FREE SAT Practice Test

Reading Test
50 Questions


Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph).


Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.

Passage: The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.


“Ladies and gentleman of the jury: The issue is clear. According to the First Amendment of our beloved U.S.

Constitution, the defendant had the inherent right to photograph his accuser and his children and then provide those photographs to his publication for distribution. The fact that this celebrity makes his own living from being photographed and adulated must be taken into account here, also. The First Amendment does not restrict my client’s right to make his living this way or to help his own accuser become even more famous; in fact, the First Amendment clearly states that there shall be NO LAW abridging the freedom of the press. Therefore, you must find that my client, the defendant, should not be held responsible for violation of privacy.”


“My esteemed counterpart would have you believe that all his client was doing was standing on the sidewalk snapping pictures. But that is far from the truth of what happened to my client and his family, including children who are minors. They were on family vacation, away from my client’s workplace—in fact, thousands of miles away—and this photographer had been stalking this man and his innocent children for months. Outside their school in Los Angeles, on field trips with their little playmates—whose parents are NOT celebrities by the way—and on this day, through the window of their hotel room, using huge zoom lenses to invade their privacy in the bathroom. Is this what the First Amendment allows? We don’t think so. Think about what YOU would want for your own family, and hold this stalker responsible for invasion of my client’s right to privacy.”


Which way would you vote? How do we reconcile an individual’s right to privacy with the First Amendment freedom of the press? This is a challenging debate that originated over 200 years ago.


The U.S. Constitution was written during the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia, and has been copied by many other countries since its ratification. However, disputes arose quickly during that summer over the omission of a list of specific protections of citizens’ rights, an issue that rankled in the hearts and souls of the delegates. King George III of England saw the American colonies as subject to his authority in all ways, and he had attempted to exercise that power in a myriad of ways.


But the Constitutions’ framers disagreed about whether an outline of rights was necessary in this foundational document of the new nation they were proposing. The group that came to be known as the Anti-Federalists deemed this outline critical to preventing similar abuses of power, both immediately and into the future of the new nation. In their fear of creating another overly powerful central government, this group believed that unless the rights of citizens were specifically defined, the government’s power could expand beyond acceptable limits again.


In fact, this was a bitter dispute. Virginia delegate George Mason left the convention, becoming the most outspoken opponent of the Constitution because he believed it lacked the necessary declaration of citizens’ rights. Mason had written such a declaration for his own colony, one that Thomas Jefferson used as a template for the U.S. Declaration of Independence. The following fundamental rights were part of that seminal Virginia document, rights that eventually were part of the Bill of Rights for the new U.S. Constitution:

  • Sec. 7: Provisions for the consent of the governed
  • Sec. 8: The right of the accused to face the accuser
  • Sec. 9: Prohibition of excessive bail as well as cruel and unusual punishment
  • Sec. 12: Freedom of the press
  • Sec. 16: Free exercise of religion


Jefferson himself, in a letter to the primary author of the Constitution, James Madison, wrote that a “bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth, general or particular, and what no government should refuse, or rest on inference.” As it turned out, most of the population of the new United States agreed with Jefferson that a list of individual rights was critical to the new nation. They did not want their freedoms to be based on “inference,” but the debate roiled on.


On the other side of the aisle, the Federalists argued that no government bestows such rights on individuals; they are inalienable, natural rights that may be embraced by all citizens in any country. The argument continued that by determining which ones to include, any others might be perceived as less important, especially by a government intent on overpowering its people again. Eventually, however, the Anti-Federalists won out, and the Constitution was adopted in 1787 with the verbal agreement that a “bill of rights” be debated by the first Congress. Seventeen amendments were proposed in 1789, with ten approved on December 15, 1791.


Let’s return to the case raging in the courtroom where we started. The Bill of Rights offers no protection of one’s privacy, yet the First Amendment does appear to sanction the press’s activities to get their story. However, celebrities like Justin Bieber, Steven Tyler, Pink, and others are constantly stalked and harassed by paparazzi intent on getting their stories at the expense of the privacy—and safety, in some cases—of their targets, including children who have no say in any of this. Even though privacy is not listed in the Bill of Rights, do these celebrities nevertheless deserve the natural right to privacy?


The concept of privacy includes at least four kinds of protected interests:

  • Protection from unreasonable intrusion upon one’s seclusion
  • Protection from appropriation of one’s name or likeness
  • Protection from unreasonable publicity given to one’s private life
  • Protection from publicity which unreasonably places one in
  • a false light before the public


Sometimes a citizen can successfully sue a photographer for infringement of privacy; however, at other times the only relief may be the photographer’s arrest for violating an existing law to get a photo. So, a photographer who runs a red light to chase a celebrity to get a photo might be charged with a traffic infraction, but he may not be held legally responsible for taking the picture. The issue of fame for celebrities

muddies the waters, since staying in the spotlight keeps the money rolling into their bank accounts.

Paparazzi maintain that they are actually helping celebrities by keeping the cameras clicking, regardless of when or where they shoot.


You have heard the lawyers’ arguments representing both sides in the case of the photographer vs. the celebrity. You know some of the history behind the First Amendment and its importance to us all. Which way would you vote?


Supplementary Material: Bill of Rights

1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition

2. Right to bear arms

3. Freedom from quartering soldiers in our homes

4. Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizure

5. Due process of law

6. Right to a speedy trial and right to face one’s accuser

7. Right to a trial by jury

8. Freedom from excessive bail and freedom from cruel or unusual punishment

9. Any other right not listed here cannot be assumed to be denied

10. Any power not delegated to the federal government shall be reserved to the states or to the people


1. One of the main points that the author seeks to make in the article is that the issue of press vs. privacy:

  1. is a difficult, ongoing debate with its roots firmly entrenched in the birth of our nation.
  2. is actually a debate over the First Amendment vs. the Bill of Rights.
  3. has been determined through a series of Supreme Court decisions going back to the beginning of our country.
  4. is in reality an historical issue that began with the break of the British Empire from the American colonies in the 1800s.


2. The author indicates that the debate between the Anti-Federalists and the Federalists focused on:

  1. how George Mason’s declaration of citizens’ rights from Virginia could be adapted for the Constitution under debate at the time.
  2. the definition of “natural rights.”
  3. whether to include a right to privacy in the Bill of Rights.
  4. whether it was necessary to include a specific list of citizens’ rights in the original Constitution of the U.S.


3. The author uses the discussion of the four kinds of protected interests included in the concept of privacy to make the point that:

  1. our rights to privacy as citizens of the U.S. should be included as an amendment to the Constitution.
  2. the protected interests are confusing and overlapping, thus difficult to enforce.
  3. although there is some agreement on the “right” to privacy, there is little effective legislation to support that right.
  4. the framers of the U.S. Constitution were too focused on getting the document ratified quickly to worry about this issue.


4. The use of the word stalker in the hypothetical debate at the beginning of the article primarily serves to suggest that:

  1. the celebrity involved in the confrontation caused the paparazzo’s actions.
  2. the issue between the celebrity and the photographer is of no importance.
  3. the photographer being described was acting in a negative, unacceptable manner.
  4. the legal definition of stalker must be used to prosecute the photographer in this matter.


