be fine

The band eventually decides on the song that is on the demo EP, because the drummer, Maria, remembered her social psychology class and told her bandmates about social facilitation. Kyle, the band’s bassist, is really tired before the audition because he partied with his friends all night. He didn’t practice, either. Even though he knows the song by heart, he is not confident in his ability to perform well. He plans to lower the volume on his bass and hope the rest of the band’s abilities can cover for him. What is Kyle doing?

breaking a taboo

committing deviance

performing a folkway

committing social loafing

Because Kyle does a poor job of things at the audition, they lose their shot at a record deal this time around. Andy is extremely angry at Kyle and punches him in the face. What is this an example of?

labelling theory

social control

violating a social norm

justice

Maria and Alex (the rhythm guitarist) are also displeased with Kyle, but they do not punch him like Andy did. Instead, they do nothing. Andy did this out in the parking lot where on-lookers saw Kyle getting hit but also did nothing. What is this an example of?

social loafing

bystander effect

anomie

innovation

A few days go by and Andy, Maria, and Alex all meet together for lunch without Kyle. Andy wants to know what they want to do about Kyle. Andy says that they should kick him out of the band, and as the lead singer with the most visibility, he feels like his opinion is important to get out of the way. If Maria and Alex agree with him without protest, what is this an example of?

groupthink

Asch experiment

rational choice

typology of deviance

Kyle gets kicked out of the band, and at the next show, Alex is responsible for playing the bass. Their crowd of regulars notices and asks where Kyle, a fan favorite, is. Andy leans into his microphone and says, “That jerk Kyle? He’s not coming back. He’s a scumbag and you shouldn’t support him.” The crowd boos and then suddenly someone throws a bottle of beer on the stage, which breaks against the back wall and just misses Maria’s head. Others join in and throw empty cans and trash on stage. Some push forward to yell at Andy and someone even approaches the stage and threatens him. What kind of crowd is this?

collective

casual

conventional

active

Now that Kyle has a bad reputation for being lazy and rude, he has trouble finding people to play music with him. He has become isolated from the musician’s community, and even though the debacle at the show following the rehearsal caused Andy’s band to lose some footing, they have regained their standing while Kyle has not. What is Kyle experiencing?

rejection

anomie

deviance

labelling theory

After a while, Kyle begins to embrace the ‘bad boy’ side and decides to form a punk band after all of the rejection he has faced from the local music community. What does his response to his lack of opportunity suggest?

strain theory

deviance

social norms

social facilitation

The following figure shows a research on a variety of intersections between race, class, gender and sexual orientation in terms of self-rated health. What can be observed from the trends?

All the richest intersecting identities have different self-rated health

All the richest intersecting identities have the exact self-rated health

Poorest women and poorest Asians in the study have the same self-rated health

The trends are not consistent with the predictions usually attributed to the theory of intersectionality

The following figure shows the mortality gradient by mean country household income in (a) all causes, (b) ischemic heart disease, (c) respiratory disease, (d) alcoholic liver disease and (e) homicide. The two curves are for the less-equal states and the more-equal states. Which of the following is not a trend depicted in the figure?

For mortality from alcoholic liver disease, the socioeconomic gradients crossed over

For mortality from ischemic heart disease, the socioeconomic gradient was marginally steeper in more-equal states

For mortality from respiratory, the socioeconomic gradient is consistently higher in less-equal states

For mortality from homicide, the socioeconomic gradient is flatter in more-equal states compared to the less-equal states.

The figure below shows (A) time series tend data on adult mortality, and (B) rate of change in adult mortality. Which time period saw an considerable increase in the mortality rate of the worse off group?

1960-1970

1970-1980

1980-1990

1990-2000

Which of the following options is incorrect with respect to the figure given below:

About 2 in 10 adults whose parents were in the second quintile will move to the fourth quintile

About 2 in 10 adults whose parents were in the top quintile will move to the second quintile

About 2 in 10 adults whose parents were in the middle quintile will move to the second quintile

About 2 in 10 adults whose parents were in the fourth quintile will move to the second quintile

The following graph shows the relationship between opportunity and mobility in different countries. The horizontal axis shows the persistence of income across generations while the vertical axis shows the inequality of economic opportunity. Which of the countries is the best of in terms of opportunity and mobility on the basis of the graph?

NOR (Norway)

ZAF (South Africa)

GBR (Great Britain)

BRA (Brazil)

The below figure shows the network distribution in the case of a topocracy, meritocracy and the transition stage between them. Topocracy is the network with more distributers than producers while the opposite is true for meritocracy. What can we observe from the figure below about the network distribution?

Networks are always circular in shape

Densely connected networks and more meritocratic, while sparsely connected networks are more topocratic

Densely connected networks and more topocratic, while sparsely connected networks are more meritocratic

Network distribution is not dependent on the proportion of producers and distributors in the system

The figure below shows absolute and relative poverty before and after housing costs over time. Which of the following statements are incorrect on the basis of the figure?

Absolute poverty AHC started with the highest percentage and ended with the highest percentage

Relative poverty AHC intersected absolute poverty AHC three times

Absolute poverty BHC intersected relative poverty BHC three times

Relative poverty BHC started with the lowest percentage and ended with the lowest percentage

The following figure shows the indicators of social space segregation in all county boroughs of a city in Germany. What can we observe about the proportion of foreigners from the figure?

The frequency is the highest when the proportion of foreigners is very high and the frequency keeps declining as the proportion of foreigners decreases

The frequency increases when the proportion of foreigners increases but after reaching its maximum the frequency starts declining as the proportion keeps increasing

The frequency is the highest when the proportion of foreigners is very low and the frequency keeps declining as the proportion of foreigners increases

The frequency decreases when the proportion of foreigners is very low but after reaching its minimum the frequency starts increasing as the proportion keeps increasing

The following figure shows the perceptions of disparities in health care. What can we observe from the figure?

A comparatively higher percentage of Hispanics believed that African Americans receive higher quality of healthcare as compared to the African Americans who believed so

A comparatively higher percentage of African Americans believed that Hispanics receive higher quality of healthcare as compared to the Hispanics who believed so

Both option A and option B

None of the above

The below figure shows details of a research on the nonelderly uninsured by race and ethnicity. Which three groups have a lower risk of being uninsured than the national average?

Two or more races, Asian/Pacific islander and American Indian/ Alaska Native

Two or more races, Asian/Pacific islander and African American

White (non-Latino), Two or more races and African American

White (non-Latino), Two or more races and Asian/Pacific islander

Mr. Smith dislikes people who cannot speak the English language and believes that because of this they are not productive enough in any work they do. This is an example of:

Experience

Prejudice

Hostility

Aggression

This theory believes that prejudice can be reduced when the in-group and out-group members are brought together with equal status and a common goal among other factors.

No-group hypothesis

Contact hypothesis

Interaction hypothesis

Appreciation hypothesis

The increased chances of a woman receiving the primary custody of the children after a divorce can be an instance of:

Legal code of conduct

Traditional discrimination

Feminism

Gender Discrimination

A thinker has been marginalized because of his radical and dissenting views regarding the mainstream beliefs in his area of expertise. What kind of social exclusion is this?

Individual exclusion

Community exclusion

Professional exclusion

Voluntary exclusion

Showing a 'thumbs up' is an instance of:

Nonverbal communication

Positive communication

Postural communication

Physical communication

Tourist help centers across cities is an example of which kind of social support:

Emotional support

Tangible support

Informational support

Companionship support

This theory explains how intergroup hostility can arise as a result of conflicting goals and competition over limited resources:

Contact hypothesis

Out-group derogation theory

Intergroup hostility theory

Realistic conflict theory

Set 10

Eye contact between two people at the same time is an indication of:

Aggression and disgust

Attention and interest

Evasion and deception

Fixation and addiction

Different entrepreneurs from the same city meeting and interacting to form relationships, share information and act on business opportunities together is:

Capitalism

Business expansion

Business networking

Business chain

The study of human space and the effects population density has on behavior, communication and social interaction is termed as:

Population studies

Conflict theories

Kinesics

Proxemics

Raphael after his shoulder injury has been trying to regain his fitness. For this, he regularly goes to the fitness center with a group of friends. They are a part of his:

Personal network

Social network

Fitness network

Productive network

A person bullying his peers displays:

Nonverbal communication

Socioeconomic deprivation

Aggressive behavior

Social pollution

The human consequences of external control and economic exploitation of a native people and its lands is discussed under:

Regional discrimination

Geographic discrimination

Identity politics

Post-colonialism

Dividing resources between several people who have an entitlement to them, such that everyone receives their due share is the problem of:

Externalities

Fair division

Marxism

Game theory

A selfless act of breaking orders, rules and regulations more often than an average individual is considered to be a part of what kind of personality?

Extreme Altruistic

Psychopathic

Egoistic

None of these

What is in contrast to ethical egoism?

Selfishness

Ethical altruism

Tit for tat

None of these

Apartheid is an example of:

Prejudice

Discrimination

Stereotyping

None of these

What among the following influences prejudice and discrimination?

Non-conformity to social norms

Conformity to social norms

Prestige

None of these

At the heart of human relationships lies competition rather than consensus says which following theory:

Functional theory

Structural theory

Conflict theory

None of these

A public service officer working in the transport department is doing serious lobbying to increase its budget as he believes this will increase his own power. This is an instance of the:

Budget maximizing model

Bureau shaping model

Social efficiency model

State growth model

The area which studies the interactions of self-interested agents like voters, politicians and bureaucrats and represents it in different ways like using game theory models or decision theory models is:

Zero sum game

Payoff matrix

Rational decisiveness theory

Public choice theory

During the 19th century USA, African Americans made the majority is many southern states and yet had no formal political power while White Americans had power despite being less in number. This is an example of a:

Non-cooperative game

Dominant minority

Ethnic advantage

Post-colonialism

Minority quotas in education and workplaces are considered as:

Favoritism

Othering process

Progressive behavior

Reverse discrimination

Advertisers on social media websites invading the privacy and personal space of users is discussed under:

Social media metrics

Digital marketing

Digital proxemics

Digital globalization

Researching how any particular language affects the culture of a group is categorized under:

Anthropology

Sociolinguistics

Linguistic Prestige

Language games

A group of people often just passing time together with a casual mindset are a part of each other’s:

Group network

Personal network

Casual group

Casual network

Europe's colonial attitude towards the Orient exemplified through the attitude that the East was culturally opposite and underdeveloped was an instance of:

Reverse discrimination

Spatial differences

Othering process

Foreign discrimination

A public servant working in the rural education has modified the department in a way that it has become an important consideration in education policies of the center due to the consistent innovative work. This is an instance of:

Budget maximizing model

Bureau shaping model

Social efficiency model

State growth model

A working couple were married for 17 years and through their savings had built a home with a lot of possessions. They are now getting divorced and are having problems in distributing their shared property. This is an example of which problem?

Fair division

Fairness problem

Property indifferences

Distribution disharmony

The social class constantly under attack by the media for being lazy and system abusers is the:

Upper class

Middle class

Working class

Lower class

Suppose the government has decided to increases the taxes of the upper class to compensate for the subsequent decrease in the tax rates of the middle and lower classes, the behavior which will be caused by this decision is an example of:

Game theory

Class conflict

Working conflict

Class distrust

In a fair division problem, several friends rent a house together and allocate the rooms between themselves as well as the rent to be paid by each of them without much hassle. This is the situation of:

Game theory

Internalities division

Rental harmony

Fair monetary division

The movement of individuals, families and households within or between social strata in a society is:

Social transfer

Social mobility

Unfair division

Social status transition

Joseph has worked very hard doing market research and managing all the involved resources to initiate a new project. He expects to become the project manager but a senior employee who was not involved in the pre-preparation but ten years his senior is made the project manager, the reason stated that Joseph is too young to handle the stress. This is an instance of:

Bureaucracy

Rationality

Red-tapism

Ageism

Amy is pursuing research to study the differences of healthcare trends of Egypt and Morocco from the healthcare trends of USA. Her research will come under:

Health equality

Health equity

Health equation

Health disparity

Communal riots causing destruction of property and physical harm to all the people involved as well the people being targeted is an instance of:

Violence

Aggression

Sadism

Cruelty

Patients with a poor understanding of good health may not know when it is necessary to seek care for certain symptoms is a problem of:

Health equality

Health

Informative discrimination

Health literacy

Instances of people who have planned and carried out attacks such as a school shooting or other public shoot outs have been categorized as:

Targeted violence

Bully violence

Specified violence

Ransom violence

A school going teenager who has still not started earning sometimes shows behavior like the bread earner of the house indicating a purposeful breaching of the expected norms. This can be further understood better under:

Role Conflict

Ethnomethodology

Schoolboy Hypothesis

Achieved status

Answers

D: How attitudes are shaped, formed, and reinforced by logical arguments. ELM explains ways of processing stimuli, why they are used, and their outcomes on attitude change. If someone is motivated to pay attention, they act logically, and thus use the central route to decision-making. This leads to permanent change in attitude as they adopt and elaborate upon the speaker’s arguments. In other cases, take the peripheral route. The less motivated to pay attention, persuasive arguments are more likely to sway listeners instead by surface characteristics such as whether they like the speaker. In this case, they change is only temporary. D is the only correct answer in this case.

D: It presumes an exact relationship of motivation and the route of processing A common disadvantage of ELM is that it assumes there are only 2 processing pathways that correlate to motivation. High motivation may lead to a central route of processing, but as a common flaw of all models, assuming such an exact correlation is a disadvantage. Other answer choices represent advantages or false facts about ELM.

B: Bottom-up thinking in which facts are scrutinized without bias Biased Elaboration is top-down thinking in which predetermined conclusions color the supporting data. This is used on people already made their mind up before conversing about it. Ex. Someone bitten by a dog might have a negative bias that all dogs are bad even before meeting their friend’s dog. Objective Elaboration is bottom-up thinking in which facts are considered without bias. Here, listeners use facts to approach the message without prior bias. Ex. A person decides to meet their friend’s dog while leaving behind the prior negative association with the previous dog bite. Instead, this person would let the new dog’s actions influence their attitude (remember these new actions could still lead to a negative association).

D: No Route ELM only assumes TWO routes of processing. The central route to persuasion consists of thoughtful consideration of the arguments (ideas, content) of the message. Central processing has two prerequisites: It can only occur when the receiver has both the motivation and the ability to think about the message and its topic. Because the student continues to talk to the peer the entire time (even if the conversation was about a the marketing subject), the student did not receive the information needed to process the central route. The peripheral route to persuasion occurs when the listener decides whether to agree with the message based on other cues besides the strength of the arguments or ideas in the message.

C: Richard Petty and John Cacippio While you do not need to know these theorists, you do need to know the theorists in choice A, B, and D. Get comfortable being able to select answers by crossing out.

C: Motivation to learn what the speaker has to say. In order to process what the speaker has to say, a person must have the motivation to know more about what is being said and also the ability to listen without distractions. The other answer choices are too vague but C is a “for sure” answer.

B: Sociopsychological tradition. Even if you have never heard of these traditions before, assessing the other answer choices for their meaning and correlation to ELM is helpful. It is not just a social tradition because ELM speaks on a “person to person” level, which indicates involvement of psychology. Only B states the most realistic and relevant tradition as ELM addresses both the social and psychological factors of a person.

C: The person on the receiving end is influenced by factors involving the person’s speech components. D is a superficial feature (thus peripheral processing) and shows the importance of reading every word of every answer choice. Both a few hours and a few days is a short amount of time to be influenced and thus signifies peripheral processing.

D: Robert Cialdini You must know the other 3 people thus crossing out will lead to choice D.

B: Albert Bandura The proposition of social learning was expanded upon and theorized by psychologist Albert Bandura. Bandura, along with his students and colleagues conducted a series of studies, known as the Bobo doll experiment to find out why and when children display aggressive behaviors. These studies demonstrated the value of modeling for acquiring novel behaviors. These studies helped Bandura publish his seminal article that expanded on the idea of how behavior is acquired, and thus built from Miller and Dollard’s research. He claimed that SCT shows a direct correlation between a person’s perceived self-efficacy and behavioral change. Self-efficacy comes from four sources: “performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states”

B: It is individual belief in the likelihood of goal completion Self-efficacy is the person’s confidence in performing a particular behavior; Approach behavioral change in small steps to ensure success

D: Failing at a task before trying it again Positive experiences, positive self/external talk, and internal feelings can help increase self-efficacy whereas failure (regardless of if they try the task again) will not.

B:Performing coping responses. Emotional coping responses are strategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal with emotional stimuli; provide training in problem solving and stress management

B: Self-control is the personal regulation of goal-directed behavior or performance; Provide opportunities for self-monitoring, goal setting, problem solving, and self-reward

A: Reinforcement is the response to a person’s behavior that changes the likelihood of reoccurrence; Promote self-initiated rewards and incentives

B: Reciprocal Determinism is the dynamic interaction of the person, the behavior, and the environment in which the behavior is performed; consider multiple avenues to behavioral change, including environmental, skill, and personal change.

D: Reciprocal Determinism According to Mischel, there are five person variables that contribute to the conditions of a specific situation. They are used in predicting how a person will most likely behave. Competencies - intellectual capabilities/ social skills. Cognitive Strategies -many people’s different perceptions of a specific event. Expectancies - the expected results of behaviors realized by one person. Subjective Values - the value of each possible outcomes of various behaviors. Selfregulatory systems - the rules people adapt to in order to regulate their behavior.

B: It is structurally correct The answer is relatively simple and easy but is placed to help to understand that keeping track of the question and what the question requires is essential to picking an answer.

A: Biological component which holds that the human beings have innate behavior Every attitude has three components that are represented in what is called the ABC model of attitudes: A for affective, B for behavioral, and C for cognitive.

A: Explicit attitudes are those that we are consciously aware of and that clearly influence our behaviors and beliefs This is the definition of explicit attitudes. Make sure to learn both explicit and implicit.

D: Attitudes form as a result of natures; thus, it cannot be learned, it just falls in place. Attitudes are not natural or instinctive, they are formed by experiences and behaviors leading to these opinions.

B: When a person lives in fear of the unknown High risk feelings like fear or sadness may deviate someone from acting within their attitude as behaviors might become more instinctual

A: To alter attitudes in order to better align them with their behavior. When individuals feel conflicted between attitude and behavior, attitudes may be changed to fit the behavior or vice versa. Always make sure 100% of the answer choice is correct before choosing.

B: People can change their attitudes after they have decided do so: it is a personal choice. The learning theory assumes 3 different ways attitudes are formed: 1. Classical conditioning EX: Men with bow ties. Meet a bad man who wears bow ties, and you may come to hate all bow ties. 2.. Instrumental, or operant, conditioning. EX: People agree with your opinion so you continue to have this opinion 3.. Observational learning. EX: If a young girl hears her mother denounce all elected officials as crooks, she may repeat that opinion in class the next day.

C: The ability to respond in time A Yale Approach for persuasive communication (think “opposite of central route” or “what do politicians do”) argues that: The speaker should be credible and attractive to the audience. Messages should not appear to be designed to persuade. Present two-sided arguments (refuting the ‘wrong’ argument, of course). If two people are speaking one after the other, it is best to go first (primacy effect). If two people are speaking with a delay between them, it is best to go last (recency effect). Distract them during the persuasion. Lower intelligence and moderate self-esteem helps. The best age range is 18-25.

B: Learning theories: Theories reflect behavioral psychology and emphasizes on the stimulus characteristics of the communication situation. Make sure to learn and find examples that apply the major theories of all topics in sociology. Social judgment theories: Theories that focuses on how people's prior attitudes distort their perceptions of the positions advocated in persuasive messages, and how such perceptions mediate persuasion. Consistency theories: They are theories that embark on consistency between attitudes, between behaviors, and among attitudes and behaviors. Functional theories: A fundamental question about attitudes concerns their purpose: That is, what purpose do attitudes serve?

B: It is a technique whereby initial behavior leads people to believe their attitude is inconsistent with their previous action Foot-in-the-door (FITD) technique is a compliance tactic that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request. The foot-in-the-door technique succeeds owing to a basic human reality that social scientists call "successive approximations”. It leads to compliance to match the attitude in order tomato sense of the previous behavior.

A: They believe that they have the control over what happens around them Even though the child was raised in a home where he would be more likely to have an external locus of control, his action of reaching out to a social worker and wanting to leave shows he believes he can be in a better situation and thus shows he has an internal locus of control.