5. According to the article, the Federalists’ point of view in the debate about inclusion of a Bill of Rights in the Constitution was:

  1. eventually defeated in the debate during the summer of 1787 when the Constitution was ratified with a Bill of Rights.
  2. that our rights as citizens are not “given” to us by anyone; they are natural rights that should not be limited by a list.
  3. upheld when the Constitution was ratified without any agreement to add amendments that outlined citizens’ rights.
  4. that it was critical to include a list of citizens’ rights so that another governmental abuse of power could not occur in the future.


6. As it is used in the passage, the word adulated most nearly means:

  1. admired.
  2. disapproved.
  3. criticized.
  4. condemned.


7. According to the article, Thomas Jefferson used which of the following as a model for the Declaration of Independence?

  1. the Bill of Rights
  2. the United States Constitution
  3. Virginia’s declaration of citizens’ rights
  4. James Madison’s original draft of the Declaration of Independence


8. The article indicates that celebrities can sometimes legally assert their right to privacy, but most often they must:

  1. wait for the photographer to break an existing law, like speeding, in order to press charges.
  2. sue the media outlets that employ the paparazzi to seek damages caused to their families, especially when children are involved.
  3. wait for the courts to clarify which charge to pursue against an offending photographer.
  4. hope that more states pass laws that will limit the outrageous activities of the paparazzi.


9. It can most reasonably be inferred that the Federalists’ viewpoint is reflected in which of the amendments in the Bill of Rights?

  1. Seven
  2. Five
  3. One
  4. Nine


10. According to the article, why was the debate about the inclusion of a Bill of Rights necessary during the Constitutional Convention in 1787?

  1. The American colonies had been run by local governors who had taken away all citizens’ “natural rights” over the course of time.
  2. The King of England had ignored the rights of the colonists in many ways, and they feared a similar situation with any new government under discussion.
  3. The ruling powers in Europe at the time had indicated they were going to use the new U.S. Constitution as a model for their own governments.
  4. The King of England had directed the delegates to the Convention to include a list of citizens’ natural rights.



Questions 11-21 are based on the following passage.

Passage from “The Most Dangerous Game” by Richard Connell

In this short story, American big-game hunter Mr. Rainsford arrives by accident on Ship-Trap Island, a mysterious place that sailors avoid. He swam to the island after falling overboard from a yacht. Upon reaching the island, he sees evidence that a large animal has been hunted. He follows the hunter’s footprints, which lead him to the mansion of Russian big-game hunter General Zaroff. The following passage is from a conversation between General Zaroff and Mr. Rainsford as the two men are getting to know each other. 

“So,” continued the general, “I asked myself why the hunt no longer fascinated me. You are much younger than I am, Mr. Rainsford, and have not hunted as much, but you perhaps can guess the answer.” 

“What was it?” 

“Simply this: hunting had ceased to be what you call `a sporting proposition.’ It had become too easy. I always got my quarry. Always. There is no greater bore than perfection.” 

The general lit a fresh cigarette. 

“No animal had a chance with me any more. That is no boast; it is a mathematical certainty. The animal had nothing but his legs and his instinct. Instinct is no match for reason. When I thought of this it was a tragic moment for me, I can tell you.” 

Rainsford leaned across the table, absorbed in what his host was saying. 

“It came to me as an inspiration what I must do,” the general went on. 

“And that was?” 

The general smiled the quiet smile of one who has faced an obstacle and surmounted it with success. “I had to invent a new animal to hunt,” he said. 

“A new animal? You’re joking.” “Not at all,” said the general. “I never joke about hunting. I needed a new animal. I found one. So I bought this island built this house, and here I do my hunting. The island is perfect for my purposes--there are jungles with a maze of traits in them, hills, swamps--” 

“But the animal, General Zaroff?” 

“Oh,” said the general, “it supplies me with the most exciting hunting in the world. No other hunting compares with it for an instant. Every day I hunt, and I never grow bored now, for I have a quarry with which I can match my wits.” 

Rainsford’s bewilderment showed in his face. 

“I wanted the ideal animal to hunt,” explained the general. “So I said, `What are the attributes of an ideal quarry?’ And the answer was, of course, `It must have courage, cunning, and, above all, it must be able to reason.”’ 

“But no animal can reason,” objected Rainsford. 

“My dear fellow,” said the general, “there is one that can.” 

“But you can’t mean--” gasped Rainsford. 

“And why not?” 

“I can’t believe you are serious, General Zaroff. This is a grisly joke.” 

“Why should I not be serious? I am speaking of hunting.” 

“Hunting? Great Guns, General Zaroff, what you speak of is murder.” 

The general laughed with entire good nature. He regarded Rainsford quizzically. “I refuse to believe that so modern and civilized a young man as you seem to be harbors romantic ideas about the value of human life. Surely your experiences in the war--” 

“Did not make me condone cold-blooded murder,” finished Rainsford stiffly. 

Laughter shook the general. “How extraordinarily droll you are!” he said. “One does not expect nowadays to find a young man of the educated class, even in America, with such a naive, and, if I may say so, mid- Victorian point of view. It’s like finding a snuffbox in a limousine. Ah, well, doubtless you had Puritan ancestors. So many Americans appear to have had. I’ll wager you’ll forget your notions when you go hunting with me. You’ve a genuine new thrill in store for you, Mr. Rainsford.” 

“Thank you, I’m a hunter, not a murderer.” 

“Dear me,” said the general, quite unruffled, “again that unpleasant word. But I think I can show you that your scruples are quite ill founded.” 


“Life is for the strong, to be lived by the strong, and, if needs be, taken by the strong. The weak of the world were put here to give the strong pleasure. I am strong. Why should I not use my gift? If I wish to hunt, why should I not? I hunt the scum of the earth: sailors from tramp ships--lassars, blacks, Chinese, whites, mongrels--a thoroughbred horse or hound is worth more than a score of them.” 

“But they are men,” said Rainsford hotly. 

“Precisely,” said the general. “That is why I use them. It gives me pleasure. They can reason, after a fashion. So they are dangerous.”


11. Read the following sentence from the passage. 

“‘Dear me,’ said the general, quite unruffled, ‘again that unpleasant word. But I think I can show you that your scruples are quite ill founded.’” 

How does the author’s choice of the word unpleasant aid in character development? 

  1. It develops the character’s remorse for his lack of scruples. 
  2. It emphasizes the character’s irritable personality. 
  3. It aids in portraying the character as a weak vessel. 
  4. It demonstrates the character’s callous indifference. 


12. Rainsford’s view of General Zaroff changes during the course of the text. Select a detail from the text that supports this conclusion. 

  1. “‘Did not make me condone cold-blooded murder,’ finished Rainsford stiffly.” 
  2. “Laughter shook the general.” 
  3. “‘But I think I can show you that your scruples are quite ill founded.’” 
  4. “The general laughed with entire good nature. He regarded Rainsford quizzically.” 


13. What is a theme of the passage? 

  1. the power of the strong over the weak 
  2. the devaluing of human life
  3. hunting for survival 
  4. logic versus emotion 


14. Which statement shows how the contrast the author creates between the two main characters helps develop the theme of the passage? 

  1. The contrast between hard-hearted General Zaroff and emotionally weak Rainsford illustrates the conflict between reason and emotion. 
  2. The general’s mocking tone at Rainsford’s irritation over his hunting suggestion paints a clear picture of the power of the strong over the weak. 
  3. General Zaroff’s excited talk about hunting humans as Rainsford grows increasingly alarmed reveals the horror of indifference toward human life. 
  4. General Zaroff’s serious intent to hunt humans in contrast to Rainsford’s disbelief shows that hunting for survival is honorable. 