D: They have a fear of uncertainty. A fear of uncertainty is most likely to show the typical “low self-efficacy” characteristic as the person feels in fear of being able to complete a new task.

C: Overconfidence on ability to perform a task without any base. Overconfidence in performing a task without prior experience is not part of self-concept. One’s self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself that includes elements such as academic performance, gender roles, sexuality, and racial identity. Generally, self-concept embodies the answer to "Who am I?”. One’s self-concept is made up of self-schemas, and their past, present, and future selves. Self-concept is distinguishable from self-awareness, which refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is defined, consistent, and currently applicable to one's attitudes and dispositions. Self-concept also differs from self-esteem: self-concept is a cognitive or descriptive component of one's self (e.g. "I am a fast runner"), while self-esteem is evaluative and opinionated.

B: It is a strong belief in your own ability to do succeed against all odds. In this question it is important to go with “the best” answer that provides the strongest support or that best matches the definition of self-esteem.

A: Self-esteem is permanent whilst self-efficacy is temporary depending on an activity. Self-esteem is a permanent internal feeling while self-efficacy is a feeling that depends upon the performance at hand.

C: Making negative conclusions on the character of an individual and comparing to someone who is better off. Self-concept and self-esteem cannot be increased when thinking negatively about one self or by thinking others are better off.

D: The power of human beings to think intelligently. Make sure to understand the wide breadth covered (and not covered) under the term self-concept.

B: It stresses the importance of community and the dependence of the individual on others for their well-being Western views are more “self-involved” whereas eastern views are more “network-involved”.

A: A persons perception of why things happen or what forces are driving their behavior. Other answer choices are either incorrect or depict other terms such as B: schemas, C: self-identity, etc.

D: Always think negatively when it calls for it however, have controls to the extent you can think that way. Having negative self-thoughts, regardless of if it is a few or many times is not helpful towards self-esteem and self-confidence.

A: It is deliberately putting obstacles in one’s way, so a ready excuse is available if failure occurs, and self-efficacy can be enhanced if you succeed. Self-handicapping prevents someone from failing and self-serving bias makes an excuse for the failure so that self-esteem and self-efficacy are not hurt.

B: Females tend to be more open to verbal processing of experience and expression of feelings. Like many questions in the MCAT, you can use the question stem in 39 to help support the best answer.

C: Stopping negative talk. This is an obvious answer because many individuals have experienced enough life events to know the answer. Some answers in the psyc/soc section will be obvious but can trick students who think that the most obvious answer is not correct.

B: Psychological needs While self-fulfillment is important in self-esteem, self-esteem is mainly focused on serving psychological needs. Self-fulfillment require many more aspects. Basic needs are more along the lines of food, clothing, and shelter.

D: Participating in exams with classmates Hearing about yourself and reflecting on the relationships you have with others can affect self-awareness whereas certain actions such as taking exams (even if it is with people who you have relationships with) do not.

A: It plays a major role in how one approaches goals, tasks, and challenges. Self-efficacy shows the belief of someone who is approaching a task.

C: Emotional Response While “crying of happiness” or “laughter” are important, these do not serve as real motivations.

D: Technological advancement Personal identity factors are items that might help objectively identify a single person as “unique”.

A: Age identity. A person is most likely to change the way they perceive themselves and age itself is a drastic change (ex. It is incredibly unlikely that a 40 year old would continuously take on the age identity of when they were a 5 year old)

C: It is the distinction drawn from physical appearance including skin and eye color. Think race as more appearance-based and ethnicity as more location-based.

C: It is distinction based on national origin, religion, language, food, and other cultural indicators. Think race as more appearance-based and ethnicity as more location-based.

A: Religious affiliation social identity category. Only religious identity can be assumed based on the facts given for the Christian group (we do not know if race, SES, or ethnicity are similar).

B: Totality of one's self-construal, in which how one construes oneself in the present expresses the continuity between how one construes oneself as one was in the past and how one construes oneself as one aspires to be in the future. This is a definition.

B: Victim’s identity is used to take on loans and get new credit cards. Since the theft is financial, this is the most likely scenario.

B: It is a disorder is characterized by a pervasive distrust of others, including even friends, family, and partner. While this is NOT sociology, identity and disorders can easily be viewed from a sociological and psychological perspective. This disorder involves perception of the people around the individual and thus is an aspect of social psychology (a commonly tested subject in the MCAT).

A: In this stage the child's erogenous zone is the genital region

D: The primary focus of libidinal energy Freud is known for focusing many of his theories around a sort of “sexual” energy.

A: The major conflict of this stage Centre’s on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people

B: James Marcia’s theory about identity His theory of identity achievement states that there are two distinct parts contributing to the achievement of adolescent identity: a time of choosing or crisis, and a commitment. He defined a crisis as a time of upheaval where old values or choices are being reexamined and new alternatives are explored - 'times during adolescence when the individual seems to be actively involved in choosing among alternative occupations and beliefs'. Both exploration and commitment are the two processes that contribute to differences in outcome during an Identity crisis. That is, whether or not (the extent to which) one explores identity alternatives and whether or not one makes a commitment to chosen alternatives.

A: Identity Diffusion – the status in which the adolescent does not have a sense of having choices; he or she has not yet made a commitment

B: Self-concept is built upon the identification with role models, an assessment of self-worth, and a preferred pattern in relating to the external world

C: Social learning and Gender schema theory Theories outside of gender schema theory can also address factors affecting and affected by gender.

C: Industry vs. Inferiority Make sure to memorize and fully understand all stages for Erikson’s Theory. Use videos and read lengthy explanations to fully understand what these terms really mean. The MCAT can ask you to know these based on age, or even a scenario or related factor (virtues, crisis, etc).

D: Identity Achievement (Guardians) Many sociology theories are based on older theories. Make sure to know how different theories and stages associate with one another.

D: The heterosexual community during stage five. Use the article to determine at what stage a gay or lesbian individual would interact and therefore be influenced by another individual.

A: It is a skill that lasts a lifetime Socialization is learned but lasts a lifetime and can be changed.

B: Comparison of oneself with others in the LGBTQI and heterosexual community assists in formation of identity

A: Imitation means to copy a behavior, role-taking would be to assume the general responsibilities and behaviors of his friend.

A: Self-identity shapes the way one sees the world and social identity shapes the way others see you based on their perceptions

C: Identity diffusion Stage two and identity diffusion both deal with social isolation and a lack of certainty on identity

C: Influence of Individuals This is a very obvious answer to help make sure you always “go with your gut feeling”

D: Culture is a part of cultural identity

A: Egocentric or undifferentiated perspective

A: Looking glass self-states that a person's self grows out of society's interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others.

A: It occurs when china-educated nurses are labeled, and colleagues views and expectations of them are affected by that labeling. Labeling bias is more likely to affect the perceptions of people outside of the person being criticized.

A: Self-labeling: It is what when we adopt others’ labels explicitly into our self-concept. Self-labeling involves changes your own perception whereas labeling bias is the tendency to place a label on an individual.

B: It is when individuals turn prejudice faced on them by others onto themselves. Internalized prejudice is when the nurses hear that they are not Australian (prejudice) then believe they never can be (internalized).

A: Self-comparison This is when someone’s realizes something about themselves by comparing to someone else

B: It happens when we attempt to create a positive image of ourselves through favorable comparisons with others who are worse off than we are. Upward comparisons are the opposite of this.

D: Widow-Relationship social identity type. Welfare-recipient is not a type of vocation (while there are rewards and payments; it is not a job to be on welfare). Feminist is not a stigma. Intellectualness does not have to do with political affiliation. A widow is still a type of relationship.

7C: Ego. Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche; The id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the super-ego plays the critical and moralizing role; and the ego is the organized, realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego. The super-ego can stop one from doing certain things that one's id may want to do.

B: An individual to whom one looks for appropriate values, attitudes, and behaviors. This is the definition :). Most questions for sociology in MCAT either ask you to apply terms or ask for the definition (sometimes in strange ways). Make sure to learn the term AND how it can be applied to examples!

D: They give us guidance to interact in non-group activities. A, B, and C are more important overall than D.

C: Enhance the status of the group that we belong. Members typically boost groups to increase their own self-image.

D: Social belongingness. In the three stages: The first is categorization. We categorize objects in order to understand them and identify them. In the second stage, social identification, you adopt the identity of the group. The final stage is social comparison where you preserve self-esteem by comparing to other groups.

D: Mothers and Daughters Mothers and daughters is not specific enough to group separately. While they play different roles, they are in the same group (family).

D: The feeling of being in the wrong place. This is a clear answer but tests your ability to keep focused on what the question stem wants in “except for” question types.

D: Out group is based on sense of unity. Outgroups can be diverse set of people and/or groups! So they do not need unity.

A: It is any behavior intended to harm another person, because he or she is a member of an out-group. This is the definition :). Make sure to learn the terms for social psychology of groups.

A: A generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members. Know the difference between stereotype, stereotype threat, bias, prejudice, and discrimination.

C: In-group bias. In-group favoritism, sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, or intergroup bias, is a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members.

A: It is the feeling of identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as they are influenced by their belonging to a group or culture. This is a definition ;). Learn how this could be applied in scenarios as well.

D: Corporate influences. Less “personal” factors are less likely to influence identity formation.

B: Identity Diffusion Look at previous questions and answers but make sure to memorize Marcia’s theory.

C: Identity Diffusion This is the opposite of identity achievement Diffusion is a part of Marcia’s theory, not interpersonal identity development

A: It is the process of learning the social expectations and attitudes associated with one's sex Socialization is more about fitting social norms in a society as compared to in an individual. In sociology questions, it is important to think on a broader perspective thus the answer could not be D.

D: Identity foreclosure Phinney’s model goes in the order of A->B->C, D is not one of them.

A: Child Here’s another chance to understand and memorize the stages.

B Saying sorry will prevent punishment Make sure to memorize and be able to apply Kohlberg’s Theories.

C. Post-conventional- Social Contract Because she has moral beliefs that are forgoing the law, this best fits the social contract stage (not Law and Order) She may or may not have UEP but there is not enough information to assume this.

A: The process of assigning the cause of behavior to some internal characteristic, rather than to outside forces. The opposite would be external attribution.

A: Correspondent Inference Theory. Correspondent inference theory is a psychological theory proposed by that "systematically accounts for a perceiver's inferences about what an actor was trying to achieve by a particular action.”

B: It is logical model for judging whether a particular action should be attributed to some characteristic of the person or the environment

D: The extent to which a person behaves differently in different situations The covariation principle states that, "an effect is attributed to the one of its possible causes with which, over time, it covaries". A certain behavior is attributed to potential causes that appear at the same time. This principle is useful when the individual has the opportunity to observe the behavior many times. Attributions are made based on Consensus, Distinctiveness, and Consistency.

A: It is people's tendency to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation, rather than considering external factors fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias or attribution effect) is the tendency for people to place an emphasis on internal characteristics of the person (character or intention), rather than situational factors,to explain someone’s behavior in a given situation. On the other hand, when interpreting one's own behavior, the person is more likely to use situational factors rather than characteristics of the person/underlying intention.

D: If behavior is not from personal choice it is believed to be due to internal factors This is mentioned in the passage above.

A: Group-serving bias The hidden consequences of the group serving bias: include causal Attributions and the quality of group decision making. Attribution theory suggests that groups are biased toward attributing their success to factors that are internal to their group

B: It is a theory provides three useful factors to determine the causes of behavior. The second factor is the degree of freedom with which someone performs a behavior as freely chosen actions convey You must know these factors :)

D: Use of description to make future predictions about the future Attribution is usually considered in the present and thus this is the least likely answer.

B: Blaming external factors for failures and disappointments to protect self-esteem Make sure to also know how self-serving bias can be seen in scenarios.

A: It refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors In social psychology, the fundamental attribution error, also known as the correspondence bias or attribution effect, is the tendency for people to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics of the agent

C: Symbolic interaction puts that all interactions among individuals is an exchange of symbols.

D: Socialization make sure to know the difference between A, C, and D.

B: Family is the first and most important agent of socialization.

C: Social identity Make sure to understand the differences of types of identities.

A: Self-identity Make sure to understand the differences of types of identities.

B: Social institution are the entities that dictate the norms and rules of the larger society. The major institutions are education, family, peer groups, government, and even media.

B: George Mead Make sure to learn A, B, and D. C can be crossed out. Sometimes less known people are asked about in order to cause confusion. Avoid this by learning the advancements of major individuals.

C: Generalized Other According to Mead, the generalized other represents the values and norms of the larger society.

D: Impression management (same thing as front stage self)

A: Social constructionism A social construct or construction concerns the meaning, notion, or connotation placed on an object or event by a society, and adopted by the inhabitants of that society with respect to how they view or deal with the object or event.

A: Ecological approach The ecological approach was originally developed by the Chicago School and essentially puts that the natural distribution of city neighborhoods is the result of contrasting characteristics. This is an attempt to explain how cities become organized through processes involving competition for resources, invasion of areas and the environment, and succession of those less powerful. Cities are formed in concentric rings, with inner cities being at the center formed by processes of invasion and succession that sees poor and ethnic minorities are concentrated in the center and the wealthy and more affluent invade nicer neighborhoods and suburbs

A: Functionalism and sociology of education are focused on how schools socialize students with values and sort and select them according to ability and skill.

C: Urban ecology Urban ecology sees various neighborhoods and zones within cities as a natural result of processes of adjustments resulting from the competition for resources.

C: Urban interaction problem Louis Wirth first coined the urban interaction problem which is the struggle to maintain social distance while in close physical proximity to many others. People tend to do this currently by way of cell phones, apps, music, and headphones when out in public places.

D: Economic restructuring hypothesis Economic restructuring hypothesis. It was economic restructuring that started an unending cycle of urban poverty in the inner cities. This created an urban underclass from a complex interplay of civil rights policy, economic restructuring, and discrimination. The decline of industry, suburbanization of employment, and a surging increase in low-wage service jobs lead to a high rate of unemployment, declining marriage rates, increased unwed births, and surge in female-headed single parent families living in poverty where the cycle continues.

C: Social stratification Social stratification, also social inequality, represents the hierarchy of social roles. This hierarchy differentiates people based on race, ethnicity, gender, and even social class. Where one stands in the hierarchy influences how they see others and how they see their self. Additionally, one’s position in this hierarchy dictates their immediate environment access to quality education, healthcare, residential options, and essentially their life course trajectory.

B: At low incomes, people will spend a low proportion of their income. It is possible to use common sense or read the graph in order to answer this question. At low incomes, people will spend a high proportion of their income. The average propensity to consume could be one or greater than one. This means people spend everything they have. They need to spend everything you have on essentials. However, as incomes rise, people can afford the luxury of saving a higher proportion of their income. Therefore, as income rise, spending increases at a lower rate than disposable income. People with high incomes have a lower average propensity to spend.

D: Stratification Social stratification, or social inequality, effectively places some people in environments that stigmatize some groups to the benefits of others. One’s immediate environment indicates how others will see that person and how that person views their self, it also dictates access to necessary resources. Additionally, on a larger global level, environmental damage is heaped on the poor and less powerful as the wealthy are able to over-consume but move away from the problems caused by overconsumption.

B: Movement between social positions Movement between social positions, social mobility can be intergenerational or intragenerational and can go up OR down.

A: Environmental ecology is most concerned with how we can cope with, contain, and minimize environmental damage and life in industrialized and globalized societies.

C: Social problems are conditions, events or patterns that negatively affects the well-being of enough (significant) people that it is identified as something that needs to be changed.

A: Meritocracy In some countries people subscribe to a false meritocratic belief that anyone can just work hard and succeed to achieve their dreams

B: People in capitalist society are divided into two antagonistic social classes. Karl Marx argues that capitalism creates a powerful class that benefits from the subjugation and control of the underclass, a society in perpetual conflict.

B: Conflict Theory Conflict theory is heavily influenced by Karl Marx and his arguments regarding power and ideology.

B: Anomie was introduced by Durkheim in his investigation of suicide.

C: Power

A: Ideologies are the systems of belief that perpetuate the power and control of the controlling groups. Ideologies vary across societies, are systematic and ingrained in society. Mostly, ideologies are accepted ways of thought and questioned by few.

C: ownership of the means of production Marx put that ownership of the means of production indicated one’s class because ownership shows power over others. Social class as we define it now is more a combination of wealth and status, and very few people actually own the means of production.

A: Conflict theory focuses on dissent, coercion, and antagonism in society.

B: a combination of class, status, and power Weber defined social stratification as being a combination of class, status and power.

A: Lewis’s culture of poverty thesis comes from his ethnography of Mexican families in which he argues that the subculture of poor people adapts to perpetuate more poverty.

D: Labeling theory puts that the more a person is labeled as something such as delinquent they are likely to take on that very identity being assigned to them. This concept led to the later hypothesis by Merton of the self-fulfilling prophecy.

A: invokes widely held beliefs, values, and preferences that are familiar to potential audiences. Culturally resonant themes are those that invoke widely held beliefs, such as media characterizations of food-related social problems.

B: Relative poverty is a measure that looks at individual or groups in relation to the rest of their community or society; this measure is used as opposed to setting an absolute line.

A: Absolute poverty thresholds are used by the U.S. Census Bureau and takes into account family size, number of children, and their ages.

D: 90 90%. The remaining 10% of the country’s wealth is shared by the other 90% of the population.

C: Social inclusion is defined as a sense of belonging to or membership in a group or society. A lack of social inclusion leads to a lack of incentive to try to change one’s circumstances.

A: Relative equality in how social and economic resources are distributed in a society. Distributive justice is principle behind social welfare, and those who believe in distributive justice propose that government efforts should be applied to eliminate social and economic inequality.

D: The cult of thinness is defined as the idealization of a slim body type that the vast majority of the population cannot achieve.

B: it leads to decreased rates of obesity. The cult of thinness does not decrease obesity rates.

B: The common misconception that once a small number of minorities become successful in society shows that racism is no longer a problem. Tokenistic fallacy is the belief that the success of a few is proof there is no longer a problem. This fallacy is disproven by the existence of racial wage gap as the result of inequalities in all social institutions.

C: Structural functionalists see social inequality as necessary for society as functions of poverty that are useful the larger system, such as getting the dirty jobs done for little pay. Plus, in order for some to be at the top there has to be others held at the bottom.

A: The process by which the dominant race in society is shielded from harmful environmental threats, while the same such threats are located closest to neighborhoods where minority groups live. Environmental racism leads to all power plants being located to poor and minority neighborhoods across the world, and leads to events like the Flint Water crisis where poor people were given “poisoned” water despite living on some of the purest glacial water in the world.

A: more positive beliefs about tobacco and higher rates of smoking. Interactionists would argue that increased interactions with smoking would make someone more likely to smoke, this includes on screen, by family members, by peers, etc.

C: How immigrant groups follow a pathway of four stages that leads to eventual assimilation Race relations theory developed to explain the process by which immigrants work to adapt to the dominant group and seek the rewards of that behavior.

D: Stereotype threat Stereotype threat is the theory that the tendency of individuals to perform better or worse on standardized tests depending on what they have been told about their groups abilities.

B: Stereotype threat Stereotype threat describes this phenome.

D: Movement of jobs away from cities left many African Americans without employment. Spatial mismatch theory was Williams Julius Wilson’s theory of the unequal conditions faced by the worst-off African Americans. This also explains the feminization of poverty through which the intersection of race and gender compounds its effects.

D: Raymond Rist Raymond Rist was an interactionist theorist, also utilizing conflict theory, who demonstrated how teachers expectations based on race, class, ethnicity, and gender affect students’ perceptions of themselves and their achievement. Labeling students on social class resulted in low-income students placed in lower-ability reading groups regardless of actual ability. His study provided empirical evidence that schools reproduce larger inequality.

C: Mean world syndrome is cultivated by tv’s dangerous worlds and media reporting and over reporting of crime and leads to people having a general sense of distrust and danger.

A: The trend of poverty being concentrated disproportionately in female-headed single-parent households. Feminization of poverty is the result of the cycle of a post-industrial society that saw a concentration of minorities in the inner cities without viable means of employment which made most males unsuitable for marriage and increased single-headed families headed by women. Women and their children are the largest group living in poverty, and unequal wages also contributes to the inequality.

A: Discrimination rooted in policies of social institutions that negatively impacts people of color. Institutional racism is normally written in language that is colorblind, that is not racially implicit but has very obvious racial implications for minorities and women.