15. Which detail from the passage supports the development of the theme? 

  1. “‘I asked myself why the hunt no longer fascinated me.’” 
  2. “‘That is why I use them. It gives me pleasure.’” 
  3. “‘The weak of the world were put here to give the strong pleasure.’” 
  4. “‘Instinct is no match for reason.’” 


16. Which statement shows how the contrast the author creates between the two main characters helps develop the theme of the passage? 

  1. The contrast between hard-hearted General Zaroff and emotionally weak Rainsford illustrates the conflict between reason and emotion. 
  2. The general’s mocking tone at Rainsford’s irritation over his hunting suggestion paints a clear picture of the power of the strong over the weak. 
  3. General Zaroff’s excited talk about hunting humans as Rainsford grows increasingly alarmed reveals the horror of indifference toward human life. 
  4. General Zaroff’s serious intent to hunt humans in contrast to Rainsford’s disbelief shows that hunting for survival is honorable. 


17. Read the following sentence from the passage. 

“‘Dear me,’ said the general, quite unruffled, ‘again that unpleasant word. But I think I can show you that your scruples are quite ill founded.’” 

How does the author’s choice of the word unpleasant aid in character development? 

  1. It develops the character’s remorse for his lack of scruples. 
  2. It emphasizes the character’s irritable personality. 
  3. It aids in portraying the character as a weak vessel. 
  4. It demonstrates the character’s callous indifference. 


18. Select the sentence that creates tension in the passage. 

  1. “’But no animal can reason,’ objected Rainsford.” 
  2. “Rainsford’s bewilderment showed in his face.” 
  3. “‘My dear fellow,’ said the general, ‘there is one that can.’” 
  4. “‘I never joke about hunting. I needed a new animal. I found one.’” 


19. Select two sentences from the passage that show Rainsford’s point of view regarding the hunting of men. 

  1. “‘I never joke about hunting. I needed a new animal. I found one.’” 
  2. “‘I can’t believe you are serious…This is a grisly joke.’” 
  3. “‘Every day I hunt, and I never grow bored now, for I have a quarry with which I can match my wits.’” 
  4. “‘Thank you, I’m a hunter, not a murderer.’” 


20. Read this excerpt from the book The Hunger Games, which was inspired in part by “The Most Dangerous Game.” 


“Katniss, it’s just hunting. You’re the best hunter I know,” says Gale. 

“It’s not just hunting. They’re armed. They think,” I say. 

“So do you. And you’ve had more practice. Real practice,” he says. “You know how to kill.” “Not people,” I say. 

“How different can it be, really?” says Gale grimly. 

“The awful thing is that if I can forget they’re people, it will be no different at all.” 

What is a theme that these excerpts from “The Most Dangerous Game” and The Hunger Games share? 

  1. hunting vs. murdering
  2. war as a type of hunting 
  3. the irony of humanity and civilization 
  4. the hunter becoming the hunted 


21. Consider the supplementary material from The Hunger Games once again. How do the authors differ in their approach to this theme? 

  1. While both focus on the ethical or unethical nature of hunting, Katniss is led to act regardless of morals while Rainsford comes around to the idea of hunting humans for sport. 
  2. “The Most Dangerous Game” uses irony to make a political statement, while The Hunger Games uses tragedy. 
  3. The book The Hunger Games approaches hunting as a necessity for survival from poverty, while “The Most Dangerous Game” approaches it in terms of survival of the fittest. 
  4. While both texts are about killing humans, the focus in “The Most Dangerous Game” is on hunting humans simply for sport, while The Hunger Games emphasizes hunting for survival. 


Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.

Passage: Driving While Distracted

Your heart stops as the car in front of yours swerves—first right into the emergency lane, then quickly left into your lane, nearly swiping the front side of your car. It’s driving erratically, speeding along, and then slowing to a pace slower than the speed of traffic. Approaching a traffic light, the driver doesn’t seem to notice that the light is yellow, and now red. Barreling along, the driver slams on the brakes mere feet before the light, screeching to a stop and narrowly missing a car in the intersection. The driver is clearly impaired. Is she intoxicated? Under the influence of an illegal substance? Having a medical crisis?


Does this description have the markers of a driver who is driving “under the influence?” It does, and yet this same description is easily attributed to a driver engaged in driving while texting or speaking on a cell phone. The popular television show MythBusters did an experiment on a controlled course which showed that their drivers actually performed worse on a driving test when talking on a cell phone than they did with blood alcohol levels just under the legal limit of intoxication. Other research studies have found that texting while driving is about six times more likely to cause an accident than driving while intoxicated. Cell phone use while driving is clearly dangerous, yet millions of people continue to participate on the road daily. What is the appeal of this most dangerous multitasking?


Multitasking is often perceived as a positive ability—attributed to people who are especially productive, organized, or valuable. While in many parts of life these may be accurate indicators, multitasking can be a dangerous, even deadly, practice in driving. That’s because driving requires many parts of the brain to work together. The brain must process large amounts of visual information at the same time as small details, predict and adjust to moves that surrounding motorists will make, and coordinate motor functions of the hands and feet. When one or more of those brain functions is interrupted by another activity, something suffers. Unfortunately, often what becomes impaired is directly related to driving, and it often has catastrophic consequences.


In a struggling economy, many in the business world attempt to use any method necessary to stay ahead. This often includes an attempt at multitasking, such as driving while texting or checking email, in order to kill two birds with one stone. Multitasking is also the result of the hurried, technology-driven world in which we live. With the blessings of real-time social media and news stream comes a dark side—people who are addicted to having an eye and an ear on all things at all times. David Meyer, professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, warns, “There is an illusion of productivity. It’s actually counterproductive. To the extent that someone is focused on driving, the quality of work product is diminished. To the extent someone is focused on work and not driving, there’s a risk of crashing and burning. Something’s got to give.”


This type of multitasking is formally called distracted driving, which includes activity engaged in by a driver that takes his or her attention away from the task at hand. There are three type of distracted driving: cognitive, visual, and manual distractions. Cognitive distractions comprise all activities that take the driver’s attention off of driving toward thinking about something else. For example, trying to process new directions takes cognitive attention away from the physical task of driving. Visual distraction occurs during any activity that requires a driver to take his eyes off the road, such as attending to a child in the back, reaching for something, or even peeking at a text message. Manual distraction includes any movement which involves a body part needed for driving—taking your hands off the wheel to reach for your sunglasses, for example., the U.S. government site for distracted driving, lists the following common driving distractions:

  • Texting
  • Using a cell phone or smartphone
  • Eating and drinking
  • Talking to passengers
  • Grooming
  • Reading, including maps
  • Using a navigation system
  • Watching a video
  • Adjusting a radio, CD player, or MP3 player


Imagine the different types of distraction that each of those activities involves. What makes cell phone use, especially texting, while driving so dangerous is that it is one of the only forms of distracted driving that includes all three types of distraction. To send a text message at least one hand is removed from the steering wheel to hold the phone and type, your eyes dart back and forth between the road and reading what is typed, and clearly your mind is split between the logistics of texting, the message of your text, and the act of driving. It’s a dangerous combination.