A: Discrimination in which the actors are carrying out their own intentions to judge based on race and/or gender. Individual discrimination occurs when a person discriminates against others as a result of their own personal belief and desire to do so.

D: Intersectional approaches consider the different social identities that one person hold at one time and how they interact with each other. Some identities can compound the effects of stigma and inequalities, such as the rate black women and their children live in absolute poverty.

B: Families, media, and even children books and fairy tales not only teach girls to be dependent on men, but that it also creates acceptable characteristics that dictate whether a woman goes to college, but even what major they choose and thus their earning potential later. From the time a child is born and assigned a princess pink or fighting baby boy blue they are socialized to think certain behaviors are gendered. Women who are assertive and have good leadership qualities are seen as offensive to employers as these are traits they expect from men. Women are paid differently as a result of these same gendered expectations and they also choose majors that are considered more nurturing and in line with those expectations.

D: Symbolic interactionism Labeling theory is an extension of symbolic interactionism because it explains how individuals understand themselves and their behavior and how others in society view them and their behavior.

B: Power, Social interaction Power is the first requirement to be able to label a behavior as deviant. It is the people with the power to create laws and norms for the rest of us to follow, or people whose power is based on status or money. The second requirement is social interaction until enough significant people or people with power agree that said behavior is deviant.

A: The theory that behaviors become defined as deviant when people in power socially construct deviant categories, which leads to the construction of types of deviant people. This is the definition. Try applying it to a scenario to fully understand the concept :).

A: Labeling theory (look above for definition)

C: A double standard (like the common slang used)

C. Structural functionalism (several questions have covered this concept, make sure to know how to apply it in any scenario you can think of :) ).

B: Conflict theory Conflict theory as it is most concerned with distribution of power.

B: Ageism is the use of real or perceived age as a basis for discrimination.

A: Aging This is the definition of aging.

A: Disengagement theory reflects the functionalist relationship between the individual and society and puts that there is a mutual withdrawal in order to maintain the social order between generations. The three tenets are that is a mutual process, it is universal and inevitable.

B: Social Bourdieu’s concept was concerned with nonfinancial assets that empower individuals to advance in a social group that values a particular setoff these cultural assets. These assets include things such as education, physical appearance, familiarity with certain kinds of music, art, etc.

C: Cultural capital in knowledge of “culture” i.e. knowing how to interact at a 5-star restaurant with your boss

D: Cultural deprivation theory puts that working-class, poor, and non-white families often lack cultural resources such as books and therefore start schooling already at a significant disadvantage. Critics of this theory recognize that it is essentially victim-blaming.

A: blames individuals’ eating habits and inactivity. Reporting on obesity entails a lot of deep-rooted assumptions about people’s bodies and eating habits, even calling it an epidemic. Anorexia and bulimia on the other hand, are framed as legitimate eating disorders with individual and social causes as well as biological, medical, psychological, and cultural foundations.

A: Labeling theory Labeling theory is concerned with the acts and behaviors that are considered deviant.

B: Higher rates of cardiovascular mortality Working conditions of low autonomy and high workloads account for 35% increase in cardiovascular mortality.

C: neoliberal The definition of neoliberal is the transfer of control from the public sector to the private for profit sector.

A: Illness identity dependency is when individuals identify themselves as their disease even after successful treatment.

D: avoiding social responsibilities Parsons argues that the sick role is a way for a person to escape social responsibilities by adopting a roll with different and less demanding social obligations. He saw illness as a psychological issue and deviant behavior.

A: structural-functionalism Parson was a functionalist who saw the medical institution a social institution to socialize, train and repair individuals for integration into society.

A: functionalist theory typically is seen in scenarios involving many parts or systems working together to make something work better

B: Conflict theory posits two major conflicts with the medicine in capitalist societies: those who suffer the most illness are those who can least afford treatment, and the development of costly drugs and treatments is not the most effective way to improve health outcomes for the general population. This theory puts medicine in capitalism as being orientated toward curing only through sophisticated drugs and high price technology.

C. Social drift

B: Status groups are either negatively or positively privileged.

D: Social health gradient The social gradient of health finds that those at the top of the social system enjoy better health and longevity than those at the bottom.

B: The homogenization and rationalization of a system that occur as culture and cultural privileges spreading globally through economic expansion. McDonaldization was coined by George Ritzer and points out that the practices perfected by McDonalds and the general culture of fast food influences the places to which they move and influence the culture.

D: Variability is not associated with McDonaldization as it is more concerned with homogenous practices.

D: White collar workers. Geographically, the poor, the elderly, and racial minorities were located closest to the levees and in the worst location. The events of Katrina were known many years ago.

A: For the same reasons outline above the Saami were in the worst location (closest to the nuclear plant) and experienced the highest radioactivity.

B: structural functionalist As functionalists are concerned with the macro-level processes and structures that shape society may create environmental problems.

A: The theory that society can become environmentally sustainable through the development of greener technologies and government regulations. EMT puts that we can alter our current economic system in order to encourage good environmental behaviors.

A: Conflict theorists see the materials that are pulled from the environment and used to generate profit as not being paid for. Our economic system rewards companies for producing more and reducing costs which leads to more environmental damage.

A: Conflict theorists see the plight of the environment as parallel to the plight of labor.

C: Social constructists see environmental problems as conflicts over the meanings that different groups attach to a phenomena and these meanings are associated with different outcomes.

B: Cognitive dissonance is the clashing of incongruent information, often people will reject contradictory information.

D: Ensuring everyone participates in environmental decision-making. Environmental justice would give everyone a say in such decisions as who lives next to a nuclear plant that everyone benefits from.

A: This is war. War is a social concept because it involves culture, politics, and economics (aspects of our society).

D: Globalized intrastate wars entails economic violence instead of political violence. These resources include drugs, diamonds, oil, timber, etc, and these are also called resource wars.

D: Authorization occurs when leaders define a situation so that others are absolved of responsibility when they act badly.

A: Routinization occurs when actions are organized by already established procedures and no moral questioning of these actions occurs.

B: Dehumanization occurs when people act badly towards others because they do not even see them as human. This allows for people to not feel bad for their participation in gross moral actions such as slavery or the Holocaust or many other atrocious acts.

B: The two society thesis posits that most U.S. adults support the military but disparities between classes, cultures and belief systems force a divide between military and civilian life. Essentially, the military is a society within a society.

C: Terrorism is political violence. It can be foreign, domestic, repressive state terrorism or state-sponsored.

C: Race

A: Ethnicity

B: Social stratification is a system of hierarchy that groups or grades individuals into certain hierarchical layers based on wealth, status and power. In the US for example, celebrities hold a higher social status on the hierarchy than the average American. The answer is, therefore, b).

D: The above is an example of an ascribed status influencing achieved status, d). Although capable of attaining a major in Biology, Emma’s social class and gender (ascribed statuses), influenced her decision of whether to become a biologist or not (potential achieved status).

C: The main status that overshadows all other statuses an individual may hold is called c) The Master Status.

C: Stigma can be both, an acquired and an ascribed status. An example of acquired status would be an individual engaging in criminal activity, whereby an individual is stigmatized as a deviant. An ascribed stigmatized status would be a person being born in a Romani family whereby certain societies may stigmatize the person as a thief and a deviant by the virtue of their birth.

B: Contemporary social status is based on occupation, such as an upper and middle class being understood as professors, doctor, lawyers, CEOs…etc. Marxist understanding, however, refers to owning the means of production. This means that according to Marxism, the amount of money one earns does not determine whether they are bourgeoisie, but rather, whether they own means of production whereby other people work for them and they live off the profits generated. The correct answer is therefore, b).

A: In the contemporary society, the statuses and the roles individuals assume are dynamic and ever changing, a). While certain ascribed statuses are ridged, many roles and statuses assumed throughout life change consistently.

C: A gender role is understood as an expectation of behavior and attitudes that males and females are expected to partake in, such as boys being masculine and having interest in sports, while women are to be meek, lady-like and have interest in domestic type activities, such as cooking and raising children.

B: Jenna is experiencing a role conflict, as Jenna is experiencing conflict in three different roles – student, employee and a best friend, thus the correct answer is b)

B: The above descriptions of Frank are statuses, thus they describe a set of statuses Frank occupies. The correct answer is b).

A: A person’s status cannot always be inferred by the role, thus the correct answer is a). An example of this can be that two people can both hold the title of knighthood, occupy the same social positions, but their roles may differ greatly.

A: A role strain occurs when there is a conflict within a role, such as a daughter trying to help her mother cook while also wanting to spend time with her father playing chess. Role conflict occurs when there is a conflict between roles, such as a girl wanting to go out for a dinner with her boyfriend (role: girlfriend), while also having to help her best friend study for an exam she just failed (role: best friend). Thus, the correct answer in this instance is a).

A: In this instance, Jack is experiencing a role strain, a). His role as a student is strained by his will to do well, impress the professor and be academically rewarded, while at the same time, not wanting to appear as an arrogant ‘know-it-all’ to the rest of his fellow students.

C: In sociological terms, a role exit refers to an occurrence when an individual disengages from a role that may be central to their identity. This can be something as drastic as exiting a role of a homeless person, to something many people experience, such as retiring from work and becoming a retiree. All these are examples of a role exit, thus the correct answer is c).

D: The role exit process happens in four stages, two of which are doubt and frustration with the current role and searching for an alternative to the present role. Acceptance of the current role’s inevitability is not one of the four voluntary exit role stage, as an individual’s final step is a creation of a new role, thus the correct answer is d).

C: All of the examples above are examples of a role exit, however, Ben’s role exit is the only one that is involuntary and has come about as a result of a deviant behaviour. Though not all involuntary role exits come about this way, some are a consequences of illegal activities or recklessness. The correct answer is, therefore, c).

D: Very often, role exit is strongly tied to the individual’s identity and in Phil’s case, he began identifying with music much more so than with soccer. This would lead to a role exit from a soccer player to a musician. Phil’s role exit is entirely voluntary and there is no indication that there were outside peer group pressures nor monetary gain offered to Phil, thus the correct answer is a).

A: From the examples above, reaching a certain age or becoming elderly can prompt an involuntary role exit. An example can be modeling whereby models are desired while in their 20s. The world governing body of soccer, FIFA, has a limit on the age of the referees, which is 45. This means that any referee exceeding this age limit, like the models, will no longer be legitimate to be in that role. The correct answer is therefore, a).

B: The secondary group relationships are generally short lived, so the correct answer is b). Though some may last years, secondary groups interact on a much less personal level than those in primary groups, thus, their relations are shorter lived.

C: Secondary groups form in order to work together to meet a common goal, c). This is unlike the networks that create plans and means of connecting to other individuals or for support, security and companionship, which are the functions of a primary group. The correct answer is therefore, c).

C: The minimal social interaction is a characteristic of a social aggregate, such as airport terminal or a shopping mall. Social category is characterized by no social interaction, while the social group has active social interaction. The correct answer is c).

B: The primary group in the above example would be a family having a BBQ, b). One of the characteristics of the primary groups is that they have the primary importance in an individual’s socialization process. They also tend to be among the first groups individuals experience in life, thus a family would best describe a primary group.

C: In the example above, Mary is a subject to compliance conformity. Mary does not wish to be looked upon negatively or gain any kind of disapproval from the group of developers, thus she opts to conform. The correct answer is therefore, c).

B: The idea that the dynamics of a society are a result of a conflict between different groups, such as class and status, are hallmarks of the Conflict Theory, b).

A: The group of managers that John has opted to spend more time with are a reference group and are the source of anticipatory socialization for John. John is hoping to become a member of the reference group, in this case managers, and is thus conducting an anticipatory socialization. The correct answer is therefore a). John is not part of the in-group and his fellow students are not part of an outgroup.

D: All of the above can be considered an example of formation of in-groups and out-groups, even on the macro scale such as an international conflict. The correct answer is therefore, d).

B: In sociology, the primordial theory heavily relies on the ideas of kingship, where people who are similar will always flock together, particularly so in ethnic terms. This innate preference for one’s own will thus always create an in-group/out-group conflict. The correct answer is b).

C: A group that commands their members’ loyalty and esteem is known as an in-group. An in-group can range from a football club association to a video gamers subculture and even ethnic affiliations. The correct answer in this instance is c).

C: The peaceful and functional coexistence between distinct ethnic groups in a society is called Cultural Pluralism, c). Although often mistaken for Multiculturalism, the two concepts are different, in that Multiculturalism occurs when there is a weakening or a disappearance of the dominant culture. With the lack of the dominant culture, these groups then tend to function independently and tend to be in competition with one another, therefore they cannot be considered to be part of a cultural pluralism, but rather, Multiculturalism.

C: Evros is aware of the subtle differences among the members of his group. This is understood as in-group heterogeneity. By contrast, many people will likely understand out-groups as being all the same, which would be an outgroup homogeneity. In Evros’s case, however, the correct answer is c).

C: When promoting group goals, laissez-faire leadership is the least effective method in achieving group goals. Although laissez-faire leaders may be looked upon positively by the group members, they are very minimally involved in decision making, which may hinder the overall group goals, thus the correct answer is c).

B: The smallest social group of the ones above is a Dyad. Dyad is a group of people made up of two individuals, while classrooms and political parties are usually much larger. Triad is a social group that is made up of three individuals, thus the correct answer is b).

C: In the instance above, the group would be the one that has cohesion, c). A group is not necessarily larger than the crowd, for example, dyads and triads are all groups, but are significantly smaller than what would be considered a crowd. A people can be in a single place and still be a crowd, such as a people walking down the street.

C: The societies that are based on smaller groups and communities are known as gemeinschaft societies, or ‘communities’, thus the correct answer is c). Gesellschaft refers to larger groups, such as societies.

D: The process of an individual becoming aware of themselves as a part of a particular group through learning of the expected behavior, communication and norms and values is known as socialization, d). Members of a group are socialized in a particular way, to be a part of a particular group, which can be evident in society through different cultures around the world, as well as numerous subcultures that exist in different societies, as an example.

C: The groups responsible for our socializations are known as the agents of socialization. These agents can be families, peers, schools, religious institutions, media and many others, and they’re involved in a life-long process of socialization of individuals and groups.

C: A type of group that brings individuals together and is both denser and looser than a formal group is known as a Network, c). It connects the members of the network with other individuals who are connected to a wider network of other individuals. In this sense, a network can be much looser than a formal group.

A: Typically, social networks are vague and they consist mostly of people we do not necessarily know intimately or even personally, but rather people we know of, or are semi-acquainted with. The correct answer is a).

B: The concept of network encompasses people who have generally very minimal interaction and weak social ties. They may or may not have a common identity and they are not bound by a common goal. The correct answer is therefore, b).

C: Personal connections tend to be more valuable than formally recognized procedures, as this allows for flexibility that is usually restricted by formal rules and regulations. Organizational leaders tend to engage in informal networks to make the process smoother and easier. The correct answer is c).

D: Currently, women’s professional, business as well as political powers are weaker than those of men, who have historically dominated these fields, thus the women have reduced access to powerful networks than men. However, studies have also found that women who are promoted to higher jobs with large number of other women can result in creation of powerful networks which can foster further advancements. The correct answer is d).

D: According to Granoetter, the importance of weak ties to personal social networks is especially pronounced with the individuals with higher socioeconomic background, as they are more likely to hear of the higher positions through such connections, acquaintances or even distant relatives. The correct answer is d).

B: The organizations listed above are all voluntary organizations, thus the correct answer is b).

D: A coercive organization is an organization where the membership is involuntary. As such, d) Goldman Sachs, is an example of an organization that is not coercive. A reform school, mental institution and a prison are all coercive organization where individuals are forced into, usually against their will.

C: A formal organization is considered any large secondary group with a goal orientation. In this case, a PricewaterhouseCoopers accounting firm is an example of a formal organization, thus the answer is c).

B: Utilitarian organizations, also known as remunerative organizations, are those where people join in order to obtain monetary or other material gain, thus the correct answer is b). Coercive organizations are usually not joined in through free will, while the normative organizations, also known as voluntary organizations, concern themselves with pursuing a common goal for the purposes of personal satisfaction or even prestige.

B: The Teacher-Parent Association at Jenna’s school is considered a normative organization. Teachers and parents get together, voluntarily, with a common goal of bettering their students and their children respectively. Because Terry has not joined the TPA in order to gain monetary reward, he has not joined a utilitarian organization, and because the joining is voluntary and without threats or intimidation, it isn’t a coercive organization either. The correct answer is therefore, b).

C: Organizational environment specifically refers to all the outside factors that affect the operations of an organization. For example, a company that specializes in online media or marketing will have a significant number of outside factors that will affect the operations, such a new technologies, internet trends, new social media platforms and the likes. The correct answer is, therefore, c).


A: The correct answer is a). The patients’ interest may become secondary to the smooth running of the institution and the close following of the codes. Nurses and doctors become far more concerned with filling in forms and ‘covering their back’ than attending to the patient.

257. D: The very nature of the bureaucracies is their rigid organizational structure, clear processes and rules, thus the ideal bureaucracy cannot have any informal rules and regulations. The correct answer is d).

258. C: Bureaucracy is the concept of an organizational model that has been rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently. Informality is not one of the concepts of bureaucracy, and although we tend understand bureaucracy as being inefficient, it isn’t a concept that is applied to such inefficiency. Thus, the correct answer is c).

259. C: Max Weber argued that inherently, bureaucracies are antagonistic to democracies, c). Democratic principles support the notion of the rule by the majority, thus a creation of an elite governing body goes against this very principle.

260. B: When nations and societies become larger and more complex, more levels are added between the people and the decision making, thus leading to bureaucracies. The correct answer is therefore, b). Capitalism, free market and democracies do not by their virtue of existence contribute to the formation of bureaucracies.

261. B: Under-spacialization would not be a potential bureaucratic problem, according to Weber, unlike ritualism, rigidity, inertia and dissent, which are the concepts Weber explicitly named as problematic. Bureaucracy would, by definition, have specialized departments and people, thus the correct answer is b).

262. A: The McDonaldization of society is characterized by breaking down of any task to much smaller tasks, which are then completed by a single most efficient method, while all other methods are discarded. This allows for the task solution to always be predictable and the aspects of that process become easily controlled. This is very much akin to the way fast food industry works, (e.g., each burger always contains certain amount of meat, certain number of pickles…etc.) thus the correct answer is a).

263. C: The above is a classic example of the ‘iron law of oligarchy, c). The oligarchical tendencies become inevitable the larger the organization becomes, as few people are endowed with the ability to make decisions and keep the organization moving toward its goals. Too many members in an organization making equal decisions would eventually bring the progress to a halt, especially if there is a large number of members with vastly differing opinions, schedules and ideas.

C: The post-bureaucratic perspective believes that bureaucracies are too inflexible and too ridged to keep up with the contemporary world, and thus are obsolete. The correct answer is c).

C: The Bureaucratic ritualism happens when organizations focus on rules and regulations at the expense of organization’s goals, thus the correct answer is c). Alexandra had to submit a request form in order to change her address even though she had all the information with her at the start that would enable the change of address.

C: A person withdrawing cash from the ATM machine would be an example of McDonnaldization, c). The emphasis here is being given on efficiency, control and uniformity, ie, everyone does the same thing to obtain cash (enter card, enter unique pin number, choose a withdrawal amount from ordained sums). A couple buying custom made furniture concentrates on customization, as does the teacher tailoring lessons to each student, so these do not fit the definition. A couple who spends a night at Bed and Breakfast is being a patron at an individual business as opposed to a chain, so d) cannot be an example of McDonnaldization, either.

A: An example above can be best described as a Peter’s principle. The Peter’s principle stipulates that within a meritocratic system, employees will be promoted until they reach a post for which they are not competent enough. This does not necessarily mean that the skills for the promoted posts are harder, but rather that they are different. Andreas is excellent at being an engineer, however the management is looking to promote him to a project manager where his proven skills will have little to no use. Thus, the correct answer is a).

C: The intrapersonal intelligence refers to ‘self-awareness’ and according to Gardner’s theory, people with high intrapersonal intelligence are aware of their own emotions. The correct answer is c).

B: According to Deborah Tannen’s work, one of the female advantages is that the women place a greater emphasis on communication, thus the correct answer is b). Woman are also a lot more flexible in their management style and have a greater information focus.