So what can be done? Education and public service campaigns have created a culture that believes texting and driving is dangerous and wrong. And a great majority of people profess that belief, but judging by the accidents caused, many nevertheless continue to text and drive. Many states now have laws against texting and driving, considered the most dangerous form of distracted driving, with hefty fines for those caught. Ten states have gone so far as to outlaw all drivers from using handheld cell phones. Technology is catching up as well. AT&T Drive Mode is a free mobile app for Android that holds calls and texts.


But really, the issue of distracted driving comes down to taking personal responsibility for your lives and those that you affect if you choose to multitask while driving. What decision will you make?


Supplementary Material: The Brain

  • The frontal lobe helps with decision-making. It also detects danger and gives the body the ability to respond to it. As drivers become more proficient, the frontal lobe is used less in typical driving situations.
  • The parietal lobe integrates information from all of the senses, including listening to someone talking and visual and spatial perception.
  • Since the visual cortex is in the occipital lobe, responsible for interpreting visual information, it is crucial for driving. Likewise, the temporal lobe holds the auditory cortex, interpreting sound.
  • The cerebellum, or “little brain,” plays an important role in motor functions, balance, and sensory perception. It is a very active part of the brain while driving.


22. The main point of this article is to:

  1. alert readers to how complicated driving is under even the best circumstances.
  2. highlight a series of research studies to educate readers about the segments of the human brain and the function of each segment in relation to multitasking.
  3. make sure that drivers understand the various activities that are classified as common driving distractions.
  4. show the relationship of the seemingly harmless practice of multitasking to its dangerous side as a form of distracted driving.


23. The main point made in the fourth paragraph is that multitasking:

  1. is defined as the ability to concentrate effectively on two or more activities at the same time.
  2. is the result of fast-paced modern society but often distracts to the point of ineffectiveness.
  3. will consistently lead to “crashing and burning” if practiced while driving a vehicle.
  4. is a requirement in today’s world of business, especially due to increased reliance on technology.


24. According to the article, using a cell phone while driving is:

  1. more dangerous on the highway than has been shown in tests on a controlled course.
  2. dangerous only when the occipital lobe AND the frontal lobe are engaged separately.
  3. significantly more dangerous than driving after drinking alcohol.
  4. not at the top of the list of serious distracted driving habits published by the government.


25. When she cites the experiment from the TV show MythBusters, the author is most nearly illustrating her point that:

  1. many people probably believe that drinking and driving is more dangerous than texting and driving.
  2. it is difficult to change opinions about an emotional topic like drinking and driving, especially for those who have lost loved ones in a crash involving drinking.
  3. most people stop texting while driving once they learn about its dangers.
  4. public service campaigns against distracted driving have been largely unsuccessful.


26. Which of the following would the author of the article be LEAST likely to recommend to a driver as a way to stay safe while taking a trip in the car?

  1. Enter your destination into the car’s GPS before leaving home.
  2. Stop to eat meals or get other refreshments before resuming the trip.
  3. Bring a portable DVD player along to keep from getting sleepy.
  4. Text or make phone calls only during breaks from driving.


27. The supplementary material suggests which of the following about the human brain?

  1. The cerebellum is located near the top of the brain.
  2. The job of the occipital lobe relates to sound.
  3. The parietal lobe shuts down auditory input if it is placed under stress.
  4. The frontal lobe adjusts over time to the demands placed on it.


28. As it is used in the passage, the word erratically most nearly means:

  1. sensibly.
  2. carelessly.
  3. predictably.
  4. calmly.


29. The eighth paragraph suggests that increased education about texting and driving has:

  1. increased awareness but has not significantly changed behavior.
  2. been generally successful in convincing drivers to take more responsibility for their driving behavior.
  3. focused primarily on lobbying state legislatures to prohibit the practice.
  4. led to more than half of U.S. states outlawing texting while driving.


30. When the author refers to multitasking as a way “to kill two birds with one stone”, she most likely means that:

  1. multitasking while driving is likely to kill someone.
  2. many businesses now require their employees to do two jobs after cutbacks.
  3. it is a way of taking care of multiple responsibilities at the same time.
  4. multitasking makes people hurry.


31. The article states that distracted drivers must ultimately:

  1. go to jail in order to get them to stop behaving irresponsibly.
  2. learn which distracted driving practices are more lethal than others so they can avoid those.
  3. understand how the brain works.
  4. assume responsibility for themselves and for others they might affect on the road.

Questions 32-41 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.

Passage from “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry

In this short story, Jim and Della are a couple living in poverty with only two possessions of value: Della’s long hair, and Jim’s gold watch. On Christmas Eve, with no money to buy one another gifts, Della cuts and sells her hair to purchase a watch fob chain for Jim’s watch, while he sells his watch to buy her a set of combs for her hair.


 Jim stopped inside the door, as immovable as a setter at the scent of quail. His eyes were fixed upon Della, and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor disapproval, nor horror, nor any of the sentiments that she had been prepared for. He simply stared at her fixedly with that peculiar expression on his face. 

Della wriggled off the table and went for him. 

“Jim, darling,” she cried, “don’t look at me that way. I had my hair cut off and sold because I couldn’t have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. It’ll grow out again—you won’t mind, will you? I just had to do it. My hair grows awfully fast. Say ‘Merry Christmas!’ Jim, and let’s be happy. You don’t know what a nice—what a beautiful, nice gift I’ve got for you.” 

“You’ve cut off your hair?” asked Jim, laboriously, as if he had not arrived at that patent fact yet even after the hardest mental labor. 

“Cut it off and sold it,” said Della. “Don’t you like me just as well, anyhow? I’m me without my hair, ain’t I?” 

Jim looked about the room curiously. 

“You say your hair is gone?” he said, with an air almost of idiocy. 

“You needn’t look for it,” said Della. “It’s sold, I tell you — sold and gone, too. It’s Christmas Eve, boy. Be good to me, for it went for you. Maybe the hairs of my head were numbered,” she went on with sudden serious sweetness, “but nobody could ever count my love for you. Shall I put the chops on, Jim?” 

Out of his trance Jim seemed quickly to wake. He enfolded his Della. For ten seconds let us regard with discreet scrutiny some inconsequential object in the other direction. Eight dollars a week or a million a year—what is the difference? A mathematician or a wit would give you the wrong answer. The magi brought valuable gifts, but that was not among them. This dark assertion will be illuminated later on. 

Jim drew a package from his overcoat pocket and threw it upon the table. 

“Don’t make any mistake, Dell,” he said, “about me. I don’t think there’s anything in the way of a haircut or a shave or a shampoo that could make me like my girl any less. But if you’ll unwrap that package you may see why you had me going a while at first.” 

White fingers and nimble tore at the string and paper. And then an ecstatic scream of joy; and then, alas! a quick feminine change to hysterical tears and wails, necessitating the immediate employment of all the comforting powers of the lord of the flat.


For there lay The Combs—the set of combs, side and back, that Della had worshipped long in a Broadway window. Beautiful combs, pure tortoise shell, with jewelled rims—just the shade to wear in the beautiful vanished hair. They were expensive combs, she knew, and her heart had simply craved and yearned over them without the least hope of possession. And now, they were hers, but the tresses that should have adorned the coveted adornments were gone. 

But she hugged them to her bosom, and at length she was able to look up with dim eyes and a smile and say: “My hair grows so fast, Jim!” 

And them Della leaped up like a little singed cat and cried, “Oh, oh!” 