C: Coolet’s ‘looking glass self’ actually suggests that we are what we think other perceive us as being, c). Our self-perception as well as self-esteem comes from what society and other individuals place on us. For example, if a society or individuals view a certain individual as the greatest chef of all time, the individual is likely to adopt such self-perception, regardless whether it is objectively true or not. Their belief of their greatness stems from the societal perception and label, rather than from their own, independent assessment of themselves.

B: By putting a label on Calum as a ‘bad child’, the teacher has essentially created a self-fulfilling prophecy. Since Calum is seen by his teacher as bad, he may go on to assume such identity and behaviors and may appear as a bad child. The correct answer is b).

B: Individuals in a society possess subjectivity, b). This is a complex of motivations, ideas, emotions and individual perceptions that shape how one interprets the society and the world around them.

B: The set of behaviors and attitudes that tend to be assigned to males and females are called gender roles, b). Gender roles would encompass ideas such as men should never show emotion lest be considered weak, while it is expected of women to be meek and emotional. Gender stereotypes are born out of gender roles, while gender socialization is the process by which gender roles are enforced.

A: Simon’s behavior is an example of impression management. Impression management is a process by which individuals manage the perception of others towards themselves, and this is done by limiting and controlling the information given about themselves. The correct answer is therefore, a).

A: The theory of motivation devotes its study to why individuals do what they do and whether their motivations are material or non-material. In the example above, both George’s and Sophia’s analysis would fall under the theory of motivation, a).

B: Lee and Sandra in the example above are exemplifying the preparation for their next performance in a backstage setting, so the correct answer is b). Their well prepared and thought out presentation to the potential client would be considered a teamwork in a front stage setting and the way they come across, the means they use and the way they dress during their presentation would be considered the use of sign-vehicles on a front stage.

B: Interactional vandalism is a purposeful subversion of the tactic rules of conversation. In this case, a kiosk salesperson walking up to passerby and insisting on speaking to them about their product is interactional vandalism. Usually, this type of interaction causes other people to feel awkward and avert their eyes to avoid the conversation. The correct answer is b).

C: The symbolic interactionalism concept stipulates that individuals form the ‘self’ through the interaction with their environment, c). The interpretation of individuals’ behavior form a social bond between these individuals, thus the social world is constructed through human interpretation.

B: In this scenario, an employee is managing the impression their boss has about them as a professional and educated person. The employee would, therefore, write to their boss to the best of their ability to maintain the said good impression. The correct answer in this case is b), impression management.

B: According to the symbolic interactionalists, people can only communicate if they have a consensus of meaning, b). An example may be put forward regarding the hand gestures in China which indicate number six (thumb and pinky fingers are extended while the other fingers are clenched) being radically different to the hand gesture representing number six in America. Without the consensus of meaning for both, a Chinese person gesturing number six in America would not be understood.

C: A nonverbal communication is a means of communication that utilizes facial expressions and body language such as hand signals, eye movement and posturing, thus the correct answer is c). Nonverbal communication may happen in front-stage or back-stage situations.

C: Harold Garfinkel’s ethnomethodology is a study of the methods used by people to make sense of what others say and do. This isn’t confined to ethnicity and race, however, but rather to people within any society, thus the correct answer is c).

C: Mira and Jianyu are engaged in both, verbal and nonverbal communication, c). While Mira is using verbal communication to convey a message, her hand gestures are employed in the conversation to make sure that the correct message is being conveyed. In the example of Chinese language, if Mira misplaces the tone on the word ‘ma’, the meaning can change from ‘mother’ to ‘horse’ or vice versa. In order to avoid miscommunication, Mira employs nonverbal communication.

A: The patron’s communication is an example of incongruent communication, a). This means that his verbal communication and nonverbal communication are sending two conflicting messages and the clerk at the post office does not know which communication to accept. His body language indicates he is angry, but his verbal assurance indicates that he is not. This is known as the incongruent communication.

B: According to Goffman, individuals engage in presentation of self because they are trying to create the best impression of themselves, b). For example, when a couple enters into a new relationship, a presentation of self at the beginning happens on the front stage. Both partners are trying to create the best impression of themselves for the other person. Later on in the relationship, the partners tend to experience the back stage more often, when they are relaxed and disengaged from the constant front stage presentation of self. This is why such partnerships are more valued than the ones where the front stage presentation of self is demanded at all times.

C: Any animal action that can be observed as well as documented is known as a ‘behavior’, thus the correct answer is c).

B: An unconditional response is the one that is not learned and occurs naturally due to stimuli. For example, shining a light into a cat’s eye will dilate its pupils without any need for conditioning.

C: Like humans, animal behavior is determined by the mix of learning and genes, c). Humans and animals can have genes which may affect their behavior and the socialization of both will shape a chunk of their behavior. Thinking in terms of dog breeds, Dobermans are innately intelligent dogs which allows for easy training for being a good guard dog, but their socialization will greatly determine whether they are aggressive or docile.

B: According to Tryon’s experiment, ‘maze-dull’ rat is likely to pass that trait to their offspring, thus the correct answer is b).

A: The sensitive phase and a critical period is associated with imprinting, a). This occurs when a young animal acquires behavioral characteristics from their parent at an early stage.

A: Animals are inherently programed to respond and learn some things more quickly than others, a).

C: From an evolutionary perspective, females are attracted to males that have the ability to provide. The correct answer is c)

C: A psychological effect used by an individual to appear more attractive or gain favor with another is known as ingratiation, c). This isn’t exactly manipulation as an individual may use ingratiation in order to manipulate.

B: In the example above, Heather is likely to like Mike more as Mike engaged in self-disclosure and shared a personal experience of the similar kind with Heather, b). Mike has demonstrated an increased depth in conversation with Heather by revealing something personal, thus the conversation between them became more intimate. This can be considered a building block of intimacy, thus Heather is likely to like Mike more.

D: Of the statements above, the statement that similarity leads to attraction because those similar are more physically attractive is false, d). Those who are similar may not be more physically attractive.

C: The physically attractiveness stereotype presupposes that all physically attractive people have other socially desirable traits, c). This can manifest, for example, in hiring process where physically attractive people tend to be hired over less physically attractive people due to the stereotype that their attractiveness correlates with their social and work ethic and that they will do a better job. Physically attractive people are, however, more confident and socially outgoing, so there may be evidence of ‘self-fulfilling’ prophecy in attribution of this stereotype.

D: Out of the two, Emily may have harder time climbing the corporate ladder, d). Females are likely to be scrutinized far more for their looks in employment than males, thus Emily may be at a disadvantage.

C: Relational aggression is a ‘social’ aggression that aims to sabotage another individual’s relationship with their peers through sabotage, manipulation or lies, c). While men are more prone to the physical aggression, relational aggression is much more prevalent in women.

C: From the above example, observations is not a biological reason for aggression, c). Hormones, such as testosterone are linked to higher aggression in individuals, as well as engaging in aggressive acts producing more testosterone. Biochemical processes have also been linked to aggression as have genetics, though it is important to note that aggression is multidimensional and that likely a combination of the biological, psychological and sociological factors influence and create the different acts of aggression.

D: Kaiden is chronically aggressive child, thus regardless of the intent of the child who threw the ball, Kaiden will attribute the hit as being done on purpose, d). The more aggressive an individual acts, the more aggressive he or she becomes, thus Kaiden is likely to see this as an act of aggression towards him and retaliate.

D: The famous Bandura Bobo doll experiment(s) showed that when children observed adults being aggressive towards the doll, they displayed the aggression towards the doll as well. The aggressive behavior can be said to stem from imitation, d).

B: The country that declared the war on another due to irredentism is displaying instrumental aggression, b). The instrumental aggression is unprovoked and it tends to be goal or reward orientated. In this instance, for example, the country declaring the war is motivated by the territory they believe rightly belongs to them.

D: In the case of Keith, the above can be said to be an example of displaced aggression. Displaced aggression happens when an individual cannot be directly aggressive towards the actual source of provocation, but rather redirects the aggression towards a person or an object that has nothing to do with the original provocation or the event. In this case, Keith is getting increasingly angry at the ethnic minorities, even though the source of his discontent is the upper management and the ethnic minorities have no bearing on the outcome nor the reason for his lack of promotion.

C: An attachment style is understood as the orientation the individuals have towards themselves and others, c). This can vary from dismissive, secured, and anxious to fearful. The attachment styles listed correspond to the way individuals see themselves and others and the attachment style of adults closely corresponds to that of children.

D: Compared to other attachment styles, individuals with the secure attachment style are likely to report a much greater relationship satisfaction, d). Adults with secure attachments are don’t tend to engage in relationships that have a false sense of safety and are also open to giving comfort and seeking comfort from their partner than adults with other attachment styles.

C: According to the relational self-theory, Stefanie’s affinity to Jason, even though she doesn’t know him very well, stems from the fact that Jason is likely similar to Stefanie’s father, c). The type of feelings he invokes are similar to how she feels when she’s with her father thus Stefanie associates those feelings with Jason.

A: In the case of Jacob and Brynn, their child has developed and anxious/avoidant attachment style, a). Due to the fact that Jacob and Brynn pay little to no attention to their child, the child is likely to learn that his distress display will lead to being ignored or punished. As a result, the child gets under the illusion that they can take care of themselves and no other intervention or people are necessary.

B: From the example above, it can be concluded that Kevin has an anxious/preoccupied attachment style, b). The anxious/preoccupied attachment style is usually characterized by individuals reporting to be willing to be close to others, while the others are reluctant to do the same. Usually, individuals with anxious/preoccupied attachment style usually have less positive views about themselves.

A: Helena’s child’s behavior is normal at certain stages of development, a). It should be noted however, that the child could develop an anxious attachment style should Helena ignore her child’s plea for attachment or help.

A: The hidden curriculum is what is indirectly taught through schools.

B: It supports dominant cultural values and existing social structure and serves as one of the sources of socialization. Children are taught to interact and meet norms through this.

D: The hidden curriculum is unconsciously portrayed.

D: All forms of communicating and “teaching” cultural norms can be a source

C: This concept is neither a formal part of the curriculum and will not be reintegrated because that is “purposeful”, it is not possible to coordinate either since the hidden curriculum is unconscious.

C: Teacher expectancy is the way students are affected by their teachers’ expectations for their future performance.

A: The student will base their personal characteristics based on how the teacher addresses them.

C: Typically students will be negatively affected by the low expectations of a teacher.

C: Environmental attributions are in regard to the “situation” or event to be the cause of the problem instead of the student’s actions/beliefs/character.

D Lacking equipment is a situation that the student attributes the issue to which also best avoids blaming himself.

C This is reasoning based on the passage.

B. Altruism refers to the selfless concern towards the benefit and well-being of others


B. McDonaldisation refers to the changes in society driven by similar characteristics as that of the standardized fast food chain outlets.

C: Despite not paying for the entire meal but only his own just like everyone else, Mr. Port is always the one who decides every aspect of the meet.

A: Employees are constantly patronized by top management as being the most important aspect of the firm. Combined with material goods, employees are directed away from the fact that major benefits are enjoyed by the top management as well as the harmful effects on their health and mind caused by overwork.

D: The effects of air pollution is absorbed more by all non-white ethnic classes, minorities and the lower income groups, especially the non-road and area causes. This is due to certain cost barriers and environmental discrimination. To counter this, the burden of absorbing air pollution should be more equally distributed.

D: An increase in arousal helps in alertness to an extent before anxiety can take over by further arousal.

B: Cognitive symptoms are a symptoms from the person's anxiety which can be represented on the Yerkes-Dodson curve. Since the curve represents arousal, the symptoms can help indicate the level of arousal the person is in.

D: Vertical mobility refers to the movement from one level of social hierarchy to another.

A: Central place foraging is selecting a place where one can go back each time to rest and reproduce.

C: Social identity theory discusses the perceived membership in people towards their group

A: Collective action is when representatives of a group work towards a common objective benefiting their entire group.

332. C: The movement of people for a common reason which is not organized or planned is referred to as individual action.

B: Self segregation is the separation of a group from other groups by that group itself.

D: This theory suggests that individuals of similar groups tend to have more motivation to differentiate themselves from these other similar groups

C: In group derogation is when people judge their own group less favorably over other groups

B: Modern industrialized societies are governed by paid work income through which goods and services are purchased and thus feelings of self-worth and identity is affixed to this income source.

A: Legitimate power can sometimes be accessed by non-managerial employees.

C: Bystander effect is the indifferent behavior of people during adversities of others.

B: A carpenter falls under the category of skilled worker within the working class.

B: The person has taken on the views of those better off economically than them, in the process reinforcing beliefs that keep the system in place.

D: Unemployment and income levels are hugely associated with choice of neighborhood. Negative shifts in these factors causes people to move to more socio-economically deprived neighborhoods, however people already on the lower end of the income spectrum are already residing in socio-economically deprived neighborhoods. Hence, their reaction to events are different than shifting their residence, causing a lower percentage of movers in the lower income groups.

B: This terms refers to unjust mistreatment by institutions through unequal selection both intentionally and unintentionally

A: Secure attachment is when the child is comfortable and freely explores in the presence of parents but is uncomfortable to explore in the absence of their parents

C: RSVC effect when considering the partner status can be seen more consistently over the geography, as in large portions of the area are similarly affected. On the other hand, there is a lot of digression in RSVC effect over the geography when considering the stages of tumor.

C: This conflict is arising because Mr. Smith believes his son expects him to give him ample time in evenings while this is not so.

B: Secondary groups are groups which individuals chose to be a part of for some reason

D: A group of two people is called a Dyad, and can include a marriage, couple and all options of two people groups.

A: In-group favoritism

B: This terms refers to the economic differences between countries.

A: Meritocracy states that power should be held by people based purely on their abilities.

D: Absolute poverty means not just deprivation of resources due to no income but straight away lack to access of resources like safe drinking water, sanitation, health etc.

A: Social exclusion is when people are blocked from participation by a group or society.

B: Mobility by different generations across borders is called Intergenerational mobility

D: Elite theory discusses the power of elite in a society

C: This is how Weber defined the concept of Prestige in a society

B: This would help implement the reasons for south Ghana's comparatively better rates in north Ghana as well.

C: The figure shows that after the segregation of neighborhoods based on social class, the trend of internal distribution and other dynamics of house-units remains similar across all three classes.

A: The table indicates the level of physical inactivity in low income neighborhoods due to safety issues at night.

C: This theory was discussed by Karl Marx in Das Kapital and termed as social reproduction

D: ANT proposes that a system or network is not just the humans involved but also the non-human involved to make it work.

A: The Principal-agent problem occurs when an agent has to make decisions on behalf of others or the principal and the decisions are so that the agent can be motivated by his own selfish interests while taking the decision.

B: Weber explains a formal hierarchy as an important aspect of a bureaucracy

D: He has the right to exercise certain powers over the university as its vice chancellor.

C: Threats and punishment are negative influences and come under coercive power

A: In a dictator game, the recipient has no chance of rejecting the offer and has to accept it no matter what

B: Soft power is influencing people in non-coercive ways using values, credibility and similar traits

D: These groups are formed basis a shared interests which can be both formal or informal

D: This hypothesis discusses female choice based on male ornamentation observed in many species

B: Fitness benefits are direct and indirect, with direct benefits focusing on material advantages and indirect benefits focusing on genetic fitness.

C: Inclusive fitness measure the evolutionary success in organisms

D: Horizontal mobility is when a person moves from one position to another but remains within the same social level.

A: The passage states how only the major events are focused on and similar effects are also faced on a daily basis in many places.

D: There is no such mention, instead the tone of the passage criticizes that such decisions are based only on beliefs and don't have a concrete focus

C: Meritocracy is the system where power is distributed solely on merit and abilities

B: Research has shown that residential segregation causes more violence in deprived areas.

D: Ascribed status is the status of a person in society which is involuntary in nature.

C: Role exit refers to disengaging from a social role which is close to one's identity.

A: It is when a person attempts to influence the perception of others through his or her behavior.

B: Social constructionism is a theory in sociology which discusses how knowledge about social models and frameworks are created in sociology.

B: Relative poverty is when people become impoverished because cannot keep up with the standard of living of their society.

A: Self-presentation is when a person is trying to convey some information or image about oneself through his or her behavior.

C: Ascribed status is the status one gets assigned at birth or involuntary later in life.

B: The trend as shown in the figure agrees with Option B as both vacant properties and violence are rising forming an upward sloping movement.

D: These two indicators have been a part of 34 studies each, 34 for Participation and 26 + 8 for Possession of cultural objects.

D: Both options A and B correctly compare the trend between rutting and non- rutting seasons for the two genders.

B: It is 0.80, the lowest among all categories.

A: Laura has reached her current position basis her efforts and abilities which is what achieved status represents.

D: Macro refers to studying on a large scale taking in consideration a large set together

C: Micro refers to studying sets and their dynamics at a small scale

B: Social conflict theory was formulated by Karl Marx explaining the exploitation by upper classes due to their wealth.

D: World systems theory studies social change using world history and considering the world as one unit

A: Symbolic interactionism views social behavior and its understanding being subjective basis the lingual and gestural understanding of people.

C: When obligations towards one social role are so much that it becomes difficult to pursue other personal and social preferences.

B: When an adult chooses to convert his/her religion to another religion, his/her religion becomes an achieved status based on Linton’s definition.

A: Pop Aristocrats are famous individuals who have become wealthy but had a working and middle class origin.

A: Marshall Sahlins- authors and theorists and often not tested in detail. We put questions like this in to help you build confidence in being okay with not knowing an answer and continuing the get the rest correct. It is helpful to know major theorists listed in the beginning questions of this book.

B: Role strain and role conflict are quite similar terms but the latter distinguishes itself from the former by exemplifying contradictions with other separate roles that the individual occupies. This often makes it difficult to meet an obligation in a satisfactory way.

A: Frustration and post-traumatic are more relevant in inducing violent behavior in adults while bad parenting is a major cause of the same in children.

C: The smallest unit of analysis in a social network is an individual in their social setting that is, an “actor” or “ego”. Size, relationship, strength, centrality, prestige are a few characteristics focuses of network in ego-network analysis.

C: Inequalities of status among persons give rise to structures of social stratification.

B: Action theory developed by Talcott Parsons is the correct answer.

B: Max Weber stresses upon class, status and power to formulate his theory of stratification hierarchy unlike Marx’s theories where focus is solely on simple ownership of capital.

A: Social reproduction when combined with cultural reproduction creates this educational distance for the lower income groups because higher education is an expensive affair in the contemporary world today.

B: In such a type of attachment, the child opposes to be easily calmed down by the caregiver or the stranger considering inconsistent attachment patterns.

A: A primary group exchanges inherent items like love, caring, concern, animosity, etc. Relationships in this group are long lasting.

A: Emotional support is the warmth and the nurturance provided by sources of social support.

C. Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann. If you have trouble understanding passages (while most students struggle with sociology terms) it is helpful to read these critical books.

A: This theory studies how social phenomena are created, institutionalized and transforms into tradition.

C: Michel Foucault. If you have trouble memorizing people, watch a video on them and look at a photo of them. Make a story using their name and their studied topic. It is not always worth memorizing but good to know for day to day conversations and communicating other theorists ideas by reference.

A: Microsociology is concerned with human relations, everyday human life, human behavior.

B: Ethnomethodology enables a construction of common-sense view of the world by examining how individuals use everyday conversation.

C: Macrosociology is concerned about large-scale social processes.

A: Several studies assure similar attraction is built on facial attractiveness. It must be treated as one among the many contributors.

B: Racism is a consequence of discrimination based in social perceptions of observable biological differences between people.

A: Social status and social roles subsumes the everyday life of humans which is a primary concern of micro-sociology.

C: Primary groups are the ones with which personal relationships are shared and concern and love for each other are present

B: Theory of iron law proposed by Robert Michels stating that an oligarchy is inevitable for any democracy

C: Non-verbal communication is using visual cues and gestures to communicate with another person

A: Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy which favors closer kin than to distant and non-kin.

D: Evolutionary game theory is the application of game theory models and frameworks into the Darwinian concept of evolution.

A: An organization comprises of multiple people working toward commonly set objectives and is linked to an external environment.

C: Criminal organizations or secret societies do not have a legal existence. They operate secretly which is illegally.

B: The carrying out of the social role is termed as acting and the individuals carrying out that role are called actors.

A: A social organization is characterized by a formal structure of rules, authority relations, and a division of labor and limited membership or admission.

B: Unjust and discriminatory mistreatment against an individual by society and its institution is unfailingly described as institutional discrimination.

D: Gender neutrality includes using a neutral language without any indication of gender.