Jim had not yet seen his beautiful present. She held it out to him eagerly upon her open palm. The dull precious metal seemed to flash with a reflection of her bright and ardent spirit. 

“Isn’t it a dandy, Jim? I hunted all over town to find it. You’ll have to look at the time a hundred times a day now. Give me your watch. I want to see how it looks on it.” 

Instead of obeying, Jim tumbled down on the couch and put his hands under the back of his head and smiled. 

“Dell,” said he, “let’s put our Christmas presents away and keep ‘em a while. They’re too nice to use just at present. I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. And now suppose you put the chops on.” 

The magi, as you know, were wise men—wonderfully wise men—who brought gifts to the Babe in the manger. They invented the art of giving Christmas presents. Being wise, their gifts were no doubt wise ones, possibly bearing the privilege of exchange in case of duplication. And here I have lamely related to you the uneventful chronicle of two foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed for each other the greatest treasures of their house. But in a last word to the wise of these days let it be said that of all who give gifts these two were the wisest. Of all who give and receive gifts, such as they are wisest. Everywhere they are wisest. They are the magi.


31. Which quotation supports the idea that love is more valuable than money? 

  1. “She held it out to him eagerly upon her open palm. The dull precious metal seemed to flash with a reflection of her bright and ardent spirit.” 
  2. “Eight dollars a week or a million a year—what is the difference? A mathematician or a wit would give you the wrong answer.” 
  3. “‘I don’t think there’s anything in the way of a haircut or a shave or a shampoo that could make me like my girl any less.’” 
  4. “‘Cut it off and sold it,’ said Della. ‘[Don’t you like me just as well, anyhow? I’m me without my hair, ain’t I?’” 


32. Which is a theme of the passage? 

  1. the foolishness of personal affection 
  2. the wisdom of generosity
  3. poverty versus wealth 
  4. love versus logic 


33. Which detail supports the development of the theme in the passage? 

  1. “And here I have lamely related to you the uneventful chronicle of two foolish children…who most unwisely sacrificed for each other the greatest treasures of their house.” 
  2. “And now, they were hers, but the tresses that should have adorned the coveted adornments were gone.” 
  3. “But in a last word to the wise of these days let it be said that of all who give gifts these two were the wisest.” 
  4. “‘I don’t think there’s anything in the way of a haircut or a shave or a shampoo that could make me like my girl any less.’” 


34. How does Jim change by the end of the passage? 

  1. He allows the reader to understand that personal affection leads to unwise decisions. 
  2. He understands that he was foolish to place value in things over people. 
  3. He realizes that there is more wealth in love than in treasured possessions. 
  4. He learns that he was selfish to wish for an expensive gift from his wife.


35. Read the following excerpt from the passage. 

“Jim had not yet seen his beautiful present. She held it out to him eagerly upon her open palm. The dull precious metal seemed to flash with a reflection of her bright and ardent spirit.” 


How does the author’s description of the metal aid in character development? 

  1. It develops Della’s remorse for cutting off her hair. 
  2. It helps the author present Jim as the character with wisdom. 
  3. It aids in portraying Della as loving but naïve and dull-witted. 
  4. It contrasts the dull material with Della’s vibrancy. 


36. How does the author set the tone of the passage? 

  1. The author speaks as if he is watching Jim and Della in the present, allowing readers to feel they are a part of the action. 
  2. The author reveals the irony of the actions of the husband and wife, emphasizing the foolishness of their actions. 
  3. The author creates a tone of judgement against Jim because of his first reaction to Della’s hair. 
  4. The author uses a third-person narrative, at times directly addressing the reader, to convey a tone of wisdom. 


37. Select two sentences from the passage that show the author’s point of view regarding wisdom and love. 

  1. “The magi brought valuable gifts, but that was not among them.” 
  2. “And now, they were hers, but the tresses that should have adorned the coveted adornments were gone.” 
  3. “Instead of obeying, Jim tumbled down on the couch and put his hands under the back of his head and smiled.” 
  4. “They are the magi.”


38. Read this passage about the magi from the Gospel of Matthew, a book in the Bible. 

7 Then Herod called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appeared. 8 He sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and search carefully for the child. As soon as you find him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him.” 

9 After they had heard the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen when it rose went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. 10 When they saw the star, they were overjoyed.11 On coming to the house, they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshiped him. Then they opened their treasures and presented him with gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. 12 And having been warned in a dream not to go back to Herod, they returned to their country by another route. 


How does the author’s reference to the magi of the Bible help advance the plot? 

  1. It compares Jim’s and Della’s gifts to one another to the wise gifts the magi gave to Jesus. 
  2. It doubts the sincerity of Jim’s and Della’s reactions to one another when they discovered what they had sacrificed. 
  3. It gives the author authority to make judgments on wisdom and love. 
  4. It contrasts the wealth of the magi to the poverty of Jim and Della, who only had dollars to spend. 


39. How are Jim and Della similar to the Magi?

  1. Jim and Della are meager like the Magi. 
  2. Jim and Della make sacrifices to give one another special gifts, as the Magi did.
  3. Jim and Della follow the same religion that the Magi did.
  4. The Magi invented the tradition of giving gifts at Christmas and Jim and Della are following suit.


40. Why is Jim stunned that Della cut her hair?

  1. he thinks she is more beautiful with long hair
  2. her hair is Jim’s most treasured feature about her
  3. he didn’t realize that they were so poor
  4. because it renders his gift useless


41. What is the meaning of the word laboriously, as it is used in the passage?

  1. effortlessly
  2. painstakingly
  3. vigorously
  4. energetically

Questions 42-50 are based on the following two passages.

Passage 1: John F. Kennedy’s Speech Proposing the Peace Corps, 1960

“I think in many ways it is the most important campaign since 1933, mostly because of the problems which press upon the United States, and the opportunities which will be presented to us in the 1960s. The opportunity must be seized, through the judgment of the President, and the vigor of the executive, and the cooperation of the Congress. Through these I think we can make the greatest possible difference.

How many of you who are going to be doctors, are willing to spend your days in Ghana? Technicians or engineers, how many of you are willing to work in the Foreign Service and spend your lives traveling around the world? On your willingness to do that, not merely to serve one year or two years in the service, but on your willingness to contribute part of your life to this country, I think will depend the answer whether a free society can compete. I think it can! And I think Americans are willing to contribute. But the effort must be far greater than we have ever made in the past.

Therefore, I am delighted to come to Michigan, to this university, because unless we have those resources in this school, unless you comprehend the nature of what is being asked of you, this country can’t possibly move through the next 10 years in a period of relative strength.

So I come here tonight to go to bed! But I also come here tonight to ask you to join in the effort...

This university... this is the longest short speech I‘ve ever made...therefore, I’ll finish it! Let me say in conclusion, this University is not maintained by its alumni, or by the state, merely to help its graduates have an economic advantage in the life struggle. There is certainly a greater purpose, and I’m sure you recognize it. Therefore, I do not apologize for asking for your support in this campaign. I come here tonight asking your support for this country over the next decade.

Thank you.”


Passage 2: Excerpt from President Obama’s National Address to America’s Schoolchildren, 2009

“But at the end of the day, the circumstances of your life -- what you look like, where you come from, how much money you have, what you’ve got going on at home -- none of that is an excuse for neglecting your homework or having a bad attitude in school. That’s no excuse for talking back to your teacher, or cutting class, or dropping out of school. There is no excuse for not trying.