D: The separation on the basis of the sex of the individual is called sex segregation.

A: Diffusion theory discusses how an aspect of one culture moves to other culture but without its actual meaning and takes a new meaning altogether.

B: This terms in used when depicting a graph in the shape of a pyramid which explains the distribution of wealth in society.

B: In this example, people voluntarily chose poverty as their purpose is to achieve something else in life and material possessions and money are considered a hindrance to it.

C: Class consciousness is an awareness of the issues a particular class faces and can be best understood by individuals belonging to that class

D: The person has been discriminated against due to his sexual orientation which is a minority group in society.

C: Kin recognition in evolutionary biology and sociology studies the capabilities of organism to recognize their kin and non-kin and behave accordingly.

A: Intersectionality is the study of intersecting social identities and related systems.

B: Intrapersonal role conflict Intra: between people Inter: within oneself

A: Permissive sex segregation is segregation which is permissive by law but not legally required to be followed, in this case it is due to reasons of medical research the sample has been divided based on gender.

C: Individual discrimination is understood as a personal act of discrimination caused to another person based on prejudices held on the basis of ethnicity, race, gender, etc.

C: The auditory signal organisms make to show their interest to a prospective mating partner and to compete with others is called a mating call.

A: When you sense belongingness or any kind of close affinity toward a social group, you are identifying yourself with an in-group.

D: Micro sociology studies everyday human interactions at a small and specific scale.

A: Out-group derogation is where people prefer their in-group because they perceive the out-group as threatening

C: Proximity principle accounts for the behavior where closeness or proximity between people is the major reason for them to have interpersonal relationships.

B: Behavior intended to cause harm to someone is referred to as aggression.

D: Ecology structure has intense competition where each member participates in a healthy competition by trying to be as productive as possible

B: Disoriented attachment is when a child shows signs of stress and uncomfortable body movements.

C: Affect control theory proposes that individuals maintain affective meanings through their actions and interpretation of events.

D: Emotion is considered a key element of religiosity and is broken down into these four components. The content of one's religious emotions may vary from situation to situation, as will the degree to which it may occupy the person (frequency), the intensity of the emotion, and the centrality of the emotional feeling (in that religious tradition, or person's life).

C: Marriage is the union of two people based on their love for each other.

A: A person is influenced by certain attitudes even though they are not aware and this influence is referred to as an implicit stereotype.

D: Culture is the general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular geography and time period and the above elements are factors which determine these customs and beliefs.

C: This mass culture has been due to the impact and popularity of mass media which shapes public opinion on a lot of matters, hence the term mass media.

D: Popular culture refers to everyday items gaining popularity due to the mass produced mass media capitalist society.

A: The focus of such a campaign would be use fear of the people to generate votes. Fear is an emotion and thus this campaign is using the emotional aspect of human behavioral tendencies.

C: Anxious-ambivalent attachment is when a child shows anger or helplessness in the absence of the caregiver but doesn't show extreme levels of comfort in their presence when it comes to exploring.

A: The focus of this stereotype is the difference in gender and mathematical capabilities.

D: Anxious-avoidant attachment is when a child explores very little regardless of the presence or absence of the caregiver and don't show any kind of distress in the absence of caregivers.

C: Values and behaviors contribute to designing the culture of an entity.

A: The division of labor in society takes the form of the interaction among heterogeneous specialized positions taken up by individuals and are called roles.

B: Policies, language and social institutions focusing to avoid the distinguishing between people's gender is referred to gender neutrality.

D: Globalization of culture refers to the transmission of ideas and values around the world to extend social relations between people of different cultures.

C: Sex segregation in prisons is legally required and thus becomes mandatory. Therefore it is an example of mandatory sex segregation

B: Individual discrimination includes prejudiced actions by one individual against another.

A: An in-group bias is a form of preferential behavior exhibited toward one’s in-group or someone who has been identified as an outsider to the in-group.

B: If you fail to identify yourself with a particular kind of group of individuals who doesn’t reflect a likeness but diverseness you automatically become a member of an out-group.

D: Group foraging is when organisms find, capture and consume prey in the presence of other individuals.

A: Regional discrimination is discriminating a person basis his specific birthplace or the region he belongs to.

B: Gender neutrality is where there is no discrimination based on gender and the school policies, language and environment are focused to provide equal opportunities and resources to both genders.

C: Dramaturgy is a perspective commonly used in micro sociological accounts of social interaction in everyday life where individuals are aware of their actions and how they will develop their self-image and proceed accordingly.

B: Hunter-gatherer is term given to humans who only survive by hunting or foraging and don't involve any agriculture based survival.

D: Inter specific communication is when two animals of different species communicate with each other.

D: Performance anxiety, as it is called colloquially, is a part of social facilitation, but only with respect to a new task. Known tasks are easier to perform around others.

C: Social facilitation relates to competition in that individuals in front of others tend to perform better in order to prove their ability or competence. Cooperation can, but not always, lead to loafing. Deviance is unrelated.

D: The first three answers have people doing activities in front of an audience that they know they do well and are confident in. The latter is an example of social loafing.

B: Read 473.

B: Social facilitation relates to the performance of a task based on knowledge and presence of others. Social control is based on external, institutional-level factors. Peer pressure is probably not going to help Michelle achieve her desired results. Instead, she is routinely brought down by the expectation of others in a group that the other people (namely her) will pick up for their slack.

C: It wouldn’t be fair for Dr. Brown to haphazardly assign grades to individuals in the group. Similarly, some people might be punished (or rewarded) by a universal grade because of social loafing. Many people may not be self-aware enough, or honest, to complete a self-assessment. If everyone has roughly the same amount of work assigned to them, it would be easy to indicate who might be a ‘slacker’ trying to coast by with social loafing.

C: Darley and Latané were the two psychologists who first experimented with the bystander effect as a result of the murder of C) Kitty Genovese. Amy Joyner-Francis is a very recent (2016) victim, who was killed by other teenagers after a fight at school. People watched and even recorded the incident. Her tragic case is an example of how the bystander effect can go deeply awry. However, Kitty Genovese’s murder was in 1964.

B: A) Bystander effect is not measured from a ‘man off the street’ interview. C) Almost all social science experiments and/ or studies require submission to an ethics committee, such as the Institutional Review Board. D) is false. B) is correct because a lot of cases in which we measure the bystander effect involve some sort of traumatic or problematic incident to which people can choose to or not to react. These are also very rarely controlled circumstance. Case in point, the original case in which the bystander effect was first identified was the result of a murder. This is obviously not replicable for many reasons. That being said, however, it is possible to simulate some crisis situations. The results, as first observed in the Genovese murder, are actually fairly predictable and consistent.

A: Read above

B: Read above

C: Read above

D: This is the definition :)

D: Deindividuation can have both negative and positive consequences when immersed in a group setting with a common ideology. Positive social interaction could occur amongst others due to shared belief (such as friendship or worship) or when engaged in charitable activities. But someone can also be absorbed in a group to the extent where bad actions, beliefs, or words can be excused or not criticized. This is also a component of groupthink.

D: A) A large group size allows people to lose their identity more easily. B) Anonymity allows people to think no one knows who they are, especially in a large group. C) The diffusion of responsibility occurs when people don’t hold themselves accountable for their actions while absorbing themselves into the presence and actions of a large group. D) All of these can contribute to deindividuation.

D: All of these examples are ways in which a society molds the ways in which people behave through restriction or control.

C: A) While there may be a reaction, such as in labelling theory, deviance is discouraged through social control. B) Ethnocentrism is the belief your culture is better than another. C) Crime is a form of social deviance; therefore, this is true because social control acts as a means of decreasing a deviant act. D) Cultural imperialism does not have to do with modifying the behavior of others.

B: Peer pressure can be positive, but it is rarely used in this context. B) is the only one that is executed in a way that leads to something positive overall.

A: Read above

D: A) Informative influence is when we think we have to defer to the knowledge of other people. B) Performative influence isn’t a real term. C) Normative influence is when we feel compelled or pressured to adhere to social norms for the acceptance of others, but may believe something else privately. So both A) and C) are correct, as in answer D).

B: Make sure to understand how to apply each sociology term you learn, this will help making inferences easier.

A: Jane changed her mind about going into the movies to fit in with her cousins, but she still believed attending without having the right ticket was wrong. This is an example of conforming due to normative influence—the desire to fit in while still maintaining one’s principles. Operant conditioning deals with modifying someone’s behavior through positive or negative reinforcement. Sheeple mentality is not a sociological or psychological term.

D: Read above

C: A) is false. B) Conformity is usually relating to peer groups (peer pressure), and obedience means something different. C) is the correct answer. D) is not true for social psychology.

D: Read above

C: A and B are correct. In this example, they are integrated together. Aly takes a cue from her favorite singer and gets exposed to veganism as a lifestyle. She wants to be like him, so she takes on something he values. This is an example of identification. After she has begun practicing vegetarianism, she commits to veganism because she now thinks eating animal products is wrong. At this point, she has internalized the singer’s belief system as her own. It is now in the fabric of her being. Admiration is certainly an aspect of Aly’s feelings about the singer, but it is not a concept in social psychology.

D: Remarkable experiments like these are likely to be tested.

A: A) Group polarization occurs when someone’s thoughts or opinions may be overall in agreement with others in a group setting, but are intensified as a result of the powerful dynamic in the group. Polarization does not necessarily imply outright opposition between two groups of people or something divisive that places people into two or more camps. Conflict theory is about class dynamics, as explained by Karl Marx.

C: As explained in the above definitional question, group polarization occurs when someone’s beliefs are reinforced or made stronger as a result of a galvanizing and potentially controversial event.

B: Learning how to apply is as important as learning the definition!

B. Groupthink consists occurs when decisions are made by a whole, while disregarding/dispiriting individual thought, creativity, or responsibility. With that being said, a good way to reduce the occurrence of groupthink create a space that fosters multiple viewpoints, answer B.

C. A) Social interactionism is not a real term. B) Rational choice theory is not related to small group settings. C) Groupthink can happen when people are in a group setting in which there is a person in authority whose opinions cause others to agree to avoid conflict. The professor says something that would be hard to challenge without fear of repercussions. D) Deviance deals with the violation of social norms. The professor might have expressed something deviant, but we don’t have that information.

D. As explained in answer 1, groupthink may lead to loss of A) individual opinions, B) conflict avoidance, which in turn allows C) leaders to possess too much power. Thus all of the above, D), are examples of the negative consequences of groupthink.

C. See Answer 1 and 3, for the negative consequences of groupthink. As explained there, leaders may possess too much power and decrease individuality. Other members of a group may concede to the opinions of the leader to avoid conflict as stated in choice C).

A. See the answer above.

D. Social norms can change over time for a number of reasons, so answer A is incorrect. Rather, time and place are what inform social norms, so in this case, both B and C are correct.

B. A) is true but not from a sociological standpoint. B) A folkway is a traditional social custom that the consequences are not significant for disobeying. In other countries, people don’t tip—but in the US, they do. The worst that can happen to you is that you’ll be considered rude and maybe get a bad reputation at the restaurant. C) Anomie is alienation from others in your society. D) A taboo is something that is fundamentally against the rules and customs of a society with great consequences.

A. Anomie is the inadequacy of moral guidance in a person’s community. The other choices simply do not reflect the definition of anomie.

B. Social norms are patterns and behaviors in a communal group that becomes acceptable (deemed normal).

C. Both are examples of moral or ethical values that have permeated our society (and several others) and are held beliefs of many individuals. Their violation may create outrage or offense, and could even be illegal depending on circumstances.

D. Norm A corresponds to a more, norm B corresponds to a law, and norm C is associated with a taboo (which can often be both immoral and illegal, but more extreme than just rude).

B. Say you’re at a concert, but there’s no assigned seating. Someone shorter than you wants to get in front of you. You can refuse, but that would be rude (a violation of a folkway). However, you still have a pretty open choice to do so, because more likely than not, there is not a sign telling you to respect shorter people in a throng of chaos, and there certainly isn’t a law that says so. But many, if not most, people would let the shorter person closer out of basic but informal respect.

C. Cannibalism is a universal taboo because it is a common behavior that is prohibited across the universe. A) smoking cigarettes it legal. B) same sex marriage is only prohibited in some countries, and D) premarital sex may be frowned upon in some places, but definitely not prohibited.

C. Differential association, by Edwin Sutherland, is a theory that commonly expresses that being a criminal is a learned behavior. Given this information, choice C) is correct.

A. See the answer above for the definition of differential association. Socialization refers to learning to behave in a way that becomes socially acceptable. If one see’s criminal in his/hers family, then this may relate to the idea of labeling the behavior as okay, choice A.

C. Close relationships and cohorts that teach us criminal behavior can be either family or friends.

B. Anomie is the alienation from a social group, not the integration into it. Symbolic interactionism relates to how we might perform different social roles based on situational context. Innovation is part of Merton’s typologies of deviance. Rational choice theory is a theoretical orientation that posits that we commit actions based on sufficient information and comparing the benefits.

D. See answer 14 for the definition of differential association. Because the theory is based on learned behavior; peer pressure, labelling theory, and normative conformity, can be agents of differential association in peers.

D. Sutherland said that multiple dimensions of differential association exist, and can also vary in frequency, intensity/severity, and duration.

D. Emile Durkheim helped influence strain theory, but did not innovate it. Robert Agnew expanded strain theory. Thomas Henricks is a sociologist of sport and recreation. Therefore, we can say that Robert Merton came up with strain theory.

C. The typology of deviance discussions behaviors and how they relate to the means and goals of the existing institutional and cultural framework. If someone accepts both the institutionalized means and cultural goals of a society, that is conformity. If someone accepts the cultural goals but the means by which they are achieved, this is an example of innovation. Someone who exists outside of the confines of both the goals and means of a society, they are committing an act of rebellion. This eliminates collaboration.

D. Strain theory identifies how society and/or a negative environment can actually contribute to social deviance. College can be very expensive and outside the reach of many due to differences in social class. Due to a lack of opportunity, someone might feel compelled to go outside the expect social norms in order to support oneself. Conservative politics and capitalism have been a component of American society, which in turn has inspired rebellion against these values and practices in the punk subculture, leading to new, confrontational styles of music and dress. Similarly, a group of individuals who are similarly frustrated by the prevailing social institutions and norms may create a more extremist or otherwise divergent faction that more closely represents their views while simultaneously rejecting the predominant ones.

B. Structural functionalism is a sociological theory defining the purpose of institutions in society. Symbolic interactions describes our roles, behavior, and ‘masks’ as we interact with different types of people. Bricolage is a form of resistance described in theories of cultures and subcultures. Therefore, retreatism is the correct answer.

B. Inventing a new instrument is innovative, but not from a sociological perspective. Repeatedly sending one’s children to a failing still abides by and respects the societal expectation of compulsory education, but it isn’t working in terms of achievement of the cultural goal of a child being prepared academically. Smoking marijuana is still illegal in many places, with only a few states having legal or decriminalized recreational and/or medicinal use status. However, experimental medicine has suggested it has some health benefits. This defies institutionalized, socially accepted means of a normative goal of attaining wellness.

C. Discrimination might rely on labels, but this is not right. Social classification and stratification are distinct from actual labelling theory. Social scientists interpret quantitative through various methodologies, but this is not one of them. Labelling theory actually addresses how we take on certain characteristics as our own when people use them to describe us.

A. Because Rick is in an environment where crime is expected of people, he is exposed to the idea that criminality is an eventuality of his life. As he gets older and begins to engage in petty crimes, the police officer crystallizes this view of himself that he is a criminal, so Rick’s behavior adapts to fit this label. This is a manifestation of labelling theory. Conformity suggests that Rick is abiding by the accepted norms of society, which he is not. Innovation does involve some form of deviance from societal expectations, but the conventional cultural goals would be held intact. Rational choice is the name of a theory that explains how people use rational decision-making to determine actions that affect their lives. While Rick may be making decisions that inform an act of deviance based on his circumstances, the fact that he is receiving messages and direct labels related to being a criminal makes labelling theory the best answer.

A. Labelling theory refers to taken the description of certain characteristics as our own once they are described to us. By continuing along the path after internalizing the description of being a criminal, these teens would be exhibiting the labelling theory.

D. The Davis Park teenagers were told multiple times in both the news and in juvenile detention that they were criminals or on the path of criminality, and they committed more crime as a result of conforming to this label. This is the left hand side of the chart. The Stone Heights teenagers only were referred to as criminals a handful of times and committed no future acts, so they are represented on the right hand side of this chart. The blue bars are the mentions of criminality and the orange bar shows later crimes the Davis Park teenagers committed after the vandalism.

B. See answer 25 and 26 for label theory explanations. Criminal recidivism refers to someone’s return to criminal behavior. Given this information, B is the correct choice.

B. Primary deviance occurs when everyone else is partaking in the same misbehavior, i.e. smoking. There is usually no consequence because "everyone else is doing it” whereas secondary deviance occurs when that same misbehavior is out-casted in a new environment where people seldom pertain in the act. Deeming the behavior more serious, choice B is correct.

C. See answer 27 for the description of the labelling theory. C is the correct choice.

D. Collective behavior is any behavior that occurs sporadically, based upon the conditions of the issue at hand, rather than and preexisting rules or laws. Knowing this, D is the correct choice, because spontaneous, informal, and unstructured behavior all act against rules impromptu.

C .They are casual, conventional, expressive, and acting.

A. These people were in the same place at the same time and the vast majority did not know one another. They all reacted to the spontaneous and horrific events with fear and began to run away not out of concentrated, collective effort but still acted as a group.

D. While there was a concerted effort that arose out of brief planning, there was a highly active and even aggressive attempt on behalf of the passengers as they stormed the cockpit to fight off the hijackers and either regain control of the plane or crash it sooner.

B. The government officials all communicated with one another in advance to have a structured meeting about the subsequent actions that must take place in response to a terrorist attack of that magnitude.

C. These groups all came together to share in a common grieving of the 9/11 attacks.

B. Revelous riots are spontaneous and disorderly mass acts of chaos/destruction as a result of celebration. The party might be somewhat similar, but it is not a concentrated effort in response to a sudden, emotionally-laden victory.

B. Formal education is actual classroom-based education. Material culture is the objects, tools, and buildings associated with a culture, and is not relevant to agents of socialization. Families share physical and genetic characteristics, but these do not impact social norms. Informal education is a term for any sort of emergent learning that would occur outside the classroom.

C. Agents of socialization provide some form of education that tells a person how to be, typically as they’re growing up. The clothes someone wears might be reflective of the means by which someone was socialized (for example, many Muslim women wear hijab), but aren’t actual agents of socialization, which are more general institutional forms.

A. Choice D is correct, because according to the passage, segregation and separation are not different because they both involved disunity and division of people.

D. Choice D accurately depicts the idea of segregation because in the passage, segregation is the forced separation of people by race, gender, or ethnicity. In the example displayed in choice D, the nurses and patients are forcedly segregated by race.

D. Social stratification refers to the continuous ranking of people in a society, based on there status, power, and/or wealth. Choice D is correct because social stratification does truly consists of the descriptions found in choices a-c.

C. Choice C is correct because it reveals the findings of Stanford’s Professor Thomas Sowell’s study, as depicted in the second paragraph of the passage.

B. Choice B is correct because race, not costs nor transportation, can accurately reflect a population’s distribution.

D. As shown in the first paragraph of the passage, choice D correctly defines kinship as the bonds/relationships that binds people in all societies.

C. According to the figure and passage, primary consanguineal kinships are directly related through blood. Choice see is an correct example of the immediate family, which is a kinship by blood.

D. Tertiary kins are secondary to primary kins as explained in the second paragraph. Correct answer D, correctly depicts this relationship.

C. Kinship exemplifies the bonds of people in a society. In relating kinship, property, and land, choice C is the only choice that properly connects all three.

B. Choice A is incorrect, because the statement does not show forced separation. Choice C is incorrect because we can’t really tell from the statement how close the newborn’s father and the father’s sister is. Choice D is incorrect because the passage does not mentions rules of exogamy, incest taboos etc. Choice B is correct we see through the statement the role/importance of the sister of the newborn’s father.

D. Choice A is incorrect because the passage states that kinship is present in all societies (paragraph one). Choice B is incorrect because marital kinship can change overtime. Choice C is incorrect because kinship extends past property (i.e question 50.) Lastly choice D is correct because kinship may influence jobs and politics as mentioned in the passage.