Where you are right now doesn’t have to determine where you’ll end up. No one’s written your destiny for you, because here in America, you write your own destiny. You make your own future.

That’s what young people like you are doing every day, all across America.

Young people like Jazmin Perez, from Roma, Texas. Jazmin didn’t speak English when she first started school. Neither of her parents had gone to college. But she worked hard, earned good grades, and got a scholarship to Brown University -- is now in graduate school, studying public health, on her way to becoming Dr. Jazmin Perez.

I’m thinking about Andoni Schultz, from Los Altos, California, who’s fought brain cancer since he was three. He’s had to endure all sorts of treatments and surgeries, one of which affected his memory, so it took him much longer -- hundreds of extra hours -- to do his schoolwork. But he never fell behind. He’s headed to college this fall.

And then there’s Shantell Steve, from my hometown of Chicago, Illinois. Even when bouncing from foster home to foster home in the toughest neighborhoods in the city, she managed to get a job at a local health care center, start a program to keep young people out of gangs, and she’s on track to graduate high school with honors and go on to college.

And Jazmin, Andoni, and Shantell aren’t any different from any of you. They face challenges in their lives just like you do. In some cases they’ve got it a lot worse off than many of you. But they refused to give up. They chose to take responsibility for their lives, for their education, and set goals for themselves. And I expect all of you to do the same.

That’s why today I’m calling on each of you to set your own goals for your education -- and do everything you can to meet them. Your goal can be something as simple as doing all your homework, paying attention in class, or spending some time each day reading a book. Maybe you’ll decide to get involved in an extracurricular activity, or volunteer in your community. Maybe you’ll decide to stand up for kids who are being teased or bullied because of who they are or how they look, because you believe, like I do, that all young people deserve a safe environment to study and learn. Maybe you’ll decide to take better care of yourself so you can be more ready to learn. And along those lines, by the way, I hope all of you are washing your hands a lot, and that you stay home from school when you don’t feel well, so we can keep people from getting the flu this fall and winter.

But whatever you resolve to do, I want you to commit to it. I want you to really work at it.

I know that sometimes you get that sense from TV that you can be rich and successful without any hard work -- that your ticket to success is through rapping or basketball or being a reality TV star. Chances are you’re not going to be any of those things.

The truth is, being successful is hard. You won’t love every subject that you study. You won’t click with every teacher that you have. Not every homework assignment will seem completely relevant to your life right at this minute. And you won’t necessarily succeed at everything the first time you try.

That’s okay. Some of the most successful people in the world are the ones who’ve had the most failures. J.K. Rowling’s -- who wrote Harry Potter -- her first Harry Potter book was rejected 12 times before it was finally published. Michael Jordan was cut from his high school basketball team. He lost hundreds of games and missed thousands of shots during his career. But he once said, “I have failed over and over and over again in my life. And that’s why I succeed.”

These people succeeded because they understood that you can’t let your failures define you -- you have to let your failures teach you. You have to let them show you what to do differently the next time. So if you get into trouble, that doesn’t mean you’re a troublemaker, it means you need to try harder to act right. If you get a bad grade, that doesn’t mean you’re stupid, it just means you need to spend more time studying.

No one’s born being good at all things. You become good at things through hard work. You’re not a varsity athlete the first time you play a new sport. You don’t hit every note the first time you sing a song. You’ve got to practice. The same principle applies to your schoolwork. You might have to do a math problem a few times before you get it right. You might have to read something a few times before you understand it. You definitely have to do a few drafts of a paper before it’s good enough to hand in.

Don’t be afraid to ask questions. Don’t be afraid to ask for help when you need it. I do that every day. Asking for help isn’t a sign of weakness, it’s a sign of strength because it shows you have the courage to admit when you don’t know something, and that then allows you to learn something new. So find an adult that you trust -- a parent, a grandparent or teacher, a coach or a counselor -- and ask them to help you stay on track to meet your goals.

And even when you’re struggling, even when you’re discouraged, and you feel like other people have given up on you, don’t ever give up on yourself, because when you give up on yourself, you give up on your country.

The story of America isn’t about people who quit when things got tough. It’s about people who kept going, who tried harder, who loved their country too much to do anything less than their best.

It’s the story of students who sat where you sit 250 years ago, and went on to wage a revolution and they founded this nation. Young people. Students who sat where you sit 75 years ago who overcame a Depression and won a world war; who fought for civil rights and put a man on the moon. Students who sat where you sit 20 years ago who founded Google and Twitter and Facebook and changed the way we communicate with each other.

So today, I want to ask all of you, what’s your contribution going to be? What problems are you going to solve? What discoveries will you make? What will a President who comes here in 20 or 50 or 100 years say about what all of you did for this country?”

42. Kennedy believed that the government can make the biggest difference by:

  1. working together.
  2. responding to the people’s wishes. 
  3. challenging and fighting one another.
  4. becoming more powerful.


43. How does President Obama hope that young people will respond to challenges?

  1. by following the advice of their teachers and superiors
  2. by taking advantage of second chances
  3. by working hard through adversity
  4. by learning a second language


44. The reader can infer that Kennedy’s wish was for young people to:

  1. finish their education.
  2. volunteer abroad to make the world a better place.
  3. register to vote.
  4. contribute to America.


45. What do the three young people that Obama mentions all have in common?

  1. They all have learning disabilities that make school more difficult for them.
  2. They have avoided making bad decisions.
  3. They all have difficult family lives.
  4. They have all overcome obstacles by setting goals for themselves.


46. Kennedy believed that young people:

  1. should not limit their worldview to their own neighborhood.
  2. were leading unproductive lives.
  3. had a sense of entitlement about their life in the United States.
  4. should take seriously the responsibility to help others.


47. How does President Obama encourage young people to achieve success?

  1. He tells them to work to make the most money possible.
  2. He explains that learning from failure is a path to success.
  3. He encourages them never to make bad decisions.
  4. He explains that young people should work hard only for the things they enjoy.


48. What theme do the two passages have in common?

  1. the impact of young people on the future
  2. America’s contribution abroad
  3. the power of failure
  4. how young people can achieve success


49. President Obama describes the relationship between education and a student’s future. Kennedy’s words contrast this by focusing on:

  1. expanding young people’s worldviews.
  2. traveling.
  3. serving abroad to develop leadership.
  4. developing values.


50. President Obama and Kennedy’s tone in the speeches:

  1. both have a lighthearted approach.
  2. both seek to inspire young people to do great things.
  3. recognize that young people in America experience more difficulties than those in the past.
  4. caution young people about their futures.

Writing and Language Test
37 Questions




Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions. 


Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole. 


After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.


Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage from a Ted Talk by Angela Duckworth. 



When I was 27 years old, I left a very demanding job in management consulting for a job that was even more 1 demanding: teaching. I went to teach seventh graders math in the New York City public schools. And like any teacher, I made quizzes and tests. I gave out homework assignments. When the work came back, I calculated grades.

What struck me was that IQ was not the only difference between my best and my worst students. 2 Some of my strongest performers did not have stratospheric IQ scores. Some of my smartest kids weren't doing so well. And that got me thinking. The kinds of things you need to learn in seventh grade math, sure, they're hard: 3 ratios, decimals, the area of a parallelogram. But these concepts are not impossible, and I was firmly convinced that every one of my students could learn the material if they worked hard and long enough. 

[1] But what if doing well in school and in life depends on much more than your ability to learn quickly and easily? [2] After several more years of teaching, I came to the conclusion that 


  2. demanding, teaching.
  3. demanding; teaching.
  4. demanding, teaching,

2. Which choice provides the most relevant detail?

  2. stratospheric IQ scores or best home lives.  
  3. stratospheric IQ scores or school grades.
  4. stratospheric IQ scores; in theory they shouldn’t have performed the best.


  2. ratio’s, decimal’s
  3. ratios’, decimals’
  4. ratios’, decimals’



what we need in education is a much better understanding of students and learning from a motivational perspective, from a psychological perspective. [3] In education, the one thing we know how to measure best is IQ. 4

So I left the classroom, and I went to graduate school to become a psychologist. I started studying kids and adults in all kinds of super challenging settings, and in every study my question was, 5 who is successful here and why? My research team and I went to West Point Military Academy. We tried to predict which cadets would stay in military training and which would drop out. We went to the National Spelling Bee and tried to predict which children would advance farthest in competition. We studied rookie teachers working in really tough neighborhoods, asking which teachers are still going to be here in teaching by the end of the school year, and of those, who will be the most effective at improving learning outcomes for their students? We partnered with private companies, asking, which of these salespeople is going to keep their jobs? And who's going to earn the most money? 6 In all those very different contexts, one characteristic emerged as a significant predictor of success. And it wasn't social intelligence. It wasn't good looks, physical health, and it wasn't IQ. It was grit.

Grit is passion and perseverance for very long-term goals. Grit 7 is having stamina. Grit is sticking with your future, day in, day out, not just for the week, not just for the month, but for years, and working really hard to make that future a reality. Grit is living life 8 like it's a marathon, not a sprint.

A few years ago, I started studying grit in the Chicago public schools. I asked thousands of high school juniors to take grit questionnaires, and then waited around more than a year to see who would graduate. 


4. To make this paragraph most logical, sentence [1] should be placed

  1. where it is now.
  2. after sentence [2].
  3. after sentence [3].
  4. at the beginning of the previous paragraph.


  2. Who is successful here and why?
  3. “Who is successful here and why?”
  4. “whose successful here and why?”

6. The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should the writer do that?

  1. No, because it states the main idea of the paragraph.
  2. Yes, because it fails to support the main argument.
  3. No, because it sets up the argument for the benefit of grit.
  4. Yes, because it does not provide a transition from one idea to the next.


  2. has
  3. haves
  4. had


  2. to be
  3. as if
  4. for






Turns out that 9 grittier kids were significantly more likely to graduate, even when I matched them on every characteristic I could measure, things like family income, standardized achievement test scores, even how safe kids felt when they were at school. So it's not just at West Point or the National Spelling Bee that grit matters. It's also in school, especially for kids at risk for dropping out. 

To me, the most shocking thing about grit is 10 how little we know, how little science knows, about building it. Every day, parents and teachers ask me, "How do I build grit in kids? What do I do to teach kids a solid work ethic? How do I keep them motivated for the long run?" The honest answer is, I don't know. 


  2. persistent
  3. braver
  4. experienced



  2. how little we know; how little science knows; about building it
  3. how little we know—how little science knows—about building it
  4. how little we know about building it.



Questions 11-18 are based on the following passage and supplementary material. 


Dangerous Drivers on Devices

One of the recent developments 11 in modern technology, cellular phones, can be a threat to safety. 12 Many people find that monthly plans are more economical than pre-paid plans. 

A study by Donald Redmond and Robert Lim of the University of Toronto showed that cellular phones 13 poses a risk to drivers. 14 In fact people who talk on the phone while driving are 4 times more likely to have an automobile accident than those 15 whom do not use the phone while driving. 





















  2. at
  3. of
  4. to

12. The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should the writer do that?

  1. No, because the sentence persuades the reader.
  2. Yes, because the sentence does not support the main idea.
  3. No, because the writer should include all the information.
  4. Yes, because the sentence should be part of a follow-up article. 


  2. posing
  3. posed
  4. pose


  2. In fact, people
  3. In fact; people
  4. The fact is people


  2. who will
  3. whose
  4. who






16 I like to use my cell phone when I am driving because it is convenient. The researchers studied 699 drivers who were in an automobile accident while they were using 17 their cellular phones. The researchers concluded that the main reason for the accidents was not that people used one hand for the telephone and one hand for driving. Instead, the cause of accidents were usually that the drivers became distracted by the phone call. As a result, the drivers lost concentration.  

Most drivers report frequently using their cell phone while driving. Especially among the youngest adult drivers, 18 20% of 18-29 year-old drivers report using their cell phone regularly or fairly often while driving. This indicates that drivers are knowingly using their phones while driving by making the choice to be distracted. Education will be a critical part of stopping the epidemic of drivers who are distracted by cellular phones, whether through calls or texting. 

16. The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should the writer do that?

  1. Yes, because it is not related to the main topic.
  2. Yes, because it is written in the wrong tense.
  3. No, because the author is emphasizing her point.
  4. No, because it completes the author’s idea. 


  2. they’re
  3. there
  4. they are

18. Which choice most accurately and effectively represents the information on the graph?

  2. nearly 40%
  3. almost 50%
  4. over 40%





Questions 19-28 are based on the following passage. 


“To be, or not to be…that is the 19 question” 

This 20 wellknown utterance has been the source of both mystery and wonderment for students around the world since the turn of the 16th century—arguably the 21 zenith of Shakespeare’s creative output. 

However, the mere 22 ubiquity of this phrase fails to answer some basic questions about 23 it’s context. Where did it come 24 from what does it mean? 


















  2. question.”
  3. question?
  4. question?”


  2. well-known
  3. well known
  4. widely known


  2. pinnacle
  3. mountain
  4. low point


  2. limitation
  3. unexplained ending
  4. common presence


  2. its
  3. it is
  4. the


  2. from? What
  3. from, what
  4. from or what






The 25 first of these questions can be answered fairly easily: from Shakespeare’s famous play Hamlet. 26 As for the last of the two questions, a complete answer would require a 27 more deep 28 look at Shakespearean culture and nuance.















  2. primary
  3. 1st
  4. second


  2. former question
  3. latter question
  4. harder question


  2. extended
  3. serious
  4. deeper


  2. investigation of
  3. conversation around
  4. talk about


Questions 29-28 are based on the following passage.


Urban planners in 16th century Shibam, Yemen created a walled city, now dubbed 29 Manhattan of the desert Their city 30 is composed of 500 buildings, ranging from five to eight stories in 31 height. 

Structures erected by wealthy families during the Middle Ages in 32 Ireland Scotland France Spain and Greece also reached heights of several stories. These buildings are thought 33 to be constructed upwards in order to 34 run off marauders. 






















  2. “Manhattan of the desert.”
  3. The Manhattan of the desert.
  4. Manhattan of the desert.


  2. has been
  3. were
  4. was


  2. weight of
  3. width
  4. length


  2. Ireland; Scotland; France; Spain; and Greece
  3. Ireland, Scotland, France, Spain, and Greece
  4. many countries


  2. to have constructed
  3. to have been constructed
  4. to be constructed


  2. thwart
  3. devieve
  4. infuriate




Today’s urban planners anticipate a 35 mile-high-skyscraper to be constructed in the near future. 36 Many modern architects admire the construction of ancient buildings. A British engineering company is reportedly in the process 37 to design such an immense tower now.