B. Choice B is correct because it accurately explains the definition of diversity . It explains respect for people disregarding their difference in values or qualities.

C. The correct answer can be found in the first few sentences of the passage’s second paragraph. The finding reveals that allowing access to support facilitates a smoother transition for family members during the adjustment process as mentioned in choice C.

D. The answers states in choices A, B, and C can be found in the third paragraph of the passage. Older people whole undergo family transition reflect more on orientation, mourn and support, thus all of the above, choice D is the correct answer.

A. The blue line in figure 3 depicts the relationship asked about in this question, the uncontrolled system where e=0. E=o indicates that there is a couple with no effort. Thus the x and y axis remain at zero. This observation can be put in words by correct answer A. “the couple feeling state will degrade over time if there is no effort.

D. D is the correct choice here, because choices a-c are stated in the passage as factors that influence divorces.

B. The results of the study performed in this passage can be found midway through the second paragraph. The results states that “group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations”. This finding can be properly paraphrased by correct answer B, where the in-group members are consist to the ‘group loyalties’ mentioned in the passage.

B. Choice B is correct because the statement that “abuse be only physical or sexual” is false. Abuse can come in many forms including, verbal, neglect, emotional…etc.

C. Choice C is correct because the second paragraph of the passage explains that “there seems to be a code of conduct to which they must adhere to”. This code of conduct lies in religious concepts that influence behavior or in this case, the women’s sexuality. Because religion regulates the behavior of people in a society, it is a powerful agent of socialization as stated in choice C.

D. Choice D correctly depicts the struggles of assertive sexuality that women face due to religious conviction. See explanation 59 for further details.

B. The definition of a sect is given in detail in the second paragraph of the passage. The Amish people are commonly known for their exclusion from the larger society. They stick to their strict but original views of their denomination and are small in size. This choice B is a good example, out of those given, of a contemporary sect.

B. The differences between cults and sects are noted in the third paragraph of the passage. According the first listing of the cult/sec difference is expressed by the correct answer choice B.

D. Choice D is the correct answer and can be more clearly identified in the last paragraph of the passage. The passage states that “post-soviet East [has] homonegativity [that] appears to be largely a secular phenomenon” when compared to most of Europe.

C. Secularism refers to the separating of the state from religious affiliations. Knowing this, choice see is the correct answer.

C. Authority is a buildup or assigned power. Only a select few can have authority in a given situation. For example, Dr. Conway in this passage has authority over Jane, and she is thus obliged to respond. Given this information, answer choice C correctly displays the relationship between authority and power.

D. As the doctor in this relationship, and the person with more clinical power and authority, Dr. Conway is able to push Jane outside her comfort zone.. This may explain Jane’s reluctance and fearful feeling in the presence of Dr. Conway.

C. This question begins with a quote of the passage. Looking further into the passage as the same location of the quote, we find that “latecomers…achieve economic growth, mass consumption and economic maturation”. These, along with the initial quote indicate choice C, comparative economic and political approach.

D. The method used analyze life expectancy in this study is the multidimensional scaling (MDS) methodology, which provides theoretical concepts and math tools that describe the behavior of the life expectancy indicator. Russia’s drop in 1980, can thus be attributed to the political and economic shift as stated in correct answer choice D.

B. From a sociology perspective, division of labor refers to each person of a society doing the same thing or having their unique, individual roles. Choice B is incorrect, because some people may share similar roles and it’s not necessarily for the manufacturing process. The correct answer here is C.

C. According to the passage, deep division of labor is superior to the shallow division of labor because unlike the shallow division of labor, when there are multiple equilibria, both the wage and return if capital of the deep divisions of labor are high. (See the last paragraph). This is correctly expressed by correct choice C.

C. Based on sociology, medicalization is the process where human condition is culturally defined as a medical condition. The more general definition of medicalization is correctly given by choice C.

C. Choices A and B are not applicable to the given passage. The second paragraph of the passage states “both [over-treatment and over-medicalization] situations, people become patients, and their problems are deemed to need medical treatment when they may not need it or could be harmed by it, or when nonmedical options are available”. The preceding statement is accurately summarized by choice C.

D. The “sick role” is defined by the usual behavior society accepts one to display once their sick. It also consists the display of sick symptoms. Choice D is correct.

D. All three statements describe certain characteristic of a particular sickness or ailment. The statements then provides the supportive process that accompanies the sickness as following. A. has “sick role response”, B has “more likely support”, C has “sympathetic…helping orientation”. Thus, choice D is correct.

A. The last sentence of the passage summarizes the findings of the study. Stating a positive or beneficial effect for social process and negative or detrimental effect for peripheral ties, thus choice A is correct.

C. The passage explores the efficiency of mobile phones in an Indian healthcare system, and the results revealed that mobile technologies are acceptable in rural India. But to answer this question one needs to look closely at the items listed. The broader choice D, lacks the ignition of an efficient healthcare system with is the customers or people. B. neglects to mention the people receiving and giving health care, thus A fails to recognize the government role in healthcare system. Choice C is able to list all aspects of an efficient healthcare system, rendering it the correct answer.

C. Of the 99% of respondents that opted for receiving health-related information on their mobile phones, 14% of them preferred text messages. This allows us to infer that the other 86% of them would prefer voice calls. Given this information, the correct answer is choice C.

D. Illness experience centers around differentiating illness and disease. This is done through by focusing on the way people adjust and define perceived interruptions in their health, as stated in the correct choice, D.

C. In the passage, it is stated that people with mental illnesses uploading YouTube videos “can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others”. Considering that information, C is the correct choice. A. was out of scope, B. was not mentioned in the passage, D. expresses aims opposite that of the system.

D. Choice D is the correct answer. Choice A is incorrect because epidemiology is a study not a process. Choice B is incorrect because social epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology not medicine. Choice C is incorrect because is generalizes the idea of social epidemiology on defined populations. By definition, social epidemiology focuses identifying and analyzing the effects of social factors on individual and population health.

C. According to chart b in Fig. 8, the largest community with c=88 (red) had a much smaller pI (fraction of diseased individuals) then the smallest community with c=10 (brown). Thus, there is a negative correlation between the two. C is the correct choice.

C. Choice A mentions an equation that is absent from the passage. Choice B’s statement are not mentioned in the passage nor inferred from the graphs. Choice D cannot be true due to the question itself. This leaves choice C as the correct choice as explained by the assumption of people’s communities.

A. Choice D is incorrect because there is a difference between the two elements. Choice C is incorrect because beliefs and values are often independent of each other. Choice B incorrectly switches the definition of the elements. By definition values guide individual to assess right from wrong and beliefs consists of set of doctrines. This leaves choice A as the correct answer.

D. D is the correct choice here. In the second paragraph of the passage, the authors express that as part of the socialization process, these [values, norms, language etc.] elements are taught to enhance cognitive (education), belonging (majority society), and security {(job market) in minorities.

C. The correct answer is choice C. According to the passage, the fulfillment of the hypotheses aims to increase the strength of cultural transmission. This one role of the elements is to allow group members to recognize each other. It’s a vessel for support, belonging, and appreciation for the group members.

B. Choice B is the correct answer. As stated in the second paragraph of the passage. See answer 84 and 85, for more details.

D. In paragraph two of this passage, it is stated that “human societies are irreducible hybrids between a natural, material world and a cultural world of recursive communication”. Here, the natural, and cultural world are examples of systems that organize material elements and are not themselves material. Choice D, is the only choice that explains this inability to portray human societies as an accumulation of material elements.

B. Choice A is incorrect because it describes a culture and lacks the definition of “material” culture. Choice C is incorrect because it defines symbolic culture. Lastly, choice D is incorrect because it defines cultural diffusion more so than material culture. Choice B is the correct answer.

C. Symbolic culture is a group’s was of thinking that includes its values, behavior, language and beliefs about the world. These objective facts would not exist without the group’s collective agreement. Symbolic culture is correctly defined by choice C.

A. See answer 89 for further explanation.

D. Choice D is the correct answer here, as stated in the last sentence of the passage.

A. The passage states that cultural lag appears when “material technology [technological advancements] advances exponentially [faster] than social techniques [rules and norms of the culture]. This renders choice A as the correct answer.

B. The passage states that the “cultural shock” occurred when the Chinese society endured globalization and underwent drastic cultural change. Knowing this, choice B, explains correctly, the disorientation with a way of life, that is cultural shock.

D. D correctly states the feelings and fears associated with cultural shock. See answer 93 for further details.

B. Choice D is incorrect because no everyone undergoes assimilation. C is incorrect because assimilation is actually a combining rather than distinctive factor amongst social groups and people. Choice A is incorrect because the new information (or people assimilating) actually lose, not modify their own unique properties and adhere to the existing structure. Choice B is the correct answer here.

D. In the second paragraph of the passage, it states that the difficulties the nurses experienced led to a “tendency toward expressing opinion concerning...issues with which all members of the organization could sympathize”. As such, the correct answer is D.

A. The answer to this questions can be explained in great detail using the third paragraph of the passage. Choice B is incorrect because if the new employees perceived support of transition they would not have felt compelled to remain quiet and employee silence would not have occurred. Choice C is incorrect because the existing culture did add to the assimilation process. Choice D is incorrect because it is simply untrue. An easy assimilation would not foster employee silence. This renders choice A as the correct answer which describes accurately the challenges new personnel faced.

D. The multicultural model demonstrates the acceptance of multiple traditions within a society. To best the display the multicultural model this new Ukranian family would be able to openly express their traditions as stated in the correct choice D.

A. Prejudice is the feeling or evaluation, favorable or unfavorable, of another person based on their perceived group membership.

C. Neurological discrimination is when a person doesn't conform with the expected neurotypical behavior and is discriminated against for this.

C. The multicultural model stems from multiculturalism which fosters an acceptance of a cultures traditions within a new society. Choice C correctly depicts this definition.

C. This model is also known as the “guest worker” model and is described in the first paragraph of the passage. According to the passage, this model displays the presence of few active integration policies. Knowing this, choice C, is correct.

C. The last few sentences of the passage explains that France’s fluidity with the models of integration have caused the lowest all-cause mortality among it’s immigrants. This renders choice C as the correct answer.

C. The key to accurately pinpointing the correct answer of this questions lies in the prefix of the work. “sub” in subculture pertains to a smaller culture, underneath a bigger culture and shares similar characteristics. On the flip side, “counter” in counterculture works against the bigger culture, Choice C, correctly defines these terms.

D. Choice A is incorrect, because subcultures do not work against the dominant culture. Choice B is incorrect subcultures do differ from the dominant cultures a bit, and do not necessarily have to be in line. Choice C, though true, does not correctly explain the metaphor. Choice D like a “child” subculture comes from the “parent” or more dominant culture.

D. As explained in the final sentence of the passage, countercultures disagree with the core values of the overarching/dominant culture. Having one such culture emerge in an organization will bring about members whose values directly conflict with the organizational values (weakening the overarching culture). Choice D is correct.

D. Popular culture refers to activities and/or products that reflects the tastes of the general culture. Knowing this, choice D is the correct answer.

D. The passage focuses on ways to reach the entire society in order to spread much needed information on public health using popular culture. Social media is one of such masses that is big in popular culture and can be used to distribute health information and has helped in “rais[ing] awareness about the epidemic”. Since social media works, a way to maximize its reach to everyone is by compulsion through laws as stated in answer choice D.

A. A is the correct choice here because it is the only choice that correctly summarizes the goal of the passage. See answer 108 for more details.

D. The answer choices are listed in parallel here. Each choice includes “it is cost-effective” so the later portions of the choices need to be focused in on. Choice A is incorrect because it does not state the reasoning behind the need to access the majority of the population. (i.e, access to them for…?). Choice B is incorrect because mass media in popular culture does not favor the underserved minority. Choice C is correct because the effects of mass media on the environment is no mentioned in the passage. Choice D is the correct answer.

B. By specifying “kinds of living organisms” in choice A, C, and D, those answers try to define biological evolution. Choice B, the correct answer, focuses on cultural change which encompasses and highlights changes in human circumstances as mentioned in the first paragraph of the passage.

C. Choice C is the correct answer here and can be found directly in the first sentences of the passage’s second paragraph. Choice C represent a true advantage of cultural evolution.

C. Unlike other animals, homo sapiens, possess large brains because of gene-culture coevolution which allows them to develop behavior patterns from people around them. Knowing this, choice C is the correct answer. See the chimp example at the end of the passage.

B. Cultural diffusion refers to the spread of cultural beliefs and activities from one group to another (this eliminations answer choice C). Cultural transmission is the information is learned and transformed within a society or culture (this eliminates choices D, and A. Choice B is the correct answer.

C. Coale & Watkins study results can be found at the end of the passage. It states that “the role of person-to-person contact through either friendship or spatial networks remains marginal”. Choice B is the correct answer ere because fertility stems from person-to-person contact,

D. Life course focuses on the connection between historical/socioeconomic context and the individual. It’s definition is stated correctly only in answer choice D.

C. Cohorts were historically seen in the Roman military context. It refers to a group of people who undergo same events at a given time, as stated in answer choice C.

B. Increase longevity directly postpones and/or changes the meaning of death as stated correctly in answer choice B.

B. In the beginning, the passage mentions that aging was seen back then as people growing older by “disengaging from activities they were part of because they no longer had the stamina or energy to stay involved. It also describes the freedom that came with aging with attending activities, and volunteer work etc. These expected progression of aging, are based on social factors. Answer B is correct.

C. Note that the answer choices for this questions are in parallel so elimination could be a useful strategy here. Choice A and D are incorrect because the disengagement theory focuses on just that, not engagement. Choice B is incorrect because the work conditions are the factors that lead and/or induce disengagement according to the theory. This leaves choice C as the correct answer choice.

D. With today’s available retirement plans and other programs for the elderly, older people are not often disengaged. Choice D is the correct choice here.

A. The purpose of this study is to analyze human growth and identify any relations with society factors using cohorts. Knowing this, the results revealed that it was widely accepted for the elderly to be seen as free, less physically active etc. Hence, choice A is the correct answer.

B. Answer choice B is correct because while there are biologically males and females, gender specifies which types of males and females are present in society.

C. Answer choice C correctly depicts the financial inequality that women unlike men, and ties it into a lack of basic health care.

C. Gender norms are used in this passage to display the role of female and male in a society. Choice C correctly states the use of “gender norms” in this passage.

B. When something is a ‘social construct’ it means that that entity stems from or is decided by society. Knowing this, choice B is the correct answer here.

D. All of the choices mentioned above correctly states key factors that alter gender attitudes in early adolescence.

D. Stereotypically, male gender (not sex) tend to be more masculine and have greater strength and toughness. In order to reinforces this stereotypes school officials can exclude those who do not conform to it as stated in choice D. Choices B and C are incorrect because they fail to exclude both genders that would not display the masculine gender norm.

B. By definition, segregation refers to the separation of particularly people from the whole/greater body. Choice B is correct.

D. Gender segregation refers to the forced separation of people on basis of their gender. This is accurately stared by answer choice D.

C. Answer choice D is incorrect because it states the definition of gender segregation. Answer B is incorrect because it excludes division of labor. Answer Choice A is incorrect because it excludes emotions. This leaves answer choice C as the correct answer (first paragraph).

A. Answer choice A is correct. Because of the inequality that the female gender experiences in the workplace, the female gender become limited to the access they can obtain. This is properly stated be answer choice A.

B. Age has been a basis of how others treat or view someone. In this case, Ms. Peach, being the oldest in her class, experiences discrimination and stereotyping plainly because of her age. She is viewed as someone to look up to and depend on. Because of this, she may feel restrained to do other things she wants that divert from the “responsible older sister” stereotype. Such a scenario is a manifestation of ageism. It is defined as stereotyping and discrimination against people on the basis of age. Hence, the answer is B.

D. Gerontology is the study of biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging. Social gerontology is the subfield of gerontology that focuses on the social aspects of aging. Hence, the answer is D.

D. As explained in the question above, sex is biologically determined, and gender is socially constructed. Sex is determined by one’s reproductive system along with other physical, anatomical, and biological factors. Gender is expressed variably across cultures, and the statement in letter B manifests gender differences in some cultures. Hence, all the choices are true; the answer is D.

C. The established notion of two sexes also reinforces the idea of difference between men and women. It has also led to sex segregation. This “segregation of sexes” can be strengthened by rules, laws, and policies. An example of this segregation can be seen in public restrooms. Hence, the answer is C.

B. Racialization is a complex process of ascribing individuals or groups people to a certain category. It also fosters some group of people’s perceived dominance over others. It leads to racism and produces social hierarchy. However, racism is characterized by its complexity and graduality; it does not happen all at once. Hence, the answer is B.

D. The new family Mikaela met are Foreign born. They were not born in the United States and just earned their citizenship.

A. Accordingly, immigration in the U.S. is on the rise; most of them are from Mexico, India and Caribbean.

B. Ethnicity and Race are often used interchangeably. However, it is important to note that there are differences between the two. Accordingly, race is unitary, meaning a person can only have one race. Ethnicity on the other hand, refers to an individual's ethnic affiliation. One can be both Irish and Polish. Hence, B.

A. Merriam Webster Dictionary defines heterosexual as “sexually attracted to people of opposite sex”. Hence the answer is A. A person who is sexually attracted to his/her same sex is Homosexual. While a person who is sexually attracted to both sex is bisexual.

C. The question describes the industrialization and/or advancement of technology within a population. It then tapers off to say that this had led to a decrease in the number of children aka decrease in birth rates. This transition, as a result of advanced technology amongst a population is known as the Demographic Transition Theory, choice C.

B. This question tests the respondent’s ability to distinguish between both of these phenomenon and recognize how they affect an individual’s experiences.

B. This question tests the respondent’s ability to make inferences about the effects of labeling on behavior. Although C may also be true, it does not explain why the “criminal” and “deviant” labels can at times be problematic.

C. This question explores a key sociological concept that is often used to explain problematic behaviors. A, B, and C are often viewed as causes of anomie, yet are not social phenomena that can be caused by anomie. The correct answer is therefore C. In fact, Emile Durkheim explored suicide rates across countries in his study where he coined the term ‘anomie’.

D. All three reasons could help explain why older adults experience anomie on a personal level. Older adulthood is often seen as a time of real social upheaval resulting in a feeling of lost independence and no clear expectations.

C. While there could be an argument made for the validity of A, B, and D, in a sociological perspective, the best answer is C.

B. B is the only correct answer, as A, C, and D are not true. This question tests the respondent’s ability to link the results of social research to potential social causes.

B. This question tests the respondent’s basic understanding of meanings of the terms ‘sex’ and ‘gender’. Neither sex or gender are considered achieved statuses, which eliminates both A and D.

A. The respondent should recognize that role strain is an internal conflict created by what is often seen as conflicting expectations of one particular role, in this case it is the role of ‘man’ in American society. The key word in the question is “most” which eliminates B, as most men are not mid-level managers. C and D may be true statements, yet they do not illustrate role strain.

A. Higher levels of religious service attendance by minority racial groups does not necessarily equate to higher overall levels of religiosity. B, C, and D are inferences that can be made from the data, yet A represents a potential stereotype that one can infer without an understanding of how to read the data effectively.

B. B is the best answer and the only correct example of impression management.

B. Choice A is incorrect because it is not the standard role of a woman to provide for her family, and the effects of schizophrenia stem from the medical condition, not her role. Choice C is incorrect because typically the role of a women is the homemaker and mother, not employee. It also does not point an any psychological conflicts. Choice D is incorrect because it does not point out a man’s role and it’s physiologically effect on the man. This leaves choice B as the correct answer.

B. The door-in-the-face technique consists of starting with a much larger request knowing that the customer would refuse it. This initial request would get the “door” slammed “in” your “face”, however, following this request with a smaller request that would seem more doable when compared to this the unreasonable first request. Knowing this, choice B is the correct answer.

C. Choice A is incorrect because the foot-in-the-door technique refers to the customer accepting an small initial request followed by similar but gradually bigger requests. Choice B is incorrect because the straw man argument stems from doing or saying the extreme that opposes the other’s view. Choice D is incorrect because the extrapolation technique, refers to extending a set of data points and is commonly seen in statistics. The correct answer here is C because of the emphasis on the expiration date.

B. The correct choice is B. See answer 155 for the explanation of the foot-in-the-door technique.

A. Answer choice A is correct because the example the first question or the “leading question” led the students to thinking about speed in their response since the trains collided. Whereas the second question how slow, would sort of opposes what the students saw.

B. The Stanford prison experiment focused on the relationship between prisoners and prison guards. The volunteer guards developed authoritarian roles and the volunteer prisoners passives accepted psychological abuse and harassed other prisoners when asked to by the guards. This experiments clearly shows the power of ascribed roles and group behaviors. Choice B is the correct answer here.

A. Looking at the most left handed column that lists psychological distress and the types of clusters/ types of inequalities in the work place, we can see little differences in clusters which indicates the correlation described in correct answer choice A.

D. Choice D is correct. The idea of conceptualizing a “gender equal workplace” is difficult to do because there are numerous factors that goes into defining “gender equal”. Choice D accurately explains the troubles with variables in terms of conceptualizing this term.

D. Urban areas are often characterized by tall buildings, big cities, greater populations and social life. The convergence theory as defined in the question, could aid in understanding the move from rural to urban as industrialization increases.

B. The coefficients and the p values/calculated probabilities given in the table reveal statistical significance between the neighborhood predictor and the health outcome. Choice B is correct.

D. In sociology, the functionalist perspective refers to all aspects of society contributes to the society’s stability and functionality as a whole.

C. Stereotype threat is a situational threat in which people are at risk of conforming to their stereotypes. Some stereotypes for poor people include laziness, uneducated, and addicted to welfare and drugs. From the data we get a correlation between correlation with disadvantage and low self-rate health outcomes. Choice C correctly connects the information in the data to the stereotype threat of poor people.

B. Choice A is incorrect because it leaves room for falsified information (people may be apprehensive on admitting to crimes). Choice C is incorrect because the results ten metropolitan areas would not be well representative of the entire U.S. continent. Lastly, Choice D is incorrect because some crimes go without conviction, and interviewing only convicts disregards others. The most reasonable study here is choice B.

D. The Likert scale is commonly used to scale responses from research that involve surveys. The Likert scales these responses by measuring the attitudes of the sample, in terms of the extent of how much the agree or disagree to the statement posed. Knowing this, choice D is the correct answer.

B. Conceptualization refers to defining an abstract concept (i.e. characterizing people as lazy), In research, conceptualization occurs as researchers tries to define what they are studying as precisely as possible. Operationalization refers to productivity, how well something works. It consists of finding ways to measure interesting topics (i.e the concept of religiosity).

B. Merton’s theory asserts that society puts pressure on individual to achieve socially accepted goals. Choice D is incorrect because rebels are seen as threats to societies (hence, the question). Choice C is incorrect because things are not typically handled to rebels and it cannot be said from the information given, that they do not work for their own success. Choice A is the first half of A is true given the information under the table, however the latter cannot be ascertained. The correct answer choice here is B.

A. Choice B is incorrect, because the goals of a Catholic priest do not include raising a family or aiding the American economy. Choice D is incorrect because innovators reject society goals and priests are not typically supposed to seek financial success through their practice. Lastly Choice C is incorrect, because retreatist reject society’s goals and means of attainment. Choice A is the correct answer here.

D. Cognitive bias is a mistake in reasoning, evaluating or remembering cognitive processes based on the tendency to hold on to one’s own preferences/beliefs. The question as which mistake would be seen as desirable to society.

C. Negativity bias, refers to unpleasant or more negative things (thoughts, emotions, actions) has a greater effect on one’s psychological state than neutral or positive things. Choice C is the correct answer here.

A. Subjective validation is a type of cognitive bias where people deem information to be correct that has personal significance to them. This could account got stable results in opinion polls. Choice A is the correct answer here.

C. Confirmation bias refers to favoring new information that affirms one’s existing beliefs. Having this cognitive bias could explain the stability of this study. Choice C is the correct answer.

A. Ideal type is standard of a concept or something to its highest perfection. This idea developed by Weber is the best of the following to associate individuals to others based on entertainment, intellectual, business, or cultural reasons. C is the correct answer choice here.

D. A prison is a type of total institution. Total institutions are isolated social systems that work to control all aspects of its members lives. Choice D is the correct answer here.

C. See the above for the definition of a total institution. Knowing the definition, being subjected to a system that controls multiple aspects of one’s would not lead to the happy feeling of euphoria. C is the correct answer.

C. Gerontology is the study of the aging process. Life course paradigm cannot tap into someone’s mental state so D is incorrect. Choice C is correct here.

A. Choice A is correct because men are known for taking more risks that women. Risks that may be detrimental to their health. In addition mend seldom seek help when disaster strikes.

B. The universe is made up of a vast array of cultures, environments, and people that react differently to situations. Choice B best explains why it’s difficult to pinpoint “universal emotion”.

A. Macrosociology emphasizes studies social systems on a larger scale dealing with the population as a whole. Knowing this, limited societal resources would cause the biggest conflict. Choice C is correct.

D. Cultural dissonance refers to a feeling of discomfort that arises from cultural unexpected inconsistencies. Choice C is incorrect because it states an individual rather than cultural discomfort. D is correct.

A. There are negative value points associated with male exercise and openness. Thus openness is not positively correlated with levels of male exercise. Choice A is correct.

D. Gratification is a positive coping strategy according to the passage. Choice C and B are incorrect because the ranges displayed lie outside that of the second graph. Choice D is correct here.

C. Social loafing is the act of exerting less effort on a job in the presence of others rather than alone, i.e group work. Answer C is the correct answer.

C. Incest goes against social norm. It is not a taboo, more, or folkway. C is the correct answer.

B. The conflict theory knowingly views society as a struggle of power between groups gunning for limited resources. Unequal systems, and maintaining status quo maintains the power in the patriarch of the family. Choice B is the correct answer here.

A. Cooley’s ideas are based on a reflective self-conscious or self-monitoring of our experiences. Cooley saw this as the first step, and analyzed the impression we made on others by the way they view us. Choice A is the correct answer here.

C. Fixed-ratio scheduled reinforcement, reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. Knowing this, choice C is correct.

C. Causation demonstrates how one variable effects the other. Correlation associates those two variable to reveal the presence or absence of a relationship.

D. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are as followed: 1. self-actualization, 2. esteem, 3. love/belonging, 4. safety and 5. physiological. The top stage is self-actualization and consists of an individual realizing his/hers personal potential. Choice D is correct.

B. Maslow postulated that as humans grow they strive gain these needs on the hierarchy. Choice B is the correct answer.

D. Ethnocentric refers to evaluating other cultures from their own cultures perspective. By comparing America to his native culture in Italy Mark is ethnocentric. Xenocentric refers to preference of other’s cultures ideas and styles as opposed to one’s own. By displaying more love for SA than American, Jake is xenocentric. D is correct.

D. The bystander effect is correctly defined here.

A. The student described by correct choice A is exhibiting negative perceive behavioral control because she believes teacher dislikes her opposition. She’s created this negative perception of herself for the teacher. Clinging to this notion, she believes she cannot prevail in this class.

C. Macrosociology is described above in explanation 180. The question posed in choice C, includes the government’s workers (or a population) and resources produced from those worker’s (limited resources). Choice C is the correct answer choice here.

A. Microsociology focuses on the everyday social interactions. The other choices unlike correct answer choice A, mention bigger things such as poverty, democracy, and the economy. Answer choice A deals with the individual and the social interaction of dating.

A. The relative deprivation theory refers to people taking action for social change only to acquire opportunities, wealth, or success. Choice A is correct because there is no action taken by the people in distressed area because these individuals see no opportunity to gain something.

B. Cultural relativism focuses in regarding the basis of a culture from the point of view of that culture itself. Cultural sensitivity refers to the awareness of cultural similarities and differences between people. Knowing this, answer B is the correct choice.

B. Choice B is the best choice. From the short passage we learned that John is an affluence (powerful and successful) white suburban man (privileged). He isn’t used to seeing the less fortunate minorities in DC and discriminates them based on the power he’s used to seeing.

C. Meritocracy refers to a society that is ran by the educated and skilled people. Those filled with merit. This society then grows accustomed to regarding those who are most skilled and educated. Choice C is the correct answer.

D. Bureaucracy is the governmental system in which decisions are made by state rather than elected officials. Some characteristics of bureaucracy include but are not limited to; written documents, office hierarchy, general rules, and expert training. Knowing this choice D associates actors with great responsibility which is not a characteristic of bureaucracy.

B. Mechanical solidarity the unity in a society that occurs as a result of shared experiences, similar work, beliefs, etc. Knowing this, choice B is the correct answer choice.

C. Choice A is incorrect because heart conditions occurs inside of an individual. Choice B is incorrect because it states values of an individual. Choice D is incorrect because time management is a norm and can’t exercise influence on an individual. Choice C is correct because socioeconomic status is outside on an individual and can influence one’s education, finances, and health. Choice C is correct.

C. Choice A is incorrect, because the younger American’s (first row) display higher likelihood to support gay marriage. Choice B is incorrect because Old American’s (last row) are less likely to support gay marriage as displayed in the graph. Choice D is correct because there is a clear difference between the support of young Democrats and Republicans towards gay marriage. Answer choice C is correct as displayed in the graph.

A. Rational choice refers to the logical choice that is made by individuals. Minimizing cost while maximizing benefit is an example of logical decisions backed by correct answer A, rational choice.

B. Refer to explanation 196 for further explanation of microsociology. Social construction of reality is a theory that examine the development of constructed understandings. Traffic law is a common societal interaction. Choice B study in analyzing the laws of both Britain and America would accurately explore this social construction.

C. Sociology refers to the study of groups of people and society as a whole, whereas social psychology focuses on how groups affects an individual and vice versa. Knowing this, answer C is the correct choice.

C. Choices A and B are incorrect because the sample size are too small and are unable to represent American adults. Choice D is incorrect because the study is possible through correct answer choice C. Sample size of 1,000 and randomness ensures the reliability and validity of the study respectively.

B. Choice A is incorrect because the ample size of 12 is too small to represent public school students. Choice C is incorrect because the school administrators are not the primary subjects in peer pressure and should not be interviewed. Choice D is incorrect because changes in school policies only highlights the rules and fails to connect the rules to peer pressure. Choice B is the correct answer.

D. A positive correlation between these two variables would be translated as followed: as wealth increases the likelihood of being involved in criminal activity also increases. However, this questions reveals a negative correlation between the two so the opposite occurs. Answer choice D is correct.

B. IRB refers to the institutional review board. It is the committee in charge of reviewing and approving various research applications. It puts protocols in place to ensure the rights of the subjects involved in the study. Choice B accurately states one of IRB’s protocols. Replicability ensures that published information are valid and multiply tested to ensure reliability.

D. Above it was mentioned that the conflict theory is based on society’s struggles for dominance amongst groups over limited resources. Using the perspective of this theory on sexuality, women hold sexual value because typically gender roles deem men as dominant which leads to conflict. The theory reflects on social inequality and advocates for a balance of power.

B. Functionalist perspective refers to a society with interconnected parts that work together to function as a whole. C is incorrect because it focuses on the whole not individuals. Choice D is incorrect because functionalist do not aim for oppression but rather harmony and balance. Lastly, choice A is incorrect because the human nature is the basis behind the functionalist perspective. Choice B is the correct answer.

C. Nonmaterial culture refers to non-physical ideas about a culture. Their norms, values, beliefs etc. Knowing this, choice C is the correct answer.

A. There are various forms of capital so choice D is incorrect. They include; culture capital (knowledge), economic capital (money/property), symbolic capital (prestige/honor), and social capital (networks). Choice B is incorrect because money stored away refers to economic capital which equates wealth. Choice C is incorrect because it does not specify which type of capital the poor person lacks. Choice A is the correct answer.

C. Alienation in regards to capitalism refers to workers losing the ability to determine their life and destiny when stripped of the right to conceive thought and direct their own actions. This causes a disconnect between laborer and product. Choice C is the correct answer. See Marx’s theory of alienation for further details.

D. The mini passage describes Jane as a server of wealthy clientele at work. The presentation of herself that Jane shows her clientele is the “front-stage” self. Jane is consciously or unconsciously behaving different. This behavior has carried on to her home life where she should comfortably display her normal or “back-stage” self. Jane is having conflict with these stages. Answer choice D is correct.

C. See explanation 213 for further details on the functionalist perspective. Choice C is the correct answer, because although functionalist theory recognizes different groups and different skills, it aims at interconnecting those group for a more balanced, functioning whole.

D. Choice B is incorrect because stratification refers to classifying into different groups. Choice C is incorrect because upper-class James is not upper class. He has a mid-management position. Choice A is incorrect because vertical mobility refers to the up and down movement of positions. If James had stayed in the same company and perhaps became partner/CEO this would be the correct answer. However, James moved to a different company at the same mid-level job. This kind of movement is defined as choice D, horizontal mobility.

B. Globalization is the process of business having increasing international influence. As this growth persists, a small consequence of this could be seen in choice B. Workers experience disconnect between their labor and the products.

C. This voter is showing acts of both prejudice (emotional and makes irrational decisions) and discrimination (sex). Choice C is the correct answer .

C. The role of women/norm is to bear child. Due to their elongated pregnancies and required time off to fulfill their role as mother, women experience wider wage gap. Choice C is the most common justification for this gap.

D. Sushi if a common dish seen in various parts of Asia. It’s increase popularity in the United States, display cultural diffusion. Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural beliefs and activities from one group to another. Choice D is the correct answer.

A. Culture shock refers to the disoriented feeling that occurs in a sudden change to a new culture. Jack’s confusion in South America is a prime example of choice A, culture shock.

B. Choice B is the only choice that displays the correct definition of subculture and counterculture.

B. Participant observation is a data collection method commonly used in qualitative research studies. This technique studies a group by indulging in that group’s activities. Choice B is correct.

B. Internalized racist refers to one having racists attitudes towards members of its own race including themselves. Choice B is the correct answer.

B. Choice C is incorrect because functionalist perspective aims to interconnect groups and work together to live in harmony not survival of the fittest. Choice A is incorrect in the same regards. Functionalist perspective would citizen the American society as a whole and not on the merit of individuals. Choice D is incorrect because it would not serve as an accurate functionalist critique. Choice B is the correct answer.

B. Choice B is the only choice that accurately differentiates sex from gender.

D. Choices A and B are incorrect because it does not classify the men and women on basis of age. Choice C is incorrect because it singles out steel workers and not only an age group. Choice D is the correct example of an age cohort.

C. Choice C is correct because the typical gender role of a woman includes staying at home and raising children. However, the woman in correct choice C, has taken on the a job at a large fashion business company. She is not conforming to her socialized gender role.

B. Choice B is the only choice that accurately describes mass society.

C. In sociology, modernization refers to a transition from a traditional rural agrarian society to a more urban, industrial society. A family/tribe represents the traditional way of life. A separation from that would be an example of modernization’s effect on alliances. Choice C depicts just that.

C. Choice C is the only choice of the following that correctly depicts a minority group.

D. Populism is the belief governmental power belonging to hard-working/everyday people. Knowing this, choice D is the correct answer voice.

A. Eugenics is the science that deals with “improvement” of the hereditary qualities of races. It works to improve the gene pool of a country to better their future. Choice A is the correct answer.

B. Contact hypothesis refers to the idea of bringing two conflicting people in contact with each other in an aim to reduce any underlying tension through understanding of each other’s viewpoints. Choice B accurately describes contact hypothesis.

C. When there is a set of shared beliefs and morality in a society, that society is said to have a collective conscience. Choice C correctly describe collective conscience.

D. The mini passage reveals Xavier’s spending habits. Particularly on clothes, cars and other material things. Xavier’s behavior and consumption of luxurious items is referred to as D, conspicuous consumption.

B. Culture universal refers to patterns and views that are common to most if not all human cultures. Choice A is incorrect because taboos are not seen in all cultures. Neither are choices C, and D. Choice B, a basic family unit is common across all cultures.

C. Choice B is incorrect, because colonization is too broad does not highlight postmodern society. Choice D is incorrect because scheme for a small group of people to take over a government. Choice A is incorrect because post-colonization refers to the period after the colonization of a society. (i.e U.S after being colonized by the mother country). Neo-colonialism refers to a new type of colonialism that has economic, political and cultural pressures influences other cultures. C is the correct answer choice.

A. Hegemony refers to the dominance/leadership of one country by another. Answer A is correct.

B. Resocialization refers to the restructuring of one’s norms, habits or beliefs. Choice B is the best explanation of those given for resocialization.

B. It is suggested that role strain occurs when the role you are fulfilling is so demanding. In the case of Jane, her role being a mother tasks her to do many things which she can’t do properly since she doesn’t have enough time. While role conflict, although similar with role strain but with the addition of conflicting element or elements. Since Jane is a mother and a teacher, she is caught in roles, being a mother and teacher, where she is having trouble balancing the two. Thus, the answer is letter B.

A. Basing on the event of James’ life, he experienced role exit since he underwent the process of detachment from his existing identity in order to begin a new role. In addition, he showed the 4 stages of role exit. He had his first doubts when he felt doubt, depression and hopelessness. Next, he sought alternatives by quitting school, getting in trouble and being unfaithful. His turning point was his family and friends living him and the death of his friend. His exit was going into rehab and moving into a drug free area. Hence, the answer is a.

A. Primary groups are small groups of people who have a close bond with each other. They also serve as support to each other and may have a common goal. In addition, they have a role in each other’s development. The answer is a.

D. Secondary groups are characterized as being large in size, has less physical proximity, having personal of secondary relation, its membership is usually voluntary, members have specific goals or interests, communication is commonly indirect and lastly, there are rules and regulations that are enforced. The answer is D.

A. In-group is defined as the group where a person identifies himself as a member. In this case Mrs. Douglas is a member of the in-group since she belongs to the group that had a common goal of getting rid of Miss Knowls. On the other hand, the teachers and students belong to the outgroup since they have nothing to do with removing Miss Knowls from the school. So the answer is letter A.

C. A dyad group is linked to family relation, school, and work. This can also lead to romance and intense emotional connection. In this kind of group, the participants should work together to make it work, thus sometimes making it unstable and temporary. The answer is letter C.

B. A triad is a social group that is best characterized as having allocations of responsibility. It is made up of three people which greatly affects the groups dynamics and interactions. It is also more stable than a dyad. As an example, if two members in the group gets into an argument the third person can serve as a mediator. In the situation given, it would be hard for John to point out who go his ice cream since the line of accountability is indistinct. A classic example of a triad group. The answer is letter B.

A. This is a connection by individuals or organizations which may have strong or loose ties with each other. Loose connections are usually experienced between acquaintances while strong connections are the once which people get with their families. The answer is letter A.

C. Organizations with a fixed set of guidelines, rules, structures and procedures are considered to be formal organizations. The answer is letter C.

A. The answer is letter a. According to the acquisitive model of bureaucracy bosses always want to increase its agencies area, control and budget. And since they are not threatened by competition, they are not urged to improve and be efficient as what the monopolistic model suggests.

C. In the above passage it is written that “Sociological theories of race and ethnicity have been dominated by the metaphor of the social construct, which suggests that they are ideological categories concealing `real' principles of social structure.” This shows that these theories hide the actual idea of social structure. Therefore, c is the correct option.

A. It is mentioned in the above passage” The implications of this approach for understanding the historical construction of racial and ethnic categories are discussed, along with the implications for the relationship between sociological analysis and political activism in the arena of race.” This depicts that a is the correct option.

C. Choice D is incorrect because negligent refers to a lack of proper care. Choice B is incorrect because it says “center” center (redundant). Choice A is incorrect because bio centric refers to the belief that human rights are above the rights of other living things. Choice C is correct because the word “ethno” refers to race/culture. Ethnocentric refers to evaluating other cultures based on one’s own cultures.

D. Stage I of the demographic transition is pre-transition which equates high birthrates and high fluctuating death rates. Stage II is early-transition which shows a fall in death rates. Stage III is late transition which shows a decline in birth rate. Stage IV is post-transition equates low birth rates and low death rates. Stage II is described in this question. Choice D is correct.

A. Malthusian theory is seen in stage I of the demographic transition. This theory preventative or late age marriage and positive or famine to maintain population growth. Choice A is the correct answer.

C. In the above passage, it is written that “Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline.” This shows that c is the correct option.

B. Capitalism is the political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners, for profit. The political system that opposes capitalism is socialism. Socialists advocates for production being regulated by the whole community. Choice B is correct.

C. Racialization is the process assigning racial identities to groups that may not have associated themselves to those identities. C is the correct answer choice.

C.