  2. mile high-skyscraper
  3. mile high skyscraper
  4. mile-high skyscraper

36. The writer is considering deleting or the moving underlined sentence. Should the writer do that?

  2. It should be deleted.
  3. It should be moved to the beginning of the paragraph the persuade the reader.
  4. It should be moved to an earlier paragraph to support the main idea. 


  2. of designing
  3. to designing
  4. about designing





The essay gives you an opportunity to show how effectively you can read and comprehend a passage and write an essay analyzing the passage. In your essay, you should demonstrate that you have read the passage carefully, present a clear and logical analysis, and use language precisely. Your essay must be written on the lines provided in your answer booklet; except for the Planning Page of the answer booklet, you will receive no other paper on which to write. You will have enough space if you write on every line, avoid wide margins, and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size. Remember that people who are not familiar with your handwriting will read what you write. Try to write or print so that what you are writing is legible to those readers.



President FDR’s First Inagural Address, 1933

I am certain that my fellow Americans expect that on my induction into the Presidency I will address them with a candor and a decision which the present situation of our people impel. This is preeminently the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly. Nor need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our country today. This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory. I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days.

In such a spirit on my part and on yours we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels; taxes have risen; our ability to pay has fallen; government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income; the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their produce; the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone.

More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equally great number toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.

Yet our distress comes from no failure of substance. We are stricken by no plague of locusts. Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered because they believed and were not afraid, we have still much to be thankful for. Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply. Primarily this is because the rulers of the exchange of mankind’s goods have failed, through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure, and abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men.

True they have tried, but their efforts have been cast in the pattern of an outworn tradition. Faced by failure of credit they have proposed only the lending of more money. Stripped of the lure of profit by which to induce our people to follow their false leadership, they have resorted to exhortations, pleading tearfully for restored confidence. They know only the rules of a generation of self-seekers. They have no vision, and when there is no vision the people perish.

The money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization. We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of the restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit.

Happiness lies not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort. The joy and moral stimulation of work no longer must be forgotten in the mad chase of evanescent profits. These dark days will be worth all they cost us if they teach us that our true destiny is not to be ministered unto but to minister to ourselves and to our fellow men.

Recognition of the falsity of material wealth as the standard of success goes hand in hand with the abandonment of the false belief that public office and high political position are to be valued only by the standards of pride of place and personal profit; and there must be an end to a conduct in banking and in business which too often has given to a sacred trust the likeness of callous and selfish wrongdoing. Small wonder that confidence languishes, for it thrives only on honesty, on honor, on the sacredness of obligations, on faithful protection, on unselfish performance; without them it cannot live.

Restoration calls, however, not for changes in ethics alone. This Nation asks for action, and action now.

Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. This is no unsolvable problem if we face it wisely and courageously. It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the Government itself, treating the task as we would treat the emergency of a war, but at the same time, through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our natural resources.

Hand in hand with this we must frankly recognize the overbalance of population in our industrial centers and, by engaging on a national scale in a redistribution, endeavor to provide a better use of the land for those best fitted for the land. The task can be helped by definite efforts to raise the values of agricultural products and with this the power to purchase the output of our cities. It can be helped by preventing realistically the tragedy of the growing loss through foreclosure of our small homes and our farms. It can be helped by insistence that the Federal, State, and local governments act forthwith on the demand that their cost be drastically reduced. It can be helped by the unifying of relief activities which today are often scattered, uneconomical, and unequal. It can be helped by national planning for and supervision of all forms of transportation and of communications and other utilities which have a definitely public character. There are many ways in which it can be helped, but it can never be helped merely by talking about it. We must act and act quickly.

Finally, in our progress toward a resumption of work we require two safeguards against a return of the evils of the old order; there must be a strict supervision of all banking and credits and investments; there must be an end to speculation with other people’s money, and there must be provision for an adequate but sound currency.

There are the lines of attack. I shall presently urge upon a new Congress in special session detailed measures for their fulfillment, and I shall seek the immediate assistance of the several States.

Through this program of action we address ourselves to putting our own national house in order and making income balance outgo. Our international trade relations, though vastly important, are in point of time and necessity secondary to the establishment of a sound national economy. I favor as a practical policy the putting of first things first. I shall spare no effort to restore world trade by international economic readjustment, but the emergency at home cannot wait on that accomplishment.

The basic thought that guides these specific means of national recovery is not narrowly nationalistic. It is the insistence, as a first consideration, upon the interdependence of the various elements in all parts of the United States—a recognition of the old and permanently important manifestation of the American spirit of the pioneer. It is the way to recovery. It is the immediate way. It is the strongest assurance that the recovery will endure.

In the field of world policy I would dedicate this Nation to the policy of the good neighbor—the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others—the neighbor who respects his obligations and respects the sanctity of his agreements in and with a world of neighbors.

If I read the temper of our people correctly, we now realize as we have never realized before our interdependence on each other; that we cannot merely take but we must give as well; that if we are to go forward, we must move as a trained and loyal army willing to sacrifice for the good of a common discipline, because without such discipline no progress is made, no leadership becomes effective. We are, I know, ready and willing to submit our lives and property to such discipline, because it makes possible a leadership which aims at a larger good. This I propose to offer, pledging that the larger purposes will bind upon us all as a sacred obligation with a unity of duty hitherto evoked only in time of armed strife.

With this pledge taken, I assume unhesitatingly the leadership of this great army of our people dedicated to a disciplined attack upon our common problems.

Action in this image and to this end is feasible under the form of government which we have inherited from our ancestors. Our Constitution is so simple and practical that it is possible always to meet extraordinary needs by changes in emphasis and arrangement without loss of essential form. That is why our constitutional system has proved itself the most superbly enduring political mechanism the modern world has produced. It has met every stress of vast expansion of territory, of foreign wars, of bitter internal strife, of world relations.

It is to be hoped that the normal balance of executive and legislative authority may be wholly adequate to meet the unprecedented task before us. But it may be that an unprecedented demand and need for undelayed action may call for temporary departure from that normal balance of public procedure.

I am prepared under my constitutional duty to recommend the measures that a stricken nation in the midst of a stricken world may require. These measures, or such other measures as the Congress may build out of its experience and wisdom, I shall seek, within my constitutional authority, to bring to speedy adoption.

But in the event that the Congress shall fail to take one of these two courses, and in the event that the national emergency is still critical, I shall not evade the clear course of duty that will then confront me. I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis—broad Executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe.

For the trust reposed in me I will return the courage and the devotion that befit the time. I can do no less.

We face the arduous days that lie before us in the warm courage of the national unity; with the clear consciousness of seeking old and precious moral values; with the clean satisfaction that comes from the stern performance of duty by old and young alike. We aim at the assurance of a rounded and permanent national life.

We do not distrust the future of essential democracy. The people of the United States have not failed. In their need they have registered a mandate that they want direct, vigorous action. They have asked for discipline and direction under leadership. They have made me the present instrument of their wishes. In the spirit of the gift I take it.

In this dedication of a Nation we humbly ask the blessing of God. May He protect each and every one of us. May He guide me in the days to come.



Write an essay in which you outline FDR’s purpose of the speech, including his planned response to the national crisis, outlining the issues he will address and the steps he will take to fix the issues. Describe the tone and rhetoric he uses in order to support his position. Use evidence from the text to support your answer.