A. In the above passage, it is written “When European explorers in the New World "discovered" people who looked different than themselves, these "natives" challenged then existing conceptions of the origins of the human species, and raised disturbing questions as to whether all could be considered in the same "family of man.” This shows that A is the correct option.

B. In the above passage, it is mentioned that “, many scholars in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries dedicated themselves to the identification and ranking of variations in humankind.” This shows b is the correct option.

B. Race is the classification of people on the basis of their physical characteristics. So, b is the correct option.

B. The belief that human specie descended from a single monogamous union whose descendent travelled the world and is responsible for different races on the planet is called monogenesis.

B. Hypo descent is the assigning the race of socially weak or sub ordinate parent to a child that has inherited mix ancestral race.

B. Those neighborhoods in which immigrants of the same race live and share common culture and language are called ethnic neighborhoods.

B. Asylum is protection from extradition granted by a government to a political refugee.

C. It is described in the above passage that immigration brings challenges, therefore, we can conclude that plans and policies and counter these challenges.

D. 65 percent Asians and 68 percent Hispanics reflect that English is not readily accepted by these groups at their homes.

A. The idea which is believed by one group while considered far from reality by others is known as social construct.

B. Access to resources because people are connected to their respective communities is ethnic enclave hypothesis.

B. Treating someone unequally because of his/her race, language, gender etc is known as discrimination.

A. Stereotypes are actually the popular beliefs about character of persons belonging to a certain group that has a little or no connection to the facts.

B. The cultural concept that specifies the roles for male and female is known as gender roles.

D. Both the statements a and c are the concerns of the above passage. Therefore, d is the correct option.

C. Neo-Malthusian is an extension of Malthusian theory which says that not only food but other natural resources are also depleting.

A. Population principle says that at some point population will grow according to the available resources.

D. All of the above factors are responsible for demographic growth.

C. Demographic transition model has different stages which show the transition of a population by describing death and birth rates.

C. Birth rates fall rapidly whereas death rates fall slowly. This causes a slight increase in population. It is stage –III of demographic transition model.

C. When death and birth rates are low while they fluctuate slightly then there is a steady population growth in that country, This is stage IV of demographic transition model.

B. Population declines when birth rates are lower than the death rates. This is stage V of the model.

C. In the above passage, it is written that “Projections for the next half century expect a highly divergent world, with stagnation or potential decline in parts of the developed world and continued rapid growth in the least developed regions.” This reflects c as a correct option.

A. Population pyramid shows the distribution of various age group in a population.

A. Stage-I is concave and has wide base representing low life expectancy.

B. Stage-II is triangular and reflects wide base and higher life expectancy.

C. Stage-V represents narrow base and very high life expectancy

C. According to the above passage “Immigrants may be incompletely observed because countries may keep track of airplane arrivals, but seldom of all arrivals. Further, they may only note permanent resident visas, and not the conversion of visitors to residents.” This shows c as a correct option.

D. The above figure, shows birth rate declines overall and in Asia too, therefore, d is the correct option.

A. Mortality rate reflects people who die of illness.

C. The impact of disease or illness on the individuals above and beyond mortality rate is known as quality of life measurement.

A. Number of deaths per 1000 persons in the world represent crude death rate.

A. It is mentioned in the above passage “In 1950, the average total fertility rate in the more developed countries was 2.8, while the average in less developed countries was 6.2, ranging from 6.6 in Africa to 5.9 in Latin America. By 1998 fertility rates had fallen dramatically in most regions, to a low of 1.4 in Europe and 2.0 in North America.” Europe and North America have stable economies. This shows a is the correct option.

C. In the above passage, it is written that “using data from the 1960s and 1970s, concluded that "ethnicity ... exerts a strong influence on mortality in countries where ethnic groups appear to be sharply differentiated". This shows that c is the correct option.

B. Specific mortality rate is number of deaths in a specific period of time divided by midpoint population which is specific to that disease.

A. percentage death because of specific reason is known as proportionate mortality.

C. crude death rate is easy to calculate and understand, however, it may vary in different population groups, therefore is the correct option.

B. if mortality rate is adjusted according to age, then it is known as age adjusted rate.

B. If people are pushed by force from one country to another then this is called the push factor.

B. People who “leave” their home country for the purpose of living in another country are known as emigrants.

A. people who enter other country to live permanently are immigrants.

A. Paul and his family migrated to America because of poverty. Therefore, a is correct.

B. Calara was attracted to U.S. because of better education. Therefore, pull factor is responsible for her migration.

C. In the above passage, it is written that “Ecological disruption is easier to pre-empt as there is a large body of scientific evidence to suggest that this factor will be a cause for concern in the near future.” This shows c is correct.

A. If a person thinks that he/she does not possess something but he/she is entitled to have it. It is called relative deprivation.

D. relative deprivation breeds all the above three alternatives.

D. both a and c are components of relative deprivation.

D. all are the preconditions of relative deprivation.

C. It is written that “Social satisfaction is the opposite of relative deprivation.” This shows c is correct.

A. a social movement that encourages a specific change is proactive social movement.

C. a social movement that resists change is reactive social movement.

B. a social movement that completely wants to change a society is redemptive social movement.

D. transformative movement strives to completely change a society.

C. It is written in the above passage that “The NSM approach stresses non-class issues such as gender, ethnicity, age, neighborhood, environment, or peace. NSM theorists oppose economic reductionism and class reductionism: the emergence of SMs cannot be explained solely by economic changes and the position of actors in the production process.” This depicts that c is the correct option.

A. power elite theory says that through organized social movements common people can shake the status quo and influence political structure.

A. petition is presented in written form to the authorities for a special cause.

B. The step next to petition in a social movement is promulgation.

D. Resource mobilization is making effective use of resources.

D. It is mentioned in the passage” These ideological battles are fought less in the streets than in the behind the scenes meetings of museum boards, federal funding agencies, university administrators etc” This shows d is correct.

A. All the above factors are influencing globalization.

C. Connecting with each other through technology, economy and culture is called globalization.

B. Refugees leave their countries to escape war.

C. It is written in the above passage” Near distance to end user or consumer also is an important factor in globalization.” Similarly, it is written that “Utilization of built up capacities of production, sluggishness in domestic market and over production makes a manufacturing company look outward and go global.”

D. It is written in the passage above” The political issues of a country make globalization channelized as per political bosses. The regional trade understandings or agreements determine the scope of globalization. Trading in European Union and special agreement in the erstwhile Soviet block and SAARC are examples.” This shows d is correct.

A. WTO helps to resolve any trade issues between the member countries.

A. Economies are going global by integrating and are interdependent on one another.

B. Tariff is imposed on imported goods to raise their price in order to reduce competition with local products.

C. Subsidy is given by the government to support an industry.

C. Both the names are given to the companies who operate in two or more countries.

B. Recession is reduced economic activity for more than 6 months.

C. Core countries are developed countries that have high income and control global market.

D. Countries that have low income and lag behind in basic necessities are peripheral countries.

B. Dependency theory contends that resources move from poor to rich countries.

B. Environmental racism exposes poor people to the environmental hazards caused by development.

A. absolute poverty means being deprived of basic necessities like food and shelter etc.

D. In the above passage, it is mentioned that “Greater economic interactions with the outside world, however, can also lead to greater anxiety about the social and cultural changes that come with economic adaptations.” Similarly, it is mentioned that “The spread of market capitalism that has been associated with globalization in the 19th and 20th centuries has frequently undermined the structure of local economies.” This shows d as a correct option.

B. A person who takes an initiative and starts his own business which involves risk is known as entrepreneur.

A. Urbanization occurs when more and more people move towards central areas.

C. Patent gives a right to invent and sell something.

A. Monopoly term is used when a company has a control over an industry.

C. It is written in the above passage” Within the span of a few decades from the late 19th to the early 20th century, the United States was transformed from a predominately rural agrarian society to an industrial economy centered in large metropolitan cities.” This shows c is correct.

B. By reading the whole passage, we can get an idea that what the author is talking about. Therefore, b is correct.

A. population shift from central urban to surrounding areas of the main cities is suburbanization.

B. counter urbanization refers to the internal migration of population from urban to rural areas to escape the negative aspects of urban population.

C. Gateway cities have most immigrant population and are used by them to enter a country.

C. Economy contributes towards urban decline the most.

B. Loss of jobs contributes towards industrial decline the most.

A. Wealthy people move to the areas which are not so well before and rebuild it. This is called gentrification.

D. Gentrification occurs when the social conditions of people change and they experience an increase in their wealth.

C. Urban decline occurs when a city becomes deteriorated and there is lack of investment as well as high local unemployment.

C. Discrimination is the reason that they do not get job or do some odd jobs at a very low rate. Therefore, they concentrate themselves in poorer areas. This shows c is correct.

D. Answer D is correct because choices A, B, and C are indicated by the passage. The passage states that “decreases in religious affiliations decrease shame/guilt” which indicates a loss of conformity and obedience. Because religion is typically a “major part of social identity” its decline may be associated also with weakening of societal norms. Choice D is the correct answer.

B. Social loafing is when people do not put in greater effort because of the presence of a group. The bystander effect relates to people’s responses to a triggering event. Collective behavior is not organized around a social norm or codes. Therefore, the correct answer is deindividuation.

D. Mike has engaged in an act of (minor, non-criminal) social deviance in response to what he perceives as oppressive influence in his religion of origin. Atheism would likely be a major taboo in his community and would certainly cause some degree of conflict because he is disrupting the social order through his actions. Strain theory demonstrates how mechanisms of social control can cause a reactionary response in others, causing them to break away from or upset the norm in society.

A. An agent of socialization is something that teaches you how to function and behave within the context of society and is typically a large-scale social institution. Agent of obedience is not a term used. Material culture is the physical components and tools (such as types of clothes, styles of houses, machinery) that distinguish a particular society. A conventional crowd is a planned group meeting to serve a common purpose.

A. In the passage, religiosity went from being a typical thing amongst all generations to not being seen at all in millennials. This implies that social norms are ever-changing. Answer A is correct.

A. Some social scientists have theorized that the loss of identity contributes to people’s behavior in that anonymity allows or compels them to act in ways they might not normally within a group. Operationalization is the ways in which researchers define concepts so they are measurable. Social facilitation deals with an individual’s negative or positive performance of a task due to the presence of others. Bystander effect is when people do not act in crisis, emergency, or other troubling circumstances because they expect others to do so.

B. In the box and whiskers graph displayed in the image, the error lines have to be taken into account when determining the range of predicted aggression. In doing so the second data (anonymous and low controversy) has the least predicted aggression. B is correct.

D. Although it wasn’t explored in the study itself, we might think about the rabid and aggressive opinions of the people in the sample through the lens of group polarization. The exposure to people, particularly vocal ones or public figures (who were considered in the study), with strong opinions that are more extreme versions of one’s own beliefs might cause someone to emerge from the group setting with more intensely-expressed, closely-held views.

C. Individuals might feel pressured to believe—or say that they believe, even if they don’t really do so—and speak in a way that others do in a group.

D. Choice A is incorrect because all three graphs reveal lower delinquency probability in low-risk neighborhood, of choice A is true but incorrect. Choice C is incorrect because the statement is true. The lowest possible SES score displayed is -2, the delinquency in that area is greater for low-risk than higher risk communities. Choice D is the correct answer because at the lowest possible SES the probability of delinquency is not 5x greater for high risk neighborhoods.

D. There is not enough data in these graphs to determine whether C is also correct.

B. In the moderate delinquency chart for high-risk neighborhood, at a SES of 2, the probability of delinquency is 0.05 this translates to 5%. Choice B is the correct choice.

A. B is not a real theory and C lacks enough information.

B. Societal control is not a real concept (social control is). Folkways deal with what is considered proper within a society, but delinquency has greater consequences associated with it (and parental guidance might be directed towards a folkway, but isn’t one on its own). Symbolic interaction deals with roles and performance in social life.

D. Choice D is correct. The passage specifically discuses results found for minor not major delinquency.

C. A and B are directly contradictory to the conclusions. D is probably not true because extreme freedom also causes dysthymia, but we do not have very detailed specifics about mental health in this passage.

D. According to the passage, in extreme freedom societies, results in “greater social disorganization, greater social unpredictability, and fewer guiding rules”. These are accurately depicted by choice A, B and C.

D. Any of these options may be qualitative interpretations based on extrapolation or in the domain of additional qualitative information, and are reasonable assumptions. But this graph does not have enough information to tell us the nuanced truth behind the numbers.

B. In the graph, USA lies close but underneath the curve. With this graph, the lower and more centered the coordinates the higher the percentage ranks of social political freedom. Knowing this, choice B is the correct answer choice.

B. Only B has sufficient information to answer the question.

D. Pakistan (PAK), India (IND) and Malaysia (MYS), have the highest tightness score while lying closest to the curve. They reveal the greatest social control. Choice D is correct.

D. The greatest consequence for violating a social norm would be found in a country with the greatest amount of social control. Of those listed, Malaysia has the greatest control.

D. The U.S. has more social freedom than Turkey. Choices A, B, and C all represent accurate reasons why Tom may have been disoriented by the social norms during his travel.

B. While they want to appear unique and might be anxious to perform a cover, the band is more likely know the cover song well and therefore perform it better. A song off their EP is also likely well-rehearsed, despite the fact that the record reps have both heard it, and they will likely do a good job of it. Plus, the fact that they might be competing for a spot against another band will also influence them to give their old material the best shot. A new song would be fresh and exciting, but because it isn’t as familiar a task or performance, social facilitation suggests they will have a harder time playing it in the presence of others.

D. This is pretty rude and selfish of Kyle, but does not have the same sort of repercussions the violation of a taboo would have (though he might get kicked out of the band). He is not committing a major act of defiance, either. He is actually violating a folkway here by acting rudely. Riding on the coattails of his bandmates is an example of social loafing because he is diminishing his performance with the hopes of a group compensating for him.

C. Choice C is the correct answer. By punching Kyle, Andy has violated a social norm. Society does not normally accept the unnecessary physical contact that Andy displayed.

B. We have been over social loafing already in this scenario. Anomie is alienation from one’s social group or society. Innovation is a component of Merton’s theories on deviance.

A. Andy influenced how Maria and Alex respond and indirectly pressured them go along with him to reduce any chance of conflict in a hostile situation where Andy holds a lot of power. The Asch experiment is a specific study of conformity. Rational choice provides explanations as to why people make certain decisions based on the social framework. There are multiple typologies of deviance but not any particular one is described or invoked here.

D. Collective isn’t a type of crowd. They might have been casual before, but now they are compelled to do something destructive because of an unexpected negative circumstance. A conventional crowd get together over a planned meeting. Impulsive and often destructive acts happen in active crowds.

B. An anomie refers to a lack of ethical/social standards. He is singled out and isolated because of his deviant behavior. Choice B is correct.

A. Strain theory refers to the pressure that society puts in individuals to achieve socially accepted goals. Lacking the means to achieve his goal of being a musician and after being casted away, Kyle experiences strain. Choice A is the correct answer here.

D. Intersectionality theory studies the overlapping of the different kinds of oppression in society. The theory believes that usually the most oppressed group of people will face the most severe effects of discrimination. However, the trends in research are not consistent with this belief, for instance, part C of the figure.

C. For mortality from respiratory, the socioeconomic gradient of less-equal states is consistently falling and going to cross over while all the other three options are correct.

D. The mortality rate of the worse off group keeps declining along with the other two groups from 1960-1990, but sees a rise between 1990-2000.

B. Only about 1 in 10 adults whose parents were in the top quintile will move to the second quintile while all the options are correct.

A. Norway has the lowest levels of income inequality as well as low levels of persistence of income, which is a consequence of the equal distribution of education, health and social factors. Persistence of income occurs in an economy where there is an unequal access of such factors. Therefore, Norway is a very mobile economy with high levels of opportunity for all.

B. Meritocratic system have more producers, hence the number of distributors are less since every point in the network has close proximity to a producer while a topocratic system has more distributors spread across the system to distribute the products making it a more sparsely connected network.

B. Relative poverty AHC intersected absolute poverty BHC once and absolute poverty AHC two times.

C. The first graph of the figure shows the frequency in proportion with the number of foreigners. The frequency clearly starts at a higher rate when the proportion is low and keeps declining as the proportion keeps increasing.

C. 9% of the Hispanics believed that African Americans received a higher quality of healthcare while only 3% of Africans Americans believed so. Also, 7% of African Americans believed that Hispanics received a higher quality of healthcare while only 5% of Hispanics believed so. Therefore, both options A and option B are correct.

D. White (non-Latino) at 13%, Two or more races at 15% and Asian/Pacific islander at 17% each have a lower risk than the national average of 18%.

B. Prejudice is making an opinion on another person due to some factor of their identity and not on any actual experience or relevant facts.

B. Contact hypothesis, termed by Gordon W. Allport, to explain six factors of contact which can bring two conflicting groups together.

D. Women primarily winning the custody instead of men here is a case of gender discrimination as the main differentiating factor between two parents are usually their gender.

C. The person has been excluded due to his dissident thoughts from the mainstream thoughts in his area of expertise. The exclusion thus will be primarily by the other thinkers from his area of expertise, making it a professional exclusion.

A. Thumbs up is communicating without using any language and is an example of nonverbal communication.

C. Informational support is the provision of advice, guidance, suggestions and useful information to others in order to solve their queries and problems.

D. Realistic conflict theory offers an explanation of how prejudice and discrimination arises due to the intergroup hostility actually rooted in conflicting goals and limited resources.

B. Since both the people are participating in the eye contact, it indicates attention and mutual interest. All other options suggest eye gazing from one person.

C. The act of businesses building their social capital and acting on opportunities together by interacting and partnering with their contemporaries is business networking.

D. Proxemics, as the name suggests, studies the proximity between people and its effects.

A. Personal network is a group of caring and dedicated individuals who are committed to give support to a given set of activities to maintain their relationship with each other.

C. Bullying is violent actions taken against others and comes under aggressive behavior.

D. Post-colonialism proposes the consequences of an imperial power over its colonies where the effects on both the colony and the imperialist are discussed.

B. Fair division problem is the theory which discusses the division of resources amongst people such that each receives their due share.

A. Most extreme altruists share a common tendency with psychopaths to break rules but these rules are not broken with selfish intentions.

B. Ethical altruism maintains that individuals are morally obligated to perform altruistically but ethical egoism promotes acts which are not devoid of self-interest.

B. Apartheid is an example of racial discrimination. Discrimination is exhibition of negative behavior or actions especially on the basis of sex/class/race, etc.

B. Conforming to social norms means members of a social group refuses to challenge the normal set of behaviors associated with their group. As a consequence these members end up adopting prejudices and behave discriminately toward members of other social groups which are quite normal and justified.

C. Conflict theory perceives social life as a competition over limited resources.

A. This model argues that rational bureaucrats will always and everywhere seek to increase their budget in order to increase their own power.

D. Public choice theory is using models to study the political and social behavior of different agents in a society.

B. A minority group that has overwhelming political, economic or cultural dominance despite not being the majority is referred to as a dominant minority.

D. Reverse discrimination is the term used by critics for affirmative actions taken to reverse the effects of discrimination.

C. Digital proxemics studied the digital space of individuals and the dynamics different entities play in it.

B. Sociolinguistics is the descriptive effect of language on other aspects of society.

B. Personal network is a set of human contacts known to an individual who interact to support a given set of activities.

C. Othering is the process by which a group is placed outside the norm based on their different characteristics.

B. Bureau shaping model proposes that bureaucrats would prefer to work in small, elite agencies doing interesting work which is relevant and close to power centers.

A. Fair division problem is the theory which discusses the division of resources amongst people such that each receives their due share.

D. The social class which has to face the cycle of poverty, homelessness and unemployment is the lower class and the consequences of this cycle is often stated by the media as their own doing.

B. The tension which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes is termed as class conflict.

C. Rental harmony is the optimal solution to the housemates problem of fair division.

B. The change of a person or group in social status compared to other's social status within a given society is termed as social mobility.

D. Discrimination on the basis of age is ageism.

B. The study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations is called health equity.

A. The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development, or deprivation is the definition of violence.

D. Lack of health literacy is where patients have problems obtaining, processing and understanding basic health information.

A. Violence which does not come out of the blue but has been planned out and carried out by an individual or small group targeting a specific group is termed as targeted violence.

B. The study of methods people use to understand and produce the social order they live, especially through breaking the expected norms comes under Ethnomethodology. Good job, you’re done